Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 23
Filter
1.
JAMA ; 327(10): 909, 2022 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763148
2.
Cell Rep ; 38(11): 110514, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739598

ABSTRACT

The success of nucleoside-modified mRNAs in lipid nanoparticles (mRNA-LNP) as COVID-19 vaccines heralded a new era of vaccine development. For HIV-1, multivalent envelope (Env) trimer protein nanoparticles are superior immunogens compared with trimers alone for priming of broadly neutralizing antibody (bnAb) B cell lineages. The successful expression of complex multivalent nanoparticle immunogens with mRNAs has not been demonstrated. Here, we show that mRNAs can encode antigenic Env trimers on ferritin nanoparticles that initiate bnAb precursor B cell expansion and induce serum autologous tier 2 neutralizing activity in bnAb precursor VH + VL knock-in mice. Next-generation sequencing demonstrates acquisition of critical mutations, and monoclonal antibodies that neutralize heterologous HIV-1 isolates are isolated. Thus, mRNA-LNP can encode complex immunogens and may be of use in design of germline-targeting and sequential boosting immunogens for HIV-1 vaccine development.


Subject(s)
AIDS Vaccines , COVID-19 , HIV-1 , Nanoparticles , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Epitopes , Ferritins/genetics , HIV Antibodies , Humans , Liposomes , Mice , RNA, Messenger , env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/genetics
3.
Curr HIV/AIDS Rep ; 19(1): 86-93, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653758

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review examines the major advances and obstacles in the field of HIV vaccine research as they pertain to informing the development of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. RECENT FINDINGS: Although the field of HIV research has yet to deliver a licensed vaccine, the technologies developed and knowledge gained in basic scientific disciplines, translational research, and community engagement have positively impacted the development of vaccines for other viruses, most notably and recently for SARS-CoV-2. These advances include the advent of viral vectors and mRNA as vaccine delivery platforms; the use of structural biology for immunogen design; an emergence of novel adjuvant formulations; a more sophisticated understanding of viral phylogenetics; improvements in the development and harmonization of accurate assays for vaccine immunogenicity; and maturation of the fields of bioethics and community engagement for clinical trials conducted in diverse populations. Decades of foundational research and investments into HIV biology, though yet to yield an authorized or approved vaccine for HIV/AIDS, have now paid dividends in the rapid development of safe and effective SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. This latter success presents an opportunity for feedback on improved pathways for development of safe and efficacious vaccines against HIV and other pathogens.


Subject(s)
AIDS Vaccines , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Research , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 7, 2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606287

ABSTRACT

Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) initiates class-switch recombination and somatic hypermutation (SHM) in antibody genes. Protein expression and activity are tightly controlled by various mechanisms. However, it remains unknown whether a signal from the extracellular environment directly affects the AID activity in the nucleus where it works. Here, we demonstrated that a deubiquitinase USP10, which specifically stabilizes nuclear AID protein, can translocate into the nucleus after AKT-mediated phosphorylation at its T674 within the NLS domain. Interestingly, the signals from BCR and TLR1/2 synergistically promoted this phosphorylation. The deficiency of USP10 in B cells significantly decreased AID protein levels, subsequently reducing neutralizing antibody production after immunization with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) nanoparticle vaccines. Collectively, we demonstrated that USP10 functions as an integrator for both BCR and TLR signals and directly regulates nuclear AID activity. Its manipulation could be used for the development of vaccines and adjuvants.


Subject(s)
AIDS Vaccines/immunology , B-Cell Activating Factor/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cytidine Deaminase/immunology , HIV-1/immunology , Nanoparticles , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Signal Transduction/immunology , Ubiquitin Thiolesterase/immunology , Ubiquitination/immunology , AIDS Vaccines/genetics , Animals , B-Cell Activating Factor/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Cytidine Deaminase/genetics , HEK293 Cells , HIV-1/genetics , Humans , Mice , Mice, Knockout , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Signal Transduction/genetics , Ubiquitin Thiolesterase/genetics
6.
Vaccine ; 40(2): 239-246, 2022 01 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586281

ABSTRACT

Over the last few decades, several emerging or reemerging viral diseases with no readily available vaccines have ravaged the world. A platform to fastly generate vaccines inducing potent and durable neutralizing antibody and T cell responses is sorely needed. Bioinformatically identified epitope-based vaccines can focus on immunodominant T cell epitopes and induce more potent immune responses than a whole antigen vaccine and may be deployed more rapidly and less costly than whole-gene vaccines. Increasing evidence has shown the importance of the CD4+ T cell response in protection against HIV and other viral infections. The previously described DNA vaccine HIVBr18 encodes 18 conserved, promiscuous epitopes binding to multiple HLA-DR-binding HIV epitopes amply recognized by HIV-1-infected patients. HIVBr18 elicited broad, polyfunctional, and durable CD4+and CD8+ T cell responses in BALB/c and mice transgenic to HLA class II alleles, showing cross-species promiscuity. To fully delineate the promiscuity of the HLA class II vaccine epitopes, we assessed their binding to 34 human class II (HLA-DR, DQ, and -DP) molecules, and immunized nonhuman primates. Results ascertained redundant 100% coverage of the human population for multiple peptides. We then immunized Rhesus macaques with HIVBr18 under in vivo electroporation. The immunization induced strong, predominantly polyfunctional CD4+ T cell responses in all animals to 13 out of the 18 epitopes; T cells from each animal recognized 7-11 epitopes. Our results provide a preliminary proof of concept that immunization with a vaccine encoding epitopes with high and redundant coverage of the human population can elicit potent T cell responses to multiple epitopes, across species and MHC barriers. This approach may facilitate the rapid deployment of immunogens eliciting cellular immunity against emerging infectious diseases, such as COVID-19.


Subject(s)
AIDS Vaccines , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , AIDS Vaccines/immunology , Animals , Genes, MHC Class II , Humans , Macaca mulatta , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Transgenic
12.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 24 Suppl 7: e25796, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525464

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: A major change in the ethics framework for preventive HIV vaccine trials worldwide is the release of the UNAIDS 2021 ethical considerations in HIV prevention trials. This new guidance comes at an exciting time when there are multiple HIV vaccine efficacy trials in the field. Research Ethics Committees (RECs) or Institutional Review Boards are a most likely audience for these guidelines. Our objective is to highlight shifts in ethics recommendations from the earlier 2012 UNAIDS guidance. DISCUSSION: We review recommendations related to four key issues, namely standard of prevention, post-trial access to safe and effective vaccines, enrolment of adolescents and enrolment of pregnant women. We outline implications and make recommendations for the ethics review process, including suggested lines of inquiry by RECs and responses by applicants. CONCLUSIONS: There have been several shifts in the UNAIDS ethics guidance with implications for HIV vaccine researchers submitting applications for initial ethics review or re-certification, and for RECs conducting such reviews. This review may assist RECs in a more efficient and consistent application of ethics recommendations. However, additional tools and training may further help stakeholders comply with new UNAIDS ethics recommendations during protocol development and ethics review.


Subject(s)
AIDS Vaccines , HIV Infections , Adolescent , Ethics Committees, Research , Female , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Pregnancy , Research Design , Research Personnel
13.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 24 Suppl 7: e25793, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525463

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The development of an effective vaccine to protect against HIV is a longstanding global health need complicated by challenges inherent to HIV biology and to the execution of vaccine efficacy testing in the context of evolving biomedical prevention interventions. This review describes lessons learnt from previous efficacy trials, highlights unanswered questions, and surveys new approaches in vaccine development addressing these gaps. METHODS: We conducted a targeted peer-reviewed literature search of articles and conference abstracts from 1989 through 2021 for HIV vaccine studies and clinical trials. The US National Library of Medicine's Clinical Trials database was accessed to further identify clinical trials involving HIV vaccines. The content of the review was also informed by the authors' own experience and engagement with collaborators in HIV vaccine research. DISCUSSION: The HIV vaccine field has successfully developed multiple vaccine platforms through advanced clinical studies; however, the modest efficacy signal of the RV144 Thai trial remains the only demonstration of HIV vaccine protection in humans. Current vaccine strategies include prime-boost strategies to improve elicitation of immune correlates derived from RV144, combination mosaic antigens, novel viral vectors, antigens designed to elicit broadly neutralizing antibody, new nucleic acid platforms and potent adjuvants to enhance immunogenicity across multiple classes of emerging vaccine candidates. CONCLUSIONS: HIV vaccine developers have applied lessons learnt from previous successes and failures to innovative vaccine design approaches. These strategies have yielded novel mosaic antigen constructs now in efficacy testing, produced a diverse pipeline of early-stage immunogens and novel adjuvants, and advanced the field towards a globally effective HIV vaccine.


Subject(s)
AIDS Vaccines , HIV Infections , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Antibodies, Neutralizing , HIV Antibodies , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Thailand
15.
Sci Adv ; 7(31)2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388435

ABSTRACT

Rationally designed protein subunit vaccines are being developed for a variety of viruses including influenza, RSV, SARS-CoV-2, and HIV. These vaccines are based on stabilized versions of the primary targets of neutralizing antibodies on the viral surface, namely, viral fusion glycoproteins. While these immunogens display the epitopes of potent neutralizing antibodies, they also present epitopes recognized by non-neutralizing or weakly neutralizing ("off-target") antibodies. Using our recently developed electron microscopy polyclonal epitope mapping approach, we have uncovered a phenomenon wherein off-target antibodies elicited by HIV trimer subunit vaccines cause the otherwise highly stabilized trimeric proteins to degrade into cognate protomers. Further, we show that these protomers expose an expanded suite of off-target epitopes, normally occluded inside the prefusion conformation of trimer, that subsequently elicit further off-target antibody responses. Our study provides critical insights for further improvement of HIV subunit trimer vaccines for future rounds of the iterative vaccine design process.


Subject(s)
AIDS Vaccines/immunology , HIV Antibodies/chemistry , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV-1/chemistry , env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/chemistry , AIDS Vaccines/chemistry , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , Female , HIV Antibodies/immunology , HIV-1/immunology , Humans , Macaca mulatta , Rabbits , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/immunology
17.
Front Immunol ; 11: 590780, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261346

ABSTRACT

Following the discovery of HIV as a causative agent of AIDS, the expectation was to rapidly develop a vaccine; but thirty years later, we still do not have a licensed vaccine. Progress has been hindered by the extensive genetic variability of HIV and our limited understanding of immune responses required to protect against HIV acquisition. Nonetheless, valuable knowledge accrued from numerous basic and translational science research studies and vaccine trials has provided insight into the structural biology of the virus, immunogen design and novel vaccine delivery systems that will likely constitute an effective vaccine. Furthermore, stakeholders now appreciate the daunting scientific challenges of developing an effective HIV vaccine, hence the increased advocacy for collaborative efforts among academic research scientists, governments, pharmaceutical industry, philanthropy, and regulatory entities. In this review, we highlight the history of HIV vaccine development efforts, highlighting major challenges and future directions.


Subject(s)
AIDS Vaccines/history , AIDS Vaccines/therapeutic use , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Drug Development , HIV/immunology , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL