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1.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 86(5): 506-514, 2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317966

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The appropriateness of hysterectomy has gained an interest in scrutiny and debate. Periodic audits of the prevailing clinical practices are imperative for insight, and to formulate recommendations and guidelines. We report the temporal trends of hysterectomies, over the last 10 years in a teaching hospital. METHODS: Present study involved all patients who underwent hysterectomy at a teaching hospital, from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2021. Patients were identified by medical record tracking using International Classification of Diseases-9 codes. Case records were reviewed for demography, indication for surgery, approach, complications, hospital stay, and histopathological correlation. RESULTS: Over the years the absolute number of hysterectomies in our hospital has ranged from 414 to 597 (mean 476), barring the coronavirus 19 pandemic year. The proportion of hysterectomy among all gynaecological admissions has ranged from 6% to 9%, except in 2020 where this proportion dropped down to 4%. The indications, age distribution, surgical approach, and complications have remained almost same. CONCLUSION: We report a static trend in hysterectomy over the past 10 years. This audit provides an insight for the need of shifting the abdominal to vaginal route, in carefully chosen patients. This will be beneficial for the patients, and for the trainees, where they can learn under supervision. Availability and patient education about the nonsurgical management options for benign gynecological conditions, as well as awareness about sequelae of hysterectomy, will bring down the rate in countries such as India.


Subject(s)
Genital Diseases, Female , Laparoscopy , Female , Humans , Hysterectomy , Hospitals, Teaching , Abdomen , Retrospective Studies
3.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 285: 24-30, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2297618

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine the feasibility of three physiotherapy interventions for the treatment of diastasis recti abdominis (DRA): core stabilization exercises, abdominal corset and a combination of exercise and abdominal corset. STUDY DESIGN: Forty-five women 6 to 12 weeks postpartum who were diagnosed with DRA by a gynecologist/obstetrician were recruited for the study. The women were randomly divided into three groups: core stabilization exercises (1st group), the combination of exercise and abdominal corset (2nd group) and abdominal corset (3rd group). The treatment session for each group continued for 8 weeks. Outcome measurements were pain evaluation, inter-rectus distance (IRD) measured using ultrasound, trunk flexion strength and endurance, balance with open eyes/closed with a balance board, and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). RESULTS: Statistically significant difference was observed in all outcome measures except the balance eyes closed results in the first group (p < 0.05). There was a statistically significant difference in all outcome measures in the second group (p < 0.05). Also, there was a statistically significant difference in visual analog scale, trunk flexor endurance, IRD results, balance with open eyes and ODI results in the third group (p < 0.05). When the values pre and post-treatment between the groups were examined, a statistically significant change was observed in trunk flexion strength, trunk flexor endurance, and balance with open eyes/closed parameters (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Physiotherapy interventions as core stabilization exercises and the abdominal corset can positively impact IRD, trunk flexion muscle strength and endurance, balance and disability in DRA management. The combination of exercise and corset was found more effective in the postpartum process.


Subject(s)
Diastasis, Muscle , Rectus Abdominis , Female , Humans , Postpartum Period , Exercise Therapy/methods , Abdomen , Muscle Strength , Diastasis, Muscle/therapy
4.
Br J Anaesth ; 130(4): 439-445, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2298606

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An orientation strategy providing repeated verbal reminders of time, place, and person has been widely used for the non-pharmacological management of delirium. We hypothesised that using this strategy could reduce emergence agitation and improve recovery profiles. METHODS: This prospective observer-blinded RCT included male and female patients aged 18-70 yr undergoing minimally invasive abdominal surgery. During emergence from general anaesthesia, subjects in the orientation group (n=57) were provided a repeated reminder, including orientation: '(Patient's name), you are now recovering from general anaesthesia after surgery at Seoul National University Hospital, open your eyes!' via noise-cancelling headphones, whereas those in the control group (n=57) only heard their name: '(Patient's name), open your eyes!'. The primary outcome was the incidence of emergence agitation (Riker sedation agitation scale [SAS] ≥5). The incidence of dangerous agitation (SAS=7), maximal SAS score in the operating room, and recovery profile until 24 h postoperatively were evaluated as secondary outcomes. RESULTS: The incidence of emergence agitation in the operating room was significantly lower in the orientation group than in the control group (16/57 [28.1%] vs 38/57 [66.7%]; relative risk [95% confidence interval], 0.5 [0.3-0.7]; P<0.001). The incidence of dangerous agitation (0 [0.0%] vs 10 [17.5%], P=0.001) and the median maximal SAS score (4 [4-5] vs 5 [4-6], P<0.001) were also lower in the orientation group. Secondary outcomes, other than agitation-related variables, were comparable between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Repeated verbal stimulation of orientation may serve as a simple and easily applicable strategy to reduce emergence agitation after general anaesthesia. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT05105178.


Subject(s)
Emergence Delirium , Humans , Male , Female , Emergence Delirium/epidemiology , Emergence Delirium/prevention & control , Prospective Studies , Anesthesia Recovery Period , Anesthesia, General/adverse effects , Abdomen/surgery , Psychomotor Agitation/etiology , Psychomotor Agitation/prevention & control , Psychomotor Agitation/epidemiology
5.
Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg ; 29(2): 252-254, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2275255

ABSTRACT

Peptic ulcer perforation is one of the leading causes of acute abdomen, presenting with acute abdominal pain and severe distress for the patient. In one-third of patients, the presentation is less dramatic, resulting in significant delays in diagnosis. Herein, we present a very rarest case operated on for diffuse purulent peritonitis with double perforation of the stomach in a COVID-19-positive patient, which had a depressing outcome.


Subject(s)
Abdomen, Acute , COVID-19 , Duodenal Ulcer , Peptic Ulcer Perforation , Humans , Peptic Ulcer Perforation/complications , Peptic Ulcer Perforation/diagnosis , Peptic Ulcer Perforation/surgery , COVID-19/complications , Abdomen , Abdominal Pain/etiology
6.
Diagn Interv Radiol ; 29(3): 414-427, 2023 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2274991

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the frequency of abdominal computed tomography (CT) findings in patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) and interrogate the relationship between abdominal CT findings and patient demographic features, clinical findings, and laboratory test results as well as the CT atherosclerosis score in the abdominal aorta. METHODS: This study was designed as a multicenter retrospective study. The abdominal CT findings of 1.181 patients with positive abdominal symptoms from 26 tertiary medical centers with a positive polymerase chain-reaction test for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 were reviewed. The frequency of ischemic and non-ischemic CT findings as well as the association between CT findings, clinical features, and abdominal aortic calcific atherosclerosis score (AA-CAS) were recorded. RESULTS: Ischemic and non-ischemic abdominal CT findings were detected in 240 (20.3%) and 328 (27.7%) patients, respectively. In 147 patients (12.4%), intra-abdominal malignancy was present. The most frequent ischemic abdominal CT findings were bowel wall thickening (n = 120; 10.2%) and perivascular infiltration (n = 40; 3.4%). As for non-ischemic findings, colitis (n = 91; 7.7%) and small bowel inflammation (n = 73; 6.2%) constituted the most frequent disease processes. The duration of hospital stay was found to be higher in patients with abdominal CT findings than in patients without any positive findings (13.8 ± 13 vs. 10.4 ± 12.8 days, P < 0.001). The frequency of abdominal CT findings was significantly higher in patients who did not survive the infection than in patients who were discharged after recovery (41.7% vs. 27.4%, P < 0.001). Increased AA-CAS was found to be associated with a higher risk of ischemic conditions in abdominal CT examinations. CONCLUSION: Abdominal symptoms in patients with COVID-19 are usually associated with positive CT findings. The presence of ischemic findings on CT correlates with poor COVID-19 outcomes. A high AA-CAS is associated with abdominal ischemic findings in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Abdomen , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
7.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 3514, 2023 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2256589

ABSTRACT

Our aim was to map acquired peripheral and abdominal sarcopenia in mechanically ventilated adults with COVID-19 through ultrasound measurements. On Days 1, 3, 5 and 7 after admission to critical care, the muscle thickness and cross-sectional area of the quadriceps, rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, tibialis anterior, medial and lateral gastrocnemius, deltoid, biceps brachii, rectus abdominis, internal and external oblique, and transversus abdominis were measured using bedside ultrasound. A total of 5460 ultrasound images were analyzed from 30 patients (age: 59.8 ± 15.6 years; 70% men). Muscle thickness loss was found in the bilateral anterior tibial and medial gastrocnemius muscles (range 11.5-14.6%) between Days 1 and 3; in the bilateral quadriceps, rectus femoris, lateral gastrocnemius, deltoid, and biceps brachii (range 16.3-39.1%) between Days 1 and 5; in the internal oblique abdominal (25.9%) between Days 1 and 5; and in the rectus and transversus abdominis (29%) between Days 1 and 7. The cross-sectional area was reduced in the bilateral tibialis anterior and left biceps brachii (range 24.6-25.6%) between Days 1 and 5 and in the bilateral rectus femoris and right biceps brachii (range 22.9-27.7%) between Days 1 and 7. These findings indicate that the peripheral and abdominal muscle loss is progressive during the first week of mechanical ventilation and is significantly higher in the lower limbs, left quadriceps and right rectus femoris muscles in critically ill patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sarcopenia , Adult , Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Female , Sarcopenia/diagnostic imaging , Respiration, Artificial , Abdominal Muscles/diagnostic imaging , Abdomen
9.
J Comput Assist Tomogr ; 47(1): 3-8, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2213012

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To quantify the association between computed tomography abdomen and pelvis with contrast (CTAP) findings and chest radiograph (CXR) severity score, and the incremental effect of incorporating CTAP findings into predictive models of COVID-19 mortality. METHODS: This retrospective study was performed at a large quaternary care medical center. All adult patients who presented to our institution between March and June 2020 with the diagnosis of COVID-19 and had a CXR up to 48 hours before a CTAP were included. Primary outcomes were the severity of lung disease before CTAP and mortality within 14 and 30 days. Logistic regression models were constructed to quantify the association between CXR score and CTAP findings. Penalized logistic regression models and random forests were constructed to identify key predictors (demographics, CTAP findings, and CXR score) of mortality. The discriminatory performance of these models, with and without CTAP findings, was summarized using area under the characteristic (AUC) curves. RESULTS: One hundred ninety-five patients (median age, 63 years; 119 men) were included. The odds of having CTAP findings was 3.89 times greater when a CXR score was classified as severe compared with mild (P = 0.002). When CTAP findings were included in the feature set, the AUCs for 14-day mortality were 0.67 (penalized logistic regression) and 0.71 (random forests). Similar values for 30-day mortality were 0.76 and 0.75. When CTAP findings were omitted, all AUC values were attenuated. CONCLUSIONS: The CTAP findings were associated with more severe CXR score and may serve as predictors of COVID-19 mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Abdomen , Tomography , Radiography, Thoracic
10.
Indian Pediatr ; 59(12): 936-938, 2022 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2157163

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We reviewed the cases of probable multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) to identify those cases that mimicked surgical emergencies. METHODS: Records of children managed for MIS-C during a 15-month period between March, 2020 and April, 2021 were retrieved. Data on clinical presentation, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RT-PCR report, SARS-CoV-2 antibody status, blood investigations, radiological investigations and management were collected. RESULTS: A total of 28 out of 83 children with probable MIS-C had acute abdominal symptoms and signs. Fifteen children had mild features like diffuse abdominal pain or non-bilious vomiting, and the remaining 13 (46.2%) had severe abdominal signs or bilious vomiting. Four children worsened with conservative treatment for MIS-C and were detected with perforated appendicitis. Two more children developed recurrent appendicitis on follow up. One child with appendicitis who underwent laparoscopic appendectomy, later manifested with MIS-C. CONCLUSION: Surgical abdominal emergencies may be confused with or occur concurrently in children with MIS-C that should be identified with a high index of suspicion.


Subject(s)
Appendicitis , COVID-19 , Child , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Abdomen , Appendicitis/diagnosis , Abdominal Pain/etiology
11.
N Z Med J ; 135(1557): 10-18, 2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2147084

ABSTRACT

AIM: The purpose of this study was to determine the utility of community-based imaging to reduce use of inpatient surgical resources and enforce social distancing at the outset of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: A prospective evaluation of community-based CT for patients presenting to Christchurch general practitioners with acute abdominal pain from April to November 2020. Eligible patients were discussed with the on-call general surgical team, and then referred for CT abdomen rather than hospital assessment. The positivity rate of CT scans, the 30-day all-cause hospital admission rate, and the proportion of patients where community scanning altered management setting and the number of incidental findings, were all assessed. RESULTS: Of 131 included patients, 67 (51%) patients had a positive CT scan. Thirty-nine (30%) patients were admitted to hospital within 30 days, 34 (87%) of whom had a positive CT scan and were admitted under a surgical specialty. Ninety-two (70%) patients did not require hospital admission for their acute abdominal pain, thirty-three (35%) of whom had a positive CT scan. There were three deaths within 30 days of the community CT, and the setting of the community CT did not contribute to the death of any of the cases. Forty patients (30%) had incidental findings on CT, 10 (25%) of which were significant and were referred for further investigation. CONCLUSION: Community based abdominal CT scanning is a feasible option in the management of acute abdominal pain. While trialed in response to the initial nationwide COVID-19 lockdown in New Zealand, there may be utility for acute community-based CT scanning in regular practice.


Subject(s)
Abdomen, Acute , COVID-19 , Abdomen , Abdomen, Acute/diagnostic imaging , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , New Zealand/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
12.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (11): 73-76, 2022.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2145656

ABSTRACT

The authors present a patient with COVID-19 and spontaneous idiopathic pneumoperitoneum. A 77-year-old man suffering from coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus and cognitive disorders was diagnosed with bilateral pneumonia and COVID-19. Oxygen support through a face mask was prescribed. After 21 days, oxygen saturation decrease and mild abdominal symptoms required CT-based examination. Pneumoperitoneum without pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum was revealed. Explorative laparotomy found no abdominal diseases. According to the literature, spontaneous pneumoperitoneum in patients with COVID-19 is usually associated with high pressure oxygen therapy, but not always associated with intrathoracic complications. Conservative treatment may be appropriate in patients with spontaneous pneumoperitoneum, but any unclear findings can require surgery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumoperitoneum , Humans , Male , Aged , Pneumoperitoneum/diagnosis , Pneumoperitoneum/etiology , Pneumoperitoneum/therapy , COVID-19/complications , Abdomen/surgery , Laparotomy/adverse effects , Oxygen
13.
Eur J Med Res ; 27(1): 165, 2022 Aug 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021339

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To report ischemic and haemorrhagic abdominal complications in a series of COVID-19 patients. To correlate these complications with lung involvement, laboratory tests, comorbidities, and anticoagulant treatment. METHODS: We retrospectively included 30 COVID-19 patients who undergone abdomen CECT for abdominal pain, between March 16 and May 19, 2020. Ischemic and haemorrhagic complications were compared with lung involvement (early, progressive, peak or absorption stage), blood coagulation values, anticoagulant therapy, comorbidities, and presence of pulmonary embolism (PE). RESULTS: Ischemic complications were documented in 10 patients (7 receiving anticoagulant therapy, 70%): 6/10 small bowel ischemia (1 concomitant obstruction, 1 perforation) and 4/10 ischemic colitis. Main mesenteric vessels were patent except for 1 superior mesenteric vein thrombosis. Two ischemia cases also presented splenic infarctions. Bleeding complications were found in 20 patients (all receiving anticoagulant treatments), half with active bleeding: hematomas in soft tissues (15) and retroperitoneum (2) and gastro-intestinal bleeding (3). Platelet and lymphocyte were within the normal range. D-Dimer was significantly higher in ischemic cases (p < 0.001). Most of the patients had severe lung disease (45% peak, 29% absorption), two patients PE. CONCLUSIONS: Ischemic and haemorrhagic abdominal complications may occur in COVID-19 patients, particularly associated to extended lung disease. CT plays a key role in the diagnosis of these potentially life- threatening conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Abdomen/diagnostic imaging , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Ischemia/chemically induced , Retrospective Studies
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 14677, 2022 08 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2016836

ABSTRACT

Abdominal pain and liver injury have been frequently reported during coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Our aim was to investigate characteristics of abdominal pain in COVID-19 patients and their association with disease severity and liver injury.Data of all COVID-19 patients hospitalized during the first wave in one hospital were retrieved. Patients admitted exclusively for other pathologies and/or recovered from COVID-19, as well as pregnant women were excluded. Patients whose abdominal pain was related to alternative diagnosis were also excluded.Among the 1026 included patients, 200 (19.5%) exhibited spontaneous abdominal pain and 165 (16.2%) after abdomen palpation. Spontaneous pain was most frequently localized in the epigastric (42.7%) and right upper quadrant (25.5%) regions. Tenderness in the right upper region was associated with severe COVID-19 (hospital mortality and/or admission to intensive/intermediate care unit) with an adjusted odds ratio of 2.81 (95% CI 1.27-6.21, p = 0.010). Patients with history of lower abdomen pain experimented less frequently dyspnea compared to patients with history of upper abdominal pain (25.8 versus 63.0%, p < 0.001). Baseline transaminases elevation was associated with history of pain in epigastric and right upper region and AST elevation was strongly associated with severe COVID-19 with an odds ratio of 16.03 (95% CI 1.95-131.63 p = 0.010).More than one fifth of patients admitted for COVID-19 presented abdominal pain. Those with pain located in the upper abdomen were more at risk of dyspnea, demonstrated more altered transaminases, and presented a higher risk of adverse outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Abdomen , Abdominal Pain/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Dyspnea , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Transaminases
15.
CMAJ ; 194(16): E590, 2022 04 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938468

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Abdomen , Humans , Stomach
17.
Am J Emerg Med ; 59: 174-175, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1803388
18.
Abdom Radiol (NY) ; 47(5): 1565-1602, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1802663

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) is a less common but devastating complication of COVID-19 disease. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the most common CT imaging features of AMI in COVID-19 and also provide an updated review of the literature on symptoms, treatment, histopathological and operative findings, and follow-up of these patients. METHODS: A systematic literature search of four databases: Pubmed, EMBASE, WHO database, and Google Scholar, was performed to identify all the articles which described abdominal CT imaging findings of AMI in COVID-19. RESULTS: A total of 47 studies comprising 75 patients were included in the final review. Small bowel ischemia (46.67%) was the most prevalent abdominal CT finding, followed by ischemic colitis (37.3%). Non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia (NOMI; 67.9%) indicating microvascular involvement was the most common pattern of bowel involvement. Bowel wall thickening/edema (50.9%) was more common than bowel hypoperfusion (20.7%). While ileum and colon both were equally involved bowel segments (32.07% each), SMA (24.9%), SMV (14.3%), and the spleen (12.5%) were the most commonly involved artery, vein, and solid organ, respectively. 50% of the patients receiving conservative/medical management died, highlighting high mortality without surgery. Findings on laparotomy and histopathology corroborated strikingly with CT imaging findings. CONCLUSION: In COVID-19 patients with AMI, small bowel ischemia is the most prevalent imaging diagnosis and NOMI is the most common pattern of bowel involvement. Contrast-enhanced CT is a powerful decision-making tool for prompt diagnosis of AMI in COVID-19, thereby potentially improving time to treat as well as clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mesenteric Ischemia , Abdomen , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Ischemia/complications , Mesenteric Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
19.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 6443, 2022 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799564

ABSTRACT

As most COVID-19 patients only receive thoracic CT scans, but body composition, which is relevant to detect sarcopenia, is determined in abdominal scans, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between thoracic and abdominal CT body composition parameters in a cohort of COVID-19 patients. This retrospective study included n = 46 SARS-CoV-2-positive patients who received CT scans of the thorax and abdomen due to severe disease progression. The subcutaneous fat area (SF), the skeletal muscle area (SMA), and the muscle radiodensity attenuation (MRA) were measured at the level of the twelfth thoracic (T12) and the third lumbar (L3) vertebra. Necessity of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), length of stay, or time to death (TTD) were noted. For statistics correlation, multivariable linear, logistic, and Cox regression analyses were employed. Correlation was excellent for the SF (r = 0.96) between T12 and L3, and good for the respective SMA (r = 0.80) and MRA (r = 0.82) values. With adjustment (adj.) for sex, age, and body-mass-index the variability of SF (adj. r2 = 0.93; adj. mean difference = 1.24 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.02-1.45]), of the SMA (adj. r2 = 0.76; 2.59 [95% CI 1.92-3.26]), and of the MRA (adj. r2 = 0.67; 0.67 [95% CI 0.45-0.88]) at L3 was well explained by the respective values at T12. There was no relevant influence of the SF, MRA, or SMA on the clinical outcome. If only thoracic CT scans are available, CT body composition values at T12 can be used to predict abdominal fat and muscle parameters, by which sarcopenia and obesity can be assessed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sarcopenia , Abdomen , Body Composition , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Muscle, Skeletal/diagnostic imaging , Muscle, Skeletal/pathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sarcopenia/diagnostic imaging , Sarcopenia/pathology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
20.
Radiology ; 303(1): 182-183, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1752922
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