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1.
Turk J Gastroenterol ; 33(11): 955-963, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1988284

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In patients with coronavirus disease 2019, the gastrointestinal symptoms have been reported increasingly in addition to the respiratory system symptoms. The studies show that the prevalence of gastrointestinal system symptoms and how the gastrointestinal system contributes to the severity and prognosis of the disease is still not clear. This study aims to find the prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms and the correlation between the gastrointestinal symptoms and the clinical results in hospitalized patients diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019. METHODS: This study retrospectively analyzes patients diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 and hospitalized in the pandemic unit between March 2020 and August 2020 and compares their demographic and clinical characteristics, laboratory and radiologic findings, coronavirus disease 2019 treatments received, the clinical course of the disease, and the gastrointestinal symptoms. RESULTS: In our study, we included 322 patients diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 and hospitalized; 39 patients (12.1%) were admitted to the hospital with at least one gastrointestinal symptom (nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and the loss of taste). Nausea and vomiting are the most common gastrointestinal symptoms with a prevalence of 7.1%, followed by diarrhea with 2.8%, the loss of taste with 2.2%, and abdominal pain with 1.5%. The mean age and D-dimer levels of the patients showing gastrointestinal symptoms were lower than those who did not have any gastrointestinal symptoms. We did not find a significant correlation between the presence of the gastrointestinal symptoms and the severity of the disease, treatment received, risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome and septic shock, admission to the intensive care unit, the need for mechanical ventilation, the mortality rate or the length of hospitalization in the medical floor or the intensive care unit. CONCLUSION: In this study, we observed that 12.1% of coronavirus disease 2019 patients apply to the hospital due to gastrointestinal symptoms. Furthermore, the gastrointestinal symptoms do not seem to affect the severity and the course of the disease, it is important to identify coronavirus disease 2019 patients showing unusual symptoms such as the gastrointestinal symptoms at an early stage to protect healthcare professionals from infection risk.


Subject(s)
Ageusia , COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Turkey/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/etiology , Abdominal Pain/epidemiology , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Vomiting , Nausea
2.
Dig Dis Sci ; 67(11): 5034-5043, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669857

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to understand the association of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms at initial presentation with clinical outcomes during COVID-19 hospitalization. METHODS: This retrospective, multicenter cohort study included consecutive hospitalized COVID-19 patients from a single, large health system. The presence of GI symptoms was assessed at initial presentation and included one or more of the following: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal pain. Patients were divided into three cohorts: Only GI symptoms, GI and non-GI symptoms and only non-GI symptoms. The primary outcome was association of GI symptoms with mortality. Secondary outcomes included prevalence of GI symptoms and survival analysis. RESULTS: A total of 1672 COVID-19 patients were hospitalized (mean age: 63 ± 15.8 years, females: 50.4%) in our system during the study period. 40.7% patients had at least one GI symptom (diarrhea in 28.3%, nausea/vomiting in 23%, and abdominal pain in 8.8% patients), and 2.6% patients had only GI symptoms at initial presentation. Patients presenting with GI symptoms (with or without non-GI symptoms) had a lower mortality rate compared to patients presenting with only non-GI symptoms (20% vs. 26%; p < 0.05). The time from hospitalization to being discharged was less for patients presenting with only GI symptoms (7.4 days vs. > 9 days, p < 0.0014). After adjusting for other factors, the presence of GI symptoms was not associated with mortality (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Among a hospitalized COVID-19 positive Southern US population, 41% patients presented with either diarrhea, nausea, vomiting or abdominal pain initially. The presence of GI symptoms has no association with in-hospital all-cause mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Nausea/epidemiology , Nausea/etiology , Vomiting/epidemiology , Vomiting/etiology , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/etiology , Abdominal Pain/epidemiology , Abdominal Pain/etiology
3.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 73(6): 689-694, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1612727

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess how the first phase of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic influenced symptoms in children with functional abdominal pain disorders (FAPDs) and to characterize their quality of life (QoL), anxiety and global health. METHODS: This was a multicenter, observational, international study conducted between April and July 2020 at six different referral centers. Children diagnosed with FAPDs between October 2019 and February 2020 were enrolled and prospectively interviewed at 4 months of follow-up during the first pandemic phase (Quarantine group). Patients were asked to complete PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scale and PROMIS Anxiety and Global Health questionnaires. A cohort of children diagnosed with FAPDs between October 2018 and February 2019 was used as a Control group. RESULTS: Three-hundred-fifty-six children were enrolled of whom 180 (mean age at diagnosis: 14 ±â€Š2.8 years) in the Quarantine group and 176 (mean age at diagnosis: 13 ±â€Š2.8 years) in the Control group. At 4 months of follow-up, we observed a significant reduction of children reporting >5 episodes of abdominal pain per month when compared to baseline, in both groups (Quarantine group: 63.9% vs 42.2%, P < 0.001; Control group: 83.5% vs 50%, P < 0.001). The Quarantine group had median QoL values of 84.8 with 16.6% of children showing high anxiety values and 55% having decreased global health score. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated symptoms' improvement at 4 months of follow-up in both cohorts. During the first months of the COVID-19 quarantine children with FAPDs showed satisfactory QoL and anxiety scores, suggesting positive effects of school closure and increased parental attention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Abdominal Pain/epidemiology , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , Child , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 255(3): 267-273, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547055

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the admission chest and abdominal computed tomography (CT) findings of patients who presented to the emergency department with complaints of abdominal pain, fever, and shortness of breath and who had RT-PCR-confirmed COVID-19 infection. Seventy-five patients with RT-PCR-confirmed (in laboratory) COVID-19 infection who underwent chest and abdominal CT were included in the study. The radiological scales [the COVID-19 Reporting and Data System (CO-RADS) and severity score] of the chest and abdominal findings were examined on CT images. Forty-one (54.7%) patients were male and 34 (45.3%) were female. The mean age of the patients was 63.03 (range 24-89) years. The most frequently calculated CO-RADS score was found to be 5 (n = 53, 70.7%). Bilateral (72.0%) and multibolar (74.7%) involvement, peripheral (72.0%) and posterior (60.0%) distribution, and ground-glass opacity (66.7%) pattern were the most common pulmonary findings. A positive correlation was observed between CO-RADS and total severty score (p < 0.001). All patients were hospitalized. One (1.3%) patient was surgically treated because of acute appendicitis. Nine (12.0%) patients were admitted to the intensive care unit. Six (8.0%) patients died in the intensive care unit. Patients presenting to the emergency department with both abdominal and respiratory complaints during the pandemic should be evaluated for COVID-19. Patients can be diagnosed early with the data collected from CT without waiting for the PCR result. Hospital staff can take the necessary protective measures against virus transmission early, minimizing the in-hospital transmission of the virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Abdominal Pain/diagnostic imaging , Abdominal Pain/epidemiology , Abdominal Pain/virology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Young Adult
5.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 210(2): 98-103, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504110

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a highly contagious new ß-coronavirus that primarily affects the lungs. Because of its unprecedented spread, in a relatively short interval, it is declared a global pandemic. Binding to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptors, SARS-CoV-2 is easily disseminated through air. Apart from the established clinical panel, individuals exposed to prolonged chronic stress also manifest gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms similar to those exhibited by SARS-CoV-2-infected patients.The present study aims to assess the incidence of GI deficiencies and prevalence of anxiety among healthy medical staff by applying the Visual Analog Scale for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (VAS-IBS) and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) during this global crisis.We found significant differences on several items of the VAS-IBS: regarding the incidence of diarrhea (p = 0.04), bloating/gases (p = 0.02), and nausea/vomiting (p = 0.01) from the physical spectrum. After stratification based on age of the participants and after we applied Kruskal-Wallis test because of heterogeneity between groups, we noted two situations in which the null hypothesis is rejected: nausea/vomiting in women between 20 and 30 years, and between 30 and 40, and between 40 and 50 years, respectively (p = 0.026/0.029). Anxiety was prevalent among young and middle-class people after the centralization of HAM-A data, where 40.4% of the participants had various forms of anxiety: mild (n = 13; 13.82%), severe (n = 13; 13.82%), and moderate (n = 12; 12.76%).This study demonstrates that VAS-IBS is a reliable tool for assessing the incidence of GI deficiencies, as well as HAM-A for anxiety.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Constipation/epidemiology , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/epidemiology , Nausea/epidemiology , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Personnel, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Vomiting/epidemiology , Adult , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Psychometrics , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
6.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(18): 5836-5842, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1451041

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Functional gastrointestinal disorders are common gastrointestinal diseases. The pathophysiology is multifactorial and psychosocial distress worsens symptoms severity. Since the end of 2019 the world has been facing COVID-19 pandemic. The associated control measures have affected the psychological health of people. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the prevalence of functional gastrointestinal disorders among Italian children and adolescents. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study sample is composed of 407 patients (187 males, 220 females), aged from 10 to 17 years. The mean age is 14.27 ± 2.24 years. The study was conducted through the Italian version of the Questionnaire on Pediatric Gastrointestinal Symptoms-Rome III Version.  The prevalence of each disorder has been calculated as the ratio of affected subjects for each disease and the total number of effective cases for that specific disease. RESULTS: The study demonstrates that the prevalence of Functional Gastrointestinal Disorder in Italian children, during the COVD-19 pandemic, is higher, compared with the one reported in the previous studies. The most frequent disorders are Abdominal Migraine and Irritable Bowel Syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Our study is the first one which provides data of the prevalence of Functional gastrointestinal disorders in sample of Italian adolescents, during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study underlines the need to focus on stress management, in order to reduce the effects of the lockdown on the psychological wellness of the youngest.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/etiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Social Isolation/psychology , Stress, Psychological/complications , Abdominal Pain/epidemiology , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Abdominal Pain/psychology , Adolescent , Aerophagy/epidemiology , Aerophagy/etiology , Aerophagy/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Constipation/epidemiology , Constipation/etiology , Constipation/psychology , Dyspepsia/epidemiology , Dyspepsia/etiology , Dyspepsia/psychology , Fecal Incontinence/epidemiology , Fecal Incontinence/etiology , Fecal Incontinence/psychology , Female , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/epidemiology , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/etiology , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/psychology , Italy , Male , Migraine Disorders/epidemiology , Migraine Disorders/etiology , Migraine Disorders/psychology , Prevalence , Rumination Syndrome/epidemiology , Rumination Syndrome/etiology , Rumination Syndrome/psychology , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vomiting/epidemiology , Vomiting/etiology , Vomiting/psychology
9.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 33(5): 691-694, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1159992

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infection due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is typically associated with a respiratory syndrome, but gastrointestinal symptoms have been described in early reports from China. However, data from European centres are scarce. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to characterise the gastrointestinal manifestations of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and their disease course. METHODS: Patients admitted at our centre between March and April 2020 with diagnosis of COVID-19 were included. Asymptomatic patients or those without symptom information were excluded. Clinical features, laboratory data and disease severity (mechanical ventilation, intensive care admission or death) were analysed. RESULTS: Two-hundred one patients were included (median age 71 years; 56.2% male). Digestive symptoms were reported by 60 (29.9%) patients during the disease course, being part of the disease presentation in 34 (16.9%). The most frequent were diarrhoea in 36 patients (17.9%). Patients with gastrointestinal symptoms were younger (P = 0.032), had higher haemoglobin levels (P = 0.002) and lower C-reactive protein (P = 0.045) and potassium levels (P = 0.004). Patients with digestive symptoms had less severe disease (28.3 vs. 44.0%; P = 0.038). Regarding liver damage, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was elevated in 65.2% of patients and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in 62.7%, but these patients did not present a more severe disease (elevated AST P = 0.062; elevated ALT P = 0.276). CONCLUSION: A significant portion of COVID-19 patients have digestive symptoms, mostly at presentation. This should be taken into account in order to keep a high level of suspicion to reach an early diagnosis and setup infection control measures to control the transmission rate. This subgroup of patients appears to have a less severe disease course.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Diarrhea/physiopathology , Vomiting/physiopathology , Abdominal Pain/epidemiology , Abdominal Pain/metabolism , Abdominal Pain/physiopathology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ageusia/epidemiology , Ageusia/metabolism , Ageusia/physiopathology , Alanine Transaminase/metabolism , Aspartate Aminotransferases/metabolism , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/metabolism , Female , Hemoglobins/metabolism , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nausea/epidemiology , Nausea/metabolism , Nausea/physiopathology , Portugal/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Vomiting/epidemiology , Vomiting/metabolism , Young Adult
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(11): e24897, 2021 Mar 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1138016

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The prevalence of children exhibiting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with digestive system involvement remains unknown. Therefore, we aimed to quantify the impact of COVID-19 on the digestive system of children.In this meta-analysis, we searched PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science from January 1, 2020, to June 31, 2020. We also searched for COVID-19 publications in specific journals for more comprehensive results. We included studies that reported the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of COVID-19, and we excluded duplicate publications, reviews, animal studies, case reports, publications without the full text, studies with incomplete information, and studies from which data extraction was impossible.We conducted a meta-analysis of the incidence of gastrointestinal symptoms and changes in liver function involving 19 studies. The pooled prevalence of diarrhea was 10% (95% CI: 7-14; I2  = 84%), that of nausea or vomiting was 7% (95% CI: 5-11; I2  = 77%), and that of abdominal pain was 4% (95% CI: 2-9; I2  = 79%). In addition, the pooled incidence of increased alanine aminotransferase was 8% (95% CI: 5-15; I2  = 46%), and the pooled incidence of increased AST was 15% (95% CI: 9-26; I2  = 66%). The pooled rate of recovery was 97% (95% CI: 94-100; I2  = 86%), and the pooled rate of death, which was 1% (95% CI: 1-4; I2  = 48%), was much smaller than the recovery rate.Our research shows that digestive system symptoms and function in children with COVID-19 are not uncommon. More attention should be paid to this unique group of patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Digestive System Diseases/epidemiology , Abdominal Pain/epidemiology , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Digestive System/physiopathology , Female , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Liver Diseases/epidemiology , Male , Nausea/epidemiology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Vomiting/epidemiology
11.
Eur J Pediatr Surg ; 32(3): 268-273, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1093385

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Since home confinement for novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic began, pediatric visits to the emergency department (ED) have decreased, including consultation for abdominal pain. Our aim is to investigate the incidence of complicated acute appendicitis (AA; peritonitis or appendicular mass) during confinement for COVID-19 pandemic and to compare it with the previous 5 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was performed in children with AA who underwent surgery between March 9 and April 13 from 2015 to 2020; patients were divided into six groups according to the year of surgery. We analyzed demographic variables, time from onset of symptoms, mean hospital stay, cumulative incidence, and incidence rate of complicated appendicitis. RESULTS: A total of 168 patients were included with no differences in the number of patients, gender, and age between groups. Patients in 2020 (COVID-19 group) presented longer symptom progression time (46.8 hours; p = 0.046), higher rate of complicated appendicitis (48.4%; p = 0.004), longer mean hospital stay (4.9 days; p < 0.001), increased cumulative incidence (8.27 cases per 100,000 children per 0.1 years; p < 0.001), and increased incidence rate of complicated appendicitis (83 cases per 100,000 children; p < 0.001) when compared with other groups. CONCLUSION: Delayed ED visit of children with AA during home confinement lead to an increased rate of complicated appendicitis. It is crucial to make parents aware of the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of abdominal pain.


Subject(s)
Appendicitis , COVID-19 , Abdominal Pain/epidemiology , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Appendectomy , Appendicitis/complications , Appendicitis/epidemiology , Appendicitis/surgery , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
12.
Drug Saf ; 43(12): 1309-1314, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1092869

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In late 2019, a new coronavirus-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-was discovered in Wuhan, China, and the World Health Organization later declared coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) a pandemic. Numerous drugs have been repurposed and investigated for therapeutic effectiveness in the disease, including those from "Solidarity," an international clinical trial (azithromycin, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, the fixed combination lopinavir/ritonavir, and remdesivir). OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to evaluate adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting for drugs when used in the treatment of COVID-19 compared with use for other indications, specifically focussing on sex differences. METHOD: We extracted reports on COVID-19-specific treatments from the global ADR database, VigiBase, using an algorithm developed to identify reports that listed COVID-19 as the indication. The Solidarity trial drugs were included, as were any drugs reported ≥ 100 times. We performed a descriptive comparison of reports for the same drugs used in non-COVID-19 indications. The data lock point date was 7 June 2020. RESULTS: In total, 2573 reports were identified for drugs used in the treatment of COVID-19. In order of frequency, the most reported ADRs were electrocardiogram QT-prolonged, diarrhoea, nausea, hepatitis, and vomiting in males and diarrhoea, electrocardiogram QT-prolonged, nausea, vomiting, and upper abdominal pain in females. Other hepatic and kidney-related events were included in the top ten ADRs in males, whereas no hepatic or renal terms were reported for females. COVID-19-related reporting patterns differed from non-pandemic reporting for these drugs. CONCLUSION: Review of a global database of suspected ADR reports revealed sex differences in the reporting patterns for drugs used in the treatment of COVID-19. Patterns of ADR sex differences need further elucidation.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/epidemiology , Abdominal Pain/chemically induced , Abdominal Pain/epidemiology , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Azithromycin/adverse effects , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/epidemiology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/etiology , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Databases, Pharmaceutical , Diarrhea/chemically induced , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Drug Combinations , Drug Eruptions/epidemiology , Drug Eruptions/etiology , Drug Repositioning , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Long QT Syndrome/chemically induced , Long QT Syndrome/epidemiology , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Male , Nausea/chemically induced , Nausea/epidemiology , Oseltamivir/adverse effects , Ritonavir/adverse effects , Sex Distribution , Sex Factors , Vomiting/chemically induced , Vomiting/epidemiology
13.
Health Policy ; 124(12): 1333-1339, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-910332

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The increase in access to Emergency Departments (ED) worldwide causes inefficiencies, but also signals its importance. The Coronavirus (Covid-19) outbreak allows to study the reactions of patients to the news about the spreading of the infection, which may have generated the fear that ED was no longer safe. METHODS: We study access to ED of a large teaching hospital in Brescia - one of the most hit provinces in Italy by Covid-19 - during the pandemic (from the announcement of the first cases to the explosion of the pandemic, to months after end of the acute phase) to study how patients reacted to the news that ED could no longer be a safe place. We analyse triage code, mode of arrival to ED, and accesses related to chest and abdominal pain, to evaluate who was discouraged most. RESULTS: Accesses have drastically reduced immediately after the news of the first contagion. During the lockdown accesses and admissions to hospital ward have decreased; this may mean that some patients may have suffered reduced health or increased mortality risks because of this decision. At the end of June accesses to ED and admissions to hospital ward are still lower than usual. DISCUSSION: Fear of contagion and appeals not to use ED directly by Covid-19 patients may have discouraged access also for pressing health need.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Fear , Pandemics , Abdominal Pain/epidemiology , Chest Pain/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Triage/organization & administration
14.
Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 15(1): 41-50, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-780246

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The new Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the etiologic agent of coronavirus disease 2019. Some authors reported pieces of evidence that patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection could have direct involvement of the gastrointestinal tract, and in symptomatic cases, gastrointestinal symptoms (diarrhea, nausea/vomiting, abdominal pain) could be very common. AREA COVERED: In this article, we reviewed current-published data of the gastrointestinal aspects involved in SARS-CoV-2 infection, including prevalence and incidence of specific symptoms, the presumptive biological mechanism of GI infection, prognosis, clinical management, and public health-related concerns on the possible risk of oral-fecal transmission. EXPERT OPINION: Different clues point to direct virus infection and replication in mucosal cells of the gastrointestinal tract. In vitro studies showed that SARS-CoV-2 could enter into the gastrointestinal epithelial cells by the Angiotensin-Converting enzyme two membrane receptor. These findings, coupled with the identification of viral RNA found in stools of patients, clearly suggest that direct involvement of the gastrointestinal tract is very likely. This can justify most of the gastrointestinal symptoms but also suggest a risk for an oral-fecal route for transmission, additionally or alternatively to the main respiratory route.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Abdominal Pain/epidemiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/transmission , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Feces/chemistry , Gastrointestinal Tract/cytology , Humans , Incidence , Nausea/epidemiology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Attachment , Vomiting/epidemiology
15.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 54(5): 839-844, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-694358

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, Iran reported its first confirmed cases of syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections on 19 February 2020 in Qom. Although the numbers of cases are increasing, no report about clinical manifestations, laboratory results, and imaging findings of the children infected with COVID-19 in Iran has been published. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological, clinical, and radiological and laboratory findings of 24 children who had proven SARS-CoV-2 infection and performed chest computed tomographic (CT) in Qom, Iran. METHODS: Demographic information and clinical characteristics of the patients including signs and symptoms, chest CT scan manifestation, laboratory findings and clinical outcomes were collected. Diagnosing of the confirmed case was based on positive real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction test for SARS-CoV-2. FINDINGS: During the first 3 months of the epidemic in Qom, Iran, 24 children with confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 were included. The median age of the cases was 6 years [inter-quartile range 3.5-9.5 years]. The most common presenting symptoms were fever (100%), dry cough (62.5%), tachypnea (29%), abdominal pain (21%), and vomiting (21%). Three cases (12.5%) presented with a history of diarrhea in addition to fever and cough. According to the chest CT findings, 2 cases (8%) showed no abnormality. Typical CT findings were found in 6 patients (25%), 2 patients showed indeterminate appearance, and 14 patients (58%) showed atypical findings. Two children with SARS-CoV-2 infection manifested as a hyperinflammatory syndrome with multi-organ involvement similar to Kawasaki disease shock syndrome. Seventy-one percent of the patients showed severe SARS-CoV-2 infection and the mortality of 12.5% (3 cases) were reported. INTERPRETATION: High frequency of atypical chest CT finding in children should raise concern for pediatricians. Early recognition of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection is of crucial importance in controlling of the outbreak and atypical imaging features should be interpreted with caution.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Abdominal Pain/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Child , Child, Preschool , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Mortality , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , SARS-CoV-2 , Tachypnea/epidemiology , Vomiting/epidemiology
16.
Rev Invest Clin ; 72(3): 165-177, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-617019

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Regional information regarding the characteristics of patients with coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 is needed for a better understanding of the pandemic. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study to describe the clinical features of COVID-19 patients diagnosed in a tertiary-care center in Mexico City and to assess differences according to the treatment setting (ambulatory vs. hospital) and to the need of intensive care (IC). METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort, including consecutive patients with COVID-19 from February 26, 2020 to April 11, 2020. RESULTS: We identified 309 patients (140 inpatients and 169 outpatients). The median age was 43 years (interquartile range, 33-54), 59.2% men, and 18.6% healthcare workers (12.3% from our center). The median body mass index (BMI) was 29.00 kg/m2 and 39.6% had obesity. Compared to outpatients, inpatients were older, had comorbidities, cough, and dyspnea more frequently. Twenty-nine (20.7%) inpatients required treatment in the IC unit (ICU). History of diabetes (type 1 or 2) and abdominal pain were more common in ICU patients compared to non-ICU patients. ICU patients had higher BMIs, higher respiratory rates, and lower room-air capillary oxygen saturations. ICU patients showed a more severe inflammatory response as assessed by white blood cell count, neutrophil and platelet count, C-reactive protein, ferritin, procalcitonin, and albumin levels. By the end of the study period, 65 inpatients had been discharged because of improvement, 70 continued hospitalized, and five had died. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with comorbidities, either middle-age obese or elderly complaining of fever, cough, or dyspnea, were more likely to be admitted. At admission, patients with diabetes, high BMI, and clinical or laboratory findings consistent with a severe inflammatory state were more likely to require IC.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Abdominal Pain/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Ambulatory Care , Biomarkers/blood , Body Mass Index , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Care , Dyspnea/etiology , Female , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data , Male , Mexico , Middle Aged , Obesity/epidemiology , Outpatients/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Treatment Outcome
17.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 70(Suppl 3)(5): S98-S100, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-609362

ABSTRACT

The current pandemic coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an ongoing healthcare crisis. While COVID- 19 typically presents as fever and respiratory illness, almost 50% of the patients also have associated digestive symptoms which vary from abdominal pain to diarrhoea and indigestion. Literature review of association of COVID- 19 with digestive symptoms was done using Google search and the results are presented herein.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Diarrhea , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Abdominal Pain/epidemiology , Abdominal Pain/virology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/virology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 115(8): 1286-1288, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-525864

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Although coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been associated with gastrointestinal manifestations, its effect on the pancreas remains unclear. We aimed to assess the frequency and characteristics of hyperlipasemia in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of hospitalized patients across 6 US centers with COVID-19. RESULTS: Of 71 patients, 9 (12.1%) developed hyperlipasemia, with 2 (2.8%) greater than 3 times upper limit of normal. No patient developed acute pancreatitis. Hyperlipasemia was not associated with poor outcomes or symptoms. DISCUSSION: Although a mild elevation in serum lipase was observed in some patients with COVID-19, clinical acute pancreatitis was not seen.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Lipase/blood , Pancreatitis/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Abdominal Pain/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anorexia/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nausea/epidemiology , Pancreatitis/blood , Pancreatitis/diagnostic imaging , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , United States/epidemiology , Vomiting/epidemiology
19.
Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol ; 44(3): 282-283, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-125349

ABSTRACT

In a retrospective study in the Nord Franche-Comté hospital conducted between March 1st and March 17th 2020, and compared to the review of Li et al., diarrhea was a main symptom in patients with COVID-19. Out of the 114 patients, 55 (48%) had diarrhea; it was the fifth most common symptom. In the group of patients with diarrhea, the median age was 56 years (±18) and 32 (58%) were female. Only 2 patients (3.6%) had a past history of inflammatory bowel disease. Fifty-six percent of patients (n=30/54) were hospitalised. Diarrhea appeared 4.5 days (±1.8) after the onset of the first other symptoms in COVID-19. Of the 55 patients with diarrhea, 29 (52.7%) had at least one simultaneous gastrointestinal (GI) symptom other than diarrhea. Twenty-five patients (45.5%) had nausea, 19 patients (34.5%) had abdominal pain and 9 (16.3%) had vomiting. Myalgia, sore throat, sneezing and the other GI symptoms were statistically more frequent in the group with diarrhea than in the group without diarrhea (P<0.05).


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Diarrhea/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Abdominal Pain/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Female , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myalgia/epidemiology , Nausea/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Distribution , Symptom Assessment , Vomiting/epidemiology
20.
J Clin Virol ; 127: 104353, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-65320

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of a new coronavirus, first reported in Wuhan, China, is spreading around the world. Information on the characteristics of children with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is limited. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we recruited 10 children infected with SARS-COV-2 from January 27 to March 10, 2020, in Changsha, China. We report the epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and high-resolution CT findings for these children. Qualitative descriptive analysis was used to describe the key results. RESULTS: Ten children were included. Three were male and seven were female. Three were from Wuhan, Hubei Province, and seven were from Changsha. All had a history of close contact with adults with COVID-19 before the onset of disease. Clinical manifestations included fever in four cases, respiratory symptoms in three cases, febrile convulsions in one case, vomiting in one case, abdominal pain in one case, and asymptomatic infection in two cases. All the children tested positive for nucleic acid in throat swabs at admission. Stool swabs of three cases were positive for nucleic acid after several days of fever. In nine children, blood routine results were normal, whereas in one case the white blood cell count was elevated. In four cases, CT findings of the lungs showed light ground-glass opacities, one case showed changes similar to bronchopneumonia, and the remaining cases were normal. All were treated with symptomatic support without complications. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that intrafamily transmission may be the main form of transmission of COVID-19 in children, and persistent intestinal excretion of virus is another characteristic among children. The results of stool swab tests should be considered for discharge and release from isolation.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Feces/virology , Lung/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Abdominal Pain/epidemiology , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Female , Fever/virology , Humans , Infant , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Qualitative Research , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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