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1.
Crit Care Med ; 49(11): e1176-e1177, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475871
2.
Tuberk Toraks ; 68(4): 388-398, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1380064

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Respiratory virus infections may cause serious respiratory failure requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical features and the outcome in patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF) due to viral infections comparing etiological agents. Materials and Methods: ARF patients with positive viral serology were retrospectively recruited. Cohort was evaluated with regard to subgroups as influenza and other respiratory viruses (ORV), as well as survivors and nonsurvivors. Result: Out of 938 admitted patients, 319 were followed as ARF and only 149 patients had viral respiratory panel results. In 49 patients with ARF, 52 positive viral results were detected and 47 patients with single positive viral isolates of either influenza or ORV were included. Among them, 62% had ORV with quite similar characteristics with influenza group apart from diabetes mellitus which was encountered more in influenza group (p= 0.02). Overall ICU mortality was 32% and there was no difference between the two groups (p= 0.42). Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score was independently associated with ICU mortality (OR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.04-1.51; p= 0.02). Conclusions: This study emphasizes to consider the possibility of other respiratory viruses for the cause of ARF with similar characteristics and mortality as influenza species.


Subject(s)
Critical Illness , Influenza, Human/mortality , Patient Admission , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , APACHE , Adult , Aged , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Turkey , Young Adult
3.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(6): 786-793, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1310223

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Racial disparities exist in outcomes after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the contribution of race/ethnicity in SARS-CoV-2 testing, infection, and outcomes. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study (1 February 2020 to 31 May 2020). SETTING: Integrated health care delivery system in Northern California. PARTICIPANTS: Adult health plan members. MEASUREMENTS: Age, sex, neighborhood deprivation index, comorbid conditions, acute physiology indices, and race/ethnicity; SARS-CoV-2 testing and incidence of positive test results; and hospitalization, illness severity, and mortality. RESULTS: Among 3 481 716 eligible members, 42.0% were White, 6.4% African American, 19.9% Hispanic, and 18.6% Asian; 13.0% were of other or unknown race. Of eligible members, 91 212 (2.6%) were tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection and 3686 had positive results (overall incidence, 105.9 per 100 000 persons; by racial group, White, 55.1; African American, 123.1; Hispanic, 219.6; Asian, 111.7; other/unknown, 79.3). African American persons had the highest unadjusted testing and mortality rates, White persons had the lowest testing rates, and those with other or unknown race had the lowest mortality rates. Compared with White persons, adjusted testing rates among non-White persons were marginally higher, but infection rates were significantly higher; adjusted odds ratios [aORs] for African American persons, Hispanic persons, Asian persons, and persons of other/unknown race were 2.01 (95% CI, 1.75 to 2.31), 3.93 (CI, 3.59 to 4.30), 2.19 (CI, 1.98 to 2.42), and 1.57 (CI, 1.38 to 1.78), respectively. Geographic analyses showed that infections clustered in areas with higher proportions of non-White persons. Compared with White persons, adjusted hospitalization rates for African American persons, Hispanic persons, Asian persons, and persons of other/unknown race were 1.47 (CI, 1.03 to 2.09), 1.42 (CI, 1.11 to 1.82), 1.47 (CI, 1.13 to 1.92), and 1.03 (CI, 0.72 to 1.46), respectively. Adjusted analyses showed no racial differences in inpatient mortality or total mortality during the study period. For testing, comorbid conditions made the greatest relative contribution to model explanatory power (77.9%); race only accounted for 8.1%. Likelihood of infection was largely due to race (80.3%). For other outcomes, age was most important; race only contributed 4.5% for hospitalization, 12.8% for admission illness severity, 2.3% for in-hospital death, and 0.4% for any death. LIMITATION: The study involved an insured population in a highly integrated health system. CONCLUSION: Race was the most important predictor of SARS-CoV-2 infection. After infection, race was associated with increased hospitalization risk but not mortality. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: The Permanente Medical Group, Inc.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/ethnology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , APACHE , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , California/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Residence Characteristics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
4.
Nutrition ; 91-92: 111400, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284426

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to compare the serum level of micronutrients with normal amounts, and assess their association with the severity of disease and inflammatory cytokines in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: The present cross-sectional study included 60 patients admitted to the intensive care unit with COVID-19. We recorded data on demographic characteristics, anthropometric information, and medical history. Serum levels of inflammatory markers (erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, interferon-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6), vitamins (A, B9, B12, C, D, E), and minerals (magnesium, zinc, iron) were measured. A radiologist assessed the severity of lung involvement according to patient computed tomography scans. The severity of illness was evaluated with the Acute Physiologic Assessment and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) score, oxygen saturation, and body temperature. Independent associations among the serum levels of micronutrients with the severity of COVID-19 were measured. RESULTS: Median patient age was 53.50 years (interquartile range, 12.75 years). Except for vitamin A and zinc, serum levels of other micronutrients were lower than the minimum normal. Patients with APACHE score ≥25 had a higher body mass index (P = 0.044), body temperature (P = 0.003), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (P = 0.008), C-reactive protein (P = 0.003), and lower oxygen saturation (P = 0.005), serum levels of vitamin D (P = < 0.001), and zinc (P = < 0.001) compared with patients with APACHE score <25. We found that lower serum levels of vitamin D, magnesium, and zinc were significantly and independently associated with higher APACHE scores (P = 0.001, 0.028, and < 0.001, respectively) and higher lung involvement (P = 0.002, 0.045, and < 0.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Lower serum levels of vitamin D, zinc, and magnesium were involved in severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Micronutrients , APACHE , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 602, 2021 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282242

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread around the world, until now, the number of positive and death cases is still increasing. Therefore, it remains important to identify risk factors for death in critically patients. METHODS: We collected demographic and clinical data on all severe inpatients with COVID-19. We used univariable and multivariable Cox regression methods to determine the independent risk factors related to likelihood of 28-day and 60-day survival, performing survival curve analysis. RESULTS: Of 325 patients enrolled in the study, Multi-factor Cox analysis showed increasing odds of in-hospital death associated with basic illness (hazard ratio [HR] 6.455, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.658-25.139, P = 0.007), lymphopenia (HR 0.373, 95% CI 0.148-0.944, P = 0.037), higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score on admission (HR 1.171, 95% CI 1.013-1.354, P = 0.033) and being critically ill (HR 0.191, 95% CI 0.053-0.687, P = 0.011). Increasing 28-day and 60-day mortality, declining survival time and more serious inflammation and organ failure were associated with lymphocyte count < 0.8 × 109/L, SOFA score > 3, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score > 7, PaO2/FiO2 < 200 mmHg, IL-6 > 120 pg/ml, and CRP > 52 mg/L. CONCLUSIONS: Being critically ill and lymphocyte count, SOFA score, APACHE II score, PaO2/FiO2, IL-6, and CRP on admission were associated with poor prognosis in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Critical Illness , SARS-CoV-2 , APACHE , Adult , Case-Control Studies , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Inflammation , Lymphopenia , Male , Middle Aged , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
6.
Crit Care Med ; 49(1): e108, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1254880
7.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(5): 613-621, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1239133

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to surge in the United States and globally. OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology of COVID-19-related critical illness, including trends in outcomes and care delivery. DESIGN: Single-health system, multihospital retrospective cohort study. SETTING: 5 hospitals within the University of Pennsylvania Health System. PATIENTS: Adults with COVID-19-related critical illness who were admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) with acute respiratory failure or shock during the initial surge of the pandemic. MEASUREMENTS: The primary exposure for outcomes and care delivery trend analyses was longitudinal time during the pandemic. The primary outcome was all-cause 28-day in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were all-cause death at any time, receipt of mechanical ventilation (MV), and readmissions. RESULTS: Among 468 patients with COVID-19-related critical illness, 319 (68.2%) were treated with MV and 121 (25.9%) with vasopressors. Outcomes were notable for an all-cause 28-day in-hospital mortality rate of 29.9%, a median ICU stay of 8 days (interquartile range [IQR], 3 to 17 days), a median hospital stay of 13 days (IQR, 7 to 25 days), and an all-cause 30-day readmission rate (among nonhospice survivors) of 10.8%. Mortality decreased over time, from 43.5% (95% CI, 31.3% to 53.8%) to 19.2% (CI, 11.6% to 26.7%) between the first and last 15-day periods in the core adjusted model, whereas patient acuity and other factors did not change. LIMITATIONS: Single-health system study; use of, or highly dynamic trends in, other clinical interventions were not evaluated, nor were complications. CONCLUSION: Among patients with COVID-19-related critical illness admitted to ICUs of a learning health system in the United States, mortality seemed to decrease over time despite stable patient characteristics. Further studies are necessary to confirm this result and to investigate causal mechanisms. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness/mortality , Critical Illness/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Shock/mortality , Shock/therapy , APACHE , Academic Medical Centers , Aged , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Readmission/statistics & numerical data , Pennsylvania/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock/virology , Survival Rate
8.
FEBS Lett ; 595(13): 1819-1824, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1220171

ABSTRACT

We previously observed enhanced immunoglobulin A (IgA) responses in severe COVID-19, which might confer damaging effects. Given the important role of IgA in immune and inflammatory responses, the aim of this study was to investigate the dynamic response of the IgA isotype switch factor TGF-ß1 in COVID-19 patients. We observed, in a total of 153 COVID-19 patients, that the serum levels of TGF-ß1 were increased significantly at the early and middle stages of COVID-19, and correlated with the levels of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgA, as well as with the APACHE II score in patients with severe disease. In view of the genetic association of the TGF-ß1 activator THBS3 with severe COVID-19 identified by the COVID-19 Host Genetics Initiative, this study suggests TGF-ß1 may play a key role in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin A/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Thrombospondins/genetics , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/blood , APACHE , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/genetics , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
9.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 89(6): 1092-1098, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1214720

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) is a lifesaving strategy for critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aim to report the case series of critical patients receiving IMV in Wuhan and to discuss the timing of IMV in these patients. METHODS: Data of 657 patients admitted to emergency intensive care unit of Zhongnan Hospital and isolated isolation wards of Wuhan Union Hospital from January 1 to March 10, 2020, were retrospectively reviewed. All medical records of 40 COVID-19 patients who required IMV were collected at different time points, including baseline (at admission), before receiving IMV, and before death or hospital discharge. RESULTS: Among 40 COVID-19 patients with IMV, 31 died, and 9 survived and was discharged. The median age was 70 years (interquartile range [IQR], 62-76 years), and nonsurvivors were older than survivors. The median period from the noninvasive mechanic ventilation (NIV) or high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy (HFNC) to intubation was 7 hours (IQR, 2-42 hours) in IMV survivors and 54 hours (IQR, 28-143 hours) in IMV nonsurvivors. We observed that, when the time interval from NIV/HFNC to intubation was less than 50 hours (about 2 calendar days), together with Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score of less than 10 or pneumonia severity index (PSI) score of less than 100, mortality can be reduced to 60% or less. Prolonged interval from NIV/HFNC to intubation and high levels of APACHE II and PSI before intubation were associated with higher mortality in critically ill patients. Multiple organ damage was common among these nonsurvivors in the course of treatment. CONCLUSION: Early initial intubation after NIV/HFNC might have a beneficial effect in reducing mortality for critically ill patients meeting IMV indication. Considering APACHE II and PSI scores might help physicians in decision making about timing of intubation for curbing subsequent mortality. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, level V.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Illness/therapy , Hospital Mortality , Noninvasive Ventilation/methods , Oxygen/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , APACHE , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Critical Illness/mortality , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors
10.
Crit Care Med ; 49(7): e701-e706, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1189491

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To compare Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation-IV-adjusted mortality and length of stay outcomes of adult ICU patients who tested positive for coronavirus disease 2019 with patients admitted to ICU with other viral pneumonias including a subgroup with viral pneumonia and concurrent acute respiratory distress syndrome (viral pneumonia-acute respiratory distress syndrome). DESIGN: Retrospective review of Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation data collected from routine clinical care. SETTING: Forty-three hospitals contributing coronavirus disease 2019 patient data between March 14, and June 17, 2020, and 132 hospitals in the United States contributing data on viral pneumonia patients to the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation database between January 1, 2014, and December 31, 2019. PATIENTS AND MEASUREMENTS: One thousand four hundred ninety-one patients with diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 infection and 4,200 patients with a primary (n = 2,544) or secondary (n = 1,656) admitting diagnosis of noncoronavirus disease viral pneumonia receiving ICU care. A subset of 202 viral pneumonia patients with concurrent acute respiratory distress syndrome was examined separately. INTERVENTIONS: None. MAIN RESULTS: Mean age was 63.4 for coronavirus disease (p = 0.064) versus 64.1 for viral pneumonia. Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation-IV scores were similar at 56.7 and 55.0, respectively (p = 0.060), but gender and ethnic distributions differed, as did Pao2 to Fio2 ratio and WBC count at admission. The hospital standardized mortality ratio (95% CI) was 1.52 (1.35-1.68) for coronavirus disease patients and 0.82 (0.75-0.90) for viral pneumonia patients. In the coronavirus disease group, ICU and hospital length of stay were 3.1 and 3.0 days longer than in viral pneumonia patients. Standardized ICU and hospital length of stay ratios were 1.13 and 1.46 in the coronavirus disease group versus 0.95 and 0.94 in viral pneumonia patients. Forty-seven percent of coronavirus disease patients received invasive or noninvasive ventilatory support on their first ICU day versus 65% with viral pneumonia. Ventilator days in survivors were longer in coronavirus disease (10.4 d) than in viral pneumonia (4.3 d) patients, except in the viral pneumonia-acute respiratory distress syndrome subgroup (10.2 d). CONCLUSIONS: Severity-adjusted mortality and length of stay are higher for coronavirus disease 2019 patients than for viral pneumonia patients admitted to ICU. Coronavirus disease patients also have longer time on ventilator and ICU length of stay, comparable with the subset of viral pneumonia patients with concurrent acute respiratory distress syndrome. Mortality and length of stay increase with age and higher scores in both populations, but observed to predicted mortality and length of stay are higher than expected with coronavirus disease patients across all severity of illness levels. These findings have implications for benchmarking ICU outcomes during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic.


Subject(s)
APACHE , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Care/methods , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
11.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 6(4): e22400, 2020 10 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172949

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Racial disparities in health care are well documented in the United States. As machine learning methods become more common in health care settings, it is important to ensure that these methods do not contribute to racial disparities through biased predictions or differential accuracy across racial groups. OBJECTIVE: The goal of the research was to assess a machine learning algorithm intentionally developed to minimize bias in in-hospital mortality predictions between white and nonwhite patient groups. METHODS: Bias was minimized through preprocessing of algorithm training data. We performed a retrospective analysis of electronic health record data from patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) at a large academic health center between 2001 and 2012, drawing data from the Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care-III database. Patients were included if they had at least 10 hours of available measurements after ICU admission, had at least one of every measurement used for model prediction, and had recorded race/ethnicity data. Bias was assessed through the equal opportunity difference. Model performance in terms of bias and accuracy was compared with the Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS), the Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II), and the Acute Physiologic Assessment and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE). RESULTS: The machine learning algorithm was found to be more accurate than all comparators, with a higher sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating characteristic. The machine learning algorithm was found to be unbiased (equal opportunity difference 0.016, P=.20). APACHE was also found to be unbiased (equal opportunity difference 0.019, P=.11), while SAPS II and MEWS were found to have significant bias (equal opportunity difference 0.038, P=.006 and equal opportunity difference 0.074, P<.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates there may be significant racial bias in commonly used severity scoring systems and that machine learning algorithms may reduce bias while improving on the accuracy of these methods.


Subject(s)
Forecasting/methods , Hospital Mortality , Machine Learning/standards , APACHE , Adult , Aged , Algorithms , Cohort Studies , Early Warning Score , Electronic Health Records/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Machine Learning/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Simplified Acute Physiology Score
12.
BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 92, 2021 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1136211

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common manifestation among patients critically ill with SARS-CoV-2 infection (Coronavirus 2019) and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The pathophysiology of renal failure in this context is not fully understood, but likely to be multifactorial. The intensive care unit outcomes of patients following COVID-19 acute critical illness with associated AKI have not been fully explored. We conducted a cohort study to investigate the risk factors for acute kidney injury in patients admitted to and intensive care unit with COVID-19, its incidence and associated outcomes. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of all patients admitted to our adult intensive care unit suffering from SARS-CoV-2 infection from 14th March 2020 until 12th May 2020. Acute kidney injury was defined using the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcome (KDIGO) criteria. The outcome analysis was assessed up to date as 3rd of September 2020. RESULTS: A total of 81 patients admitted during this period. All patients had acute hypoxic respiratory failure and needed either noninvasive or invasive mechanical ventilatory support. Thirty-six patients (44%) had evidence of AKI (Stage I-33%, Stage II-22%, Renal Replacement Therapy (RRT)-44%). All patients with AKI stage III had RRT. Age, diabetes mellitus, immunosuppression, lymphopenia, high D-Dimer levels, increased APACHE II and SOFA scores, invasive mechanical ventilation and use of inotropic or vasopressor support were significantly associated with AKI. The peak AKI was at day 4 and mean duration of RRT was 12.5 days. The mortality was 25% for the AKI group compared to 6.7% in those without AKI. Among those received RRT and survived their illness, the renal function recovery is complete and back to baseline in all patients. CONCLUSION: Acute kidney injury and renal replacement therapy is common in critically ill patients presenting with COVID-19. It is associated with increased severity of illness on admission to ICU, increased mortality and prolonged ICU and hospital length of stay. Recovery of renal function was complete in all survived patients.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , COVID-19/complications , APACHE , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Incidence , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Recovery of Function , Renal Replacement Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Risk Factors , Water-Electrolyte Balance
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(7): e24437, 2021 Feb 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125890

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: To describe the clinical and demographic characteristics of critically ill patients with COVID-19 in Daegu, South Korea, and to explore the risk factors for in-hospital mortality in these patients.Retrospective cohort study of 110 critically ill patients with COVID-19 admitted to the ICU in Daegu, South Korea, between February 18 and April 5, 2020. The final date of follow-up was April 20, 2020.A total of 110 patient medical records were reviewed. The median age was 71 years (interquartile range [IQR] = 63-78 years). During the study period, 47 patients (42.7%) died in the hospital. The most common SARS-CoV-2 infection related complication was acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in 95 patients (86.4%). Of the 79 patients (71.8%) who received invasive mechanical ventilation, 46 (58.2%) received neuromuscular blockade injection, and 19 (24.1%) received ECMO treatment. All patients received antibiotic injection, 99 patients (90%) received hydroxychloroquine, 96 patients (87.3%) received lopinavir-ritonavir antiviral medication, and 14 patients (12.7%) received other antiviral agents, including darunavir-cobicistat and emtricitabine-tenofovir. In the multivariable logistic regression model, the odds ratio of in-hospital death was higher with APACHE II score (OR = 1.126; 95% CI = 1.014-1.252; P  = .027).The in-hospital mortality rate of critically ill patients with COVID-19 was approximately 40%. Higher APACHE II score at admission was an independent risk factor for death in these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness/mortality , Critical Illness/therapy , APACHE , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Comorbidity , Drosophila Proteins , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Membrane Proteins , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(3): 1743-1751, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1102761

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the ability of mid-regional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) to identify disease severity in Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in comparison to conventional inflammatory biomarkers and clinical scores. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In an observational trial, COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients were enrolled. MR-proADM, C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT) and lactic acid (LA) were measured in all patients at admission (T0), at 24 hours (T1) and in the third (T3) and fifth day (T5) of hospitalization. The aims of this study were to determine the role of MR-proADM to detect patients with high risk of mortality and compare the prognostic value of MR-proADM with commonly used clinical scores (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score - SOFA score, Acute Physiologic Assessment and Chronic Health Evaluation II score - APACHE II score, and Simplified Acute Physiological score II - SAPS II score). RESULTS: Twenty-one COVID-19 ARDS patients admitted to the Intermediate Care Unit (IMCU) were enrolled. The median MR-proADM values were 2.28, 2.41, 1.96 and 1.89 nmol/L at T0, T1, T3 and T5, respectively. The 30-day all-cause mortality rate was 52.4%. Mean MR-proADM T0 value was significantly higher in non-survivors compared with survivors (3.5 vs. 1.1 nmol/L, p < 0.05). No significant differences were found for the other inflammatory biomarkers. In terms of the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC), MR-proADM showed a similar discriminatory power compared with APACHE II, SOFA and SAPS II score (0.81, 0.91, 0.70 and 0.78, respectively). The optimal MR-proADM cut-point cut-off point was 1.07 nmol/L, which corresponds to a sensitivity of 91% and a specificity of 71%. CONCLUSIONS: MR-proADM, in addition to the clinical scores, could be useful to predict outcome in COVID-19 ARDS patients.


Subject(s)
Adrenomedullin/blood , COVID-19/blood , Protein Precursors/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/blood , APACHE , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/mortality , Humans , Italy , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/mortality , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology
15.
J Crit Care ; 63: 106-112, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1101349

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) secondary to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has demonstrated variable oxygenation and respiratory-system mechanics without investigation of transpulmonary and chest-wall mechanics. This study describes lung, chest wall and respiratory-system mechanics in patients with SARS-CoV-2 and ARDS. METHODS: Data was collected from forty patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 and ARDS at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston, Massachusetts. Esophageal balloons were placed to estimate pleural and transpulmonary pressures. Clinical characteristics, respiratory-system, transpulmonary, and chest-wall mechanics were measured over the first week. RESULTS: Patients had moderate-severe ARDS (PaO2/FiO2 123[98-149]) and were critically ill (APACHE IV 108 [94-128] and SOFA 12 [11-13]). PaO2/FiO2 improved over the first week (150 mmHg [122.9-182] to 185 mmHg [138-228] (p = 0.035)). Respiratory system (30-35 ml/cm H2O), lung (40-50 ml/cm H2O) and chest wall (120-150 ml/cm H2O) compliance remained similar over the first week. Elevated basal pleural pressures correlated with BMI. Patients required prolonged mechanical ventilation (14.5 days [9.5-19.0]), with a mortality of 32.5%. CONCLUSIONS: Patients displayed normal chest-wall mechanics, with increased basal pleural pressure. Respiratory system and lung mechanics were similar to known existing ARDS cohorts. The wide range of respiratory system mechanics illustrates the inherent heterogeneity that is consistent with typical ARDS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Lung/physiopathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Mechanics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , APACHE , Aged , Boston/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Positive-Pressure Respiration/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology
16.
Updates Surg ; 73(2): 763-768, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1099012

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: COVID-19 is associated with high morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing surgery. Contrary to elective procedures, emergency operations should not be postponed. We aim to evaluate the profile and outcomes of COVID-19 patients who underwent emergency abdominal surgery. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of perioperative data of COVID-19 patients undergoing emergency surgery from April 2020 to August 2020. RESULTS: Eighty-two patients were evaluated due to abdominal complaints, yielding 22 emergency surgeries. The mean APACHE II and SAPS were 18.7 and 68, respectively. Six patients had a PaO2/FiO2 lower than 200 and more than 50% of parenchymal compromise on chest tomography. The most common indications for emergency surgery were hernias (6; 27.2%). The median length of stay was 30 days, and only two patients required reoperation. Postoperatively, 10 (43.3%) patients needed mechanical ventilation for a mean of 6 days. The overall mortality rate was 31.8%. CONCLUSION: Both postoperative morbidity and mortality are high in COVID-19 patients with respiratory compromise and abdominal emergencies.


Subject(s)
Abdomen, Acute/surgery , COVID-19/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , APACHE , Abdomen, Acute/mortality , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Emergencies , Female , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Curr Med Res Opin ; 37(4): 543-548, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1081490

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of adjunct treatment with Octagam, an intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) product, on clinical outcomes and biomarkers in critically ill COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Data from a single center was analyzed retrospectively. Patients had received preliminary standard intensive care (SIC) according to a local treatment algorithm, either alone or along with IVIG 5% at 30 g/day for 5 days. The two groups were compared regarding baseline characteristics, survival and changes in inflammation markers. Imbalance in baseline APACHE II scores was addressed by propensity score matching. Otherwise, Kaplan-Meier and multiple logistic regression models were used. RESULTS: Out of 93 patients, 51 had received IVIG and 42 had not. About 75% of patients were male and both groups had comparable body mass index and AB0 blood type distribution. IVIG-treated patients were younger (mean 65 ± 15 versus 71 ± 15 years, p = .066) and had slightly lower baseline disease scores (APACHE II: 20.6 versus 22.4, p = .281; SOFA: 5.0 versus 7.0, p = .006). Overall survival was 61% in the SIC + IVIG and 38% in the SIC only group (odds ratio: 2.2, 95% confidence interval: 0.9-5.4, p = .091 after controlling for baseline imbalances). IVIG significantly prolonged median survival time (68 versus 18 days, p = .014) and significantly reduced plasma levels of C-reactive protein (median change from baseline -71.5 versus -0.3 mg/L, p = .049). CONCLUSION: Clinically relevant benefits through adjunct IVIG treatment in COVID-19 need to be confirmed in a randomized, controlled trial.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , APACHE , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
18.
Virol J ; 18(1): 33, 2021 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1079247

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the predictive significance of different pneumonia scoring systems in clinical severity and mortality risk of patients with severe novel coronavirus pneumonia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 53 cases of severe novel coronavirus pneumonia were confirmed. The APACHE II, MuLBSTA and CURB-65 scores of different treatment methods were calculated, and the predictive power of each score on clinical respiratory support treatment and mortality risk was compared. RESULTS: The APACHE II score showed the largest area under ROC curve in both noninvasive and invasive respiratory support treatment assessments, which is significantly different from that of CURB-65. Further, the MuLBSTA score had the largest area under ROC curve in terms of death risk assessment, which is also significantly different from that of CURB-65; however, no difference was noted with the APACHE II score. CONCLUSION: For patients with COVID, the APACHE II score is an effective predictor of the disease severity and mortality risk. Further, the MuLBSTA score is a good predictor only in terms of mortality risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Pneumonia/diagnosis , APACHE , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia/mortality , Pneumonia/therapy , Pneumonia/virology , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
19.
Med J Aust ; 214(1): 23-30, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067923

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the characteristics and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) during the initial months of the pandemic in Australia. DESIGN, SETTING: Prospective, observational cohort study in 77 ICUs across Australia. PARTICIPANTS: Patients admitted to participating ICUs with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 during 27 February - 30 June 2020. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ICU mortality and resource use (ICU length of stay, peak bed occupancy). RESULTS: The median age of the 204 patients with COVID-19 admitted to intensive care was 63.5 years (IQR, 53-72 years); 140 were men (69%). The most frequent comorbid conditions were obesity (40% of patients), diabetes (28%), hypertension treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers (24%), and chronic cardiac disease (20%); 73 patients (36%) reported no comorbidity. The most frequent source of infection was overseas travel (114 patients, 56%). Median peak ICU bed occupancy was 14% (IQR, 9-16%). Invasive ventilation was provided for 119 patients (58%). Median length of ICU stay was greater for invasively ventilated patients than for non-ventilated patients (16 days; IQR, 9-28 days v 3 days; IQR, 2-5 days), as was ICU mortality (26 deaths, 22%; 95% CI, 15-31% v four deaths, 5%; 95% CI, 1-12%). Higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE-II) scores on ICU day 1 (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.15; 95% CI, 1.09-1.21) and chronic cardiac disease (aHR, 3.38; 95% CI, 1.46-7.83) were each associated with higher ICU mortality. CONCLUSION: Until the end of June 2020, mortality among patients with COVID-19 who required invasive ventilation in Australian ICUs was lower and their ICU stay longer than reported overseas. Our findings highlight the importance of ensuring adequate local ICU capacity, particularly as the pandemic has not yet ended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , APACHE , Aged , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial , Survival Analysis
20.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(3): 762-768, 2021 03 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065504

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Recent studies show that obesity is a risk factor for hospital admission and for critical care need in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The aim was to determine whether obesity is a risk factor for unfavourable health outcomes in patients affected by COVID-19 admitted to ICU. METHODS AND RESULTS: 95 consecutive patients with COVID-19 (78 males and 18 females) were admitted to ICU and included in the study. Height, weight, BMI, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) scores, CRP, CPK, ICU and hospital length of stay and comorbidities were evaluated. Participants with obesity had a lower 28 day survival rate from ICU admission than normal weight subjects. Cox proportional hazard model-derived estimates, adjusted for age, gender and comorbidity, confirmed the results of the survival analysis (HR:5.30,95%C.I.1.26-22.34). Obese subjects showed longer hospital and ICU stay as compared with normal weight counterpart.Subjects with obesity showed significantly higher CRP and CPK levels than normal weight subjects. CONCLUSION: In individuals with obesity, careful management and prompt intervention in case of suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection is necessary to prevent the progression of the disease towards severe outcomes and the increase of hospital treatment costs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Obesity/epidemiology , APACHE , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Body Mass Index , Critical Illness , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/mortality , Proportional Hazards Models , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
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