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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(3): e28596, 2022 Jan 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1642426

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an acute respiratory infectious disease that makes breathing difficult and is often accompanied by abdominal pain and distension. Moxibustion, a special external treatment of traditional Chinese medicine, has shown beneficial effects in the treatment of abdominal pain. Currently, there is a lack of systematic reviews on moxibustion for the treatment of abdominal pain. We conduct this study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of moxibustion in the treatment of abdominal pain. This study is designed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of moxibustion for abdominal pain in COVID-19. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials from December 2019 to December 2021 will be included, without restrictions on language or publication date. PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Chinese Biomedical Databases, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Database, and VIP Database were searched. Two researchers will independently select studies, extract data, and evaluate study quality. The Cochrane risk of bias tool for randomized trials will be used to assess the risk of bias in the included studies. Statistical analyses will be conducted using the RevMan 5.3 software. RESULTS: This study aimed to prove the efficacy and safety of moxibustion for abdominal pain in patients with COVID-19. Our study provides a more accurate treatment method for abdominal pain during COVID-19. We will publish our results in a peer-reviewed journal. CONCLUSION: This study will provide more convincing evidence for clinicians to treat these conditions and help them make appropriate decisions. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study did not include personal information. Ethical approval was not required for this study. INPLASY REGISTRATION NUMBER: INPLASY2021120104.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain/therapy , COVID-19/complications , Moxibustion , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Humans , Meta-Analysis as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Systematic Reviews as Topic
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(2): e28471, 2022 Jan 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625614

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: In response to the global coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, several vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 have been developed. Although many infrequent side effects of COVID-19 mRNA vaccine have been reported, only a few cases of pancreatitis have been reported. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 71-year-old woman was presented to the hospital with upper abdominal pain and vomiting. She had no history of alcohol consumption, pancreatitis, or allergic reactions to vaccines. She had received the first dose of the Pfizer/BioNTech COVID-19 mRNA vaccine 2 days prior to her current presentation. Laboratory tests revealed elevated serum pancreatic enzymes. An abdominal computed tomography scan showed diffuse enlargement of the pancreas with fat stranding extending to below the kidneys bilaterally. DIAGNOSIS: The patient was diagnosed with acute pancreatitis. INTERVENTIONS: The patient was treated with the administration of intravenous antimicrobials, proteolytic enzyme inhibitors, and proton pump inhibitors. OUTCOMES: The patient had an uneventful recovery with no complications. LESSONS: Acute pancreatitis can develop shortly after COVID-19 mRNA vaccination. Therefore, of great importance to differentiate acute pancreatitis when abdominal pain occurs after COVID-19 mRNA vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pancreatitis/chemically induced , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Acute Disease , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Female , Humans , Pancreatitis/diagnosis , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccines, Synthetic
3.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 73(6): 689-694, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1612727

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess how the first phase of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic influenced symptoms in children with functional abdominal pain disorders (FAPDs) and to characterize their quality of life (QoL), anxiety and global health. METHODS: This was a multicenter, observational, international study conducted between April and July 2020 at six different referral centers. Children diagnosed with FAPDs between October 2019 and February 2020 were enrolled and prospectively interviewed at 4 months of follow-up during the first pandemic phase (Quarantine group). Patients were asked to complete PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scale and PROMIS Anxiety and Global Health questionnaires. A cohort of children diagnosed with FAPDs between October 2018 and February 2019 was used as a Control group. RESULTS: Three-hundred-fifty-six children were enrolled of whom 180 (mean age at diagnosis: 14 ±â€Š2.8 years) in the Quarantine group and 176 (mean age at diagnosis: 13 ±â€Š2.8 years) in the Control group. At 4 months of follow-up, we observed a significant reduction of children reporting >5 episodes of abdominal pain per month when compared to baseline, in both groups (Quarantine group: 63.9% vs 42.2%, P < 0.001; Control group: 83.5% vs 50%, P < 0.001). The Quarantine group had median QoL values of 84.8 with 16.6% of children showing high anxiety values and 55% having decreased global health score. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated symptoms' improvement at 4 months of follow-up in both cohorts. During the first months of the COVID-19 quarantine children with FAPDs showed satisfactory QoL and anxiety scores, suggesting positive effects of school closure and increased parental attention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Abdominal Pain/epidemiology , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/etiology , Child , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
5.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(22): 7115-7126, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1552078

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is to date a global pandemic that can affect all age groups; gastrointestinal symptoms are quite common in patients with COVID-19 and a new clinical entity defined as Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) has been described in children and adolescents previously affected by COVID-19. Presenting symptoms of this new disease include high fever and severe abdominal pain that can mimic more common causes of abdominal pain; patients can rapidly deteriorate presenting severe cardiac dysfunction and multiorgan failure. Some fatalities due to this serious illness have been reported. We describe the case of a ten-year-old patient presenting with persistent high fever associated with continuous and worsening abdominal pain. Various hypotheses were performed during his diagnostic workup and an initial appendectomy was performed in the suspect of acute appendicitis. As his clinical picture deteriorated, the child was subsequently diagnosed and successfully treated as a case of MIS-C. The objective of this case report and brief review of abdominal pain in children throughout the age groups is to provide the emergency pediatrician with updated suggestions in diagnosing abdominal pain in children during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Pediatric Emergency Medicine/statistics & numerical data , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Abdominal Pain/diagnosis , Acute Disease , Appendectomy/methods , Appendicitis/diagnosis , Appendicitis/surgery , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Combined Modality Therapy , Conjunctivitis/etiology , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/therapy , Fever/diagnosis , Fever/etiology , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Male , Mucositis/etiology , Oxygen/therapeutic use , Pediatric Emergency Medicine/trends , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Steroids/therapeutic use , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/pathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Treatment Outcome
6.
Arch Pediatr ; 28(7): 573-575, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1491712

ABSTRACT

In the context of the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, cutaneous lesions are being described. Here, we report on a 13-year-old girl with SARS-CoV-2-associated Henoch-Schönlein purpura and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. She presented without any respiratory symptoms, only a purpuric skin rash, abdominal pain, low-grade fever, and pharyngitis. Virology tests by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were positive for SARS-CoV-2 and EBV. The potential association of Henoch-Schönlein purpura and SARS-CoV-2 should be kept in mind in order to reduce the spread of the virus, particularly in children with few respiratory symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/diagnosis , Herpesvirus 4, Human/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Adolescent , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/complications , Exanthema/etiology , Female , Fever/etiology , Herpesvirus 4, Human/genetics , Humans , Pharyngitis/etiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
7.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 273, 2021.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1472500

ABSTRACT

Acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) is due to a sudden decrease or interruption of mesenteric blood flow resulting in inadequate blood supply to the gastrointestinal tract. This causes ischemic and inflammatory lesions often progressing to necrosis in the absence of appropriate treatment. Vascular insufficiency may arise as a result of embolism or arterial thrombosis or venous thrombosis. We here report a rare case of mesenteric venous ischemia caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a 33-year-old man in whom diagnosis was based on ultrasound and, in particular, on computed tomography (CT).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Intestines/blood supply , Mesenteric Ischemia/etiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Venous Thrombosis/complications , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Male , Mesenteric Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Mesentery/blood supply , Portal Vein/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thrombosis/diagnosis
8.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(18): 5836-5842, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1451041

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Functional gastrointestinal disorders are common gastrointestinal diseases. The pathophysiology is multifactorial and psychosocial distress worsens symptoms severity. Since the end of 2019 the world has been facing COVID-19 pandemic. The associated control measures have affected the psychological health of people. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the prevalence of functional gastrointestinal disorders among Italian children and adolescents. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study sample is composed of 407 patients (187 males, 220 females), aged from 10 to 17 years. The mean age is 14.27 ± 2.24 years. The study was conducted through the Italian version of the Questionnaire on Pediatric Gastrointestinal Symptoms-Rome III Version.  The prevalence of each disorder has been calculated as the ratio of affected subjects for each disease and the total number of effective cases for that specific disease. RESULTS: The study demonstrates that the prevalence of Functional Gastrointestinal Disorder in Italian children, during the COVD-19 pandemic, is higher, compared with the one reported in the previous studies. The most frequent disorders are Abdominal Migraine and Irritable Bowel Syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Our study is the first one which provides data of the prevalence of Functional gastrointestinal disorders in sample of Italian adolescents, during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study underlines the need to focus on stress management, in order to reduce the effects of the lockdown on the psychological wellness of the youngest.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/etiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Social Isolation/psychology , Stress, Psychological/complications , Abdominal Pain/epidemiology , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Abdominal Pain/psychology , Adolescent , Aerophagy/epidemiology , Aerophagy/etiology , Aerophagy/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Constipation/epidemiology , Constipation/etiology , Constipation/psychology , Dyspepsia/epidemiology , Dyspepsia/etiology , Dyspepsia/psychology , Fecal Incontinence/epidemiology , Fecal Incontinence/etiology , Fecal Incontinence/psychology , Female , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/epidemiology , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/etiology , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/psychology , Italy , Male , Migraine Disorders/epidemiology , Migraine Disorders/etiology , Migraine Disorders/psychology , Prevalence , Rumination Syndrome/epidemiology , Rumination Syndrome/etiology , Rumination Syndrome/psychology , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vomiting/epidemiology , Vomiting/etiology , Vomiting/psychology
10.
Arch Dis Child ; 107(3): e3, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388470

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Features of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) overlap with other febrile illnesses, hindering prompt and accurate diagnosis. The objectives of this study were to identify clinical and laboratory findings that distinguished MIS-C from febrile illnesses in which MIS-C was considered but ultimately excluded, and to examine the diseases that most often mimicked MIS-C in a tertiary medical centre. STUDY DESIGN: We identified all children hospitalised with fever who were evaluated for MIS-C at our centre and compared clinical signs and symptoms, SARS-CoV-2 status and laboratory studies between those with and without MIS-C. Multivariable logistic LASSO (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator) regression was used to identify the most discriminative presenting features of MIS-C. RESULTS: We identified 50 confirmed MIS-C cases (MIS-C+) and 68 children evaluated for, but ultimately not diagnosed with, MIS-C (MIS-C-). In univariable analysis, conjunctivitis, abdominal pain, fatigue, hypoxaemia, tachypnoea and hypotension at presentation were significantly more common among MIS-C+ patients. MIS-C+ and MIS-C- patients had similar elevations in C-reactive protein (CRP), but were differentiated by thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia, and elevated ferritin, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, BNP and troponin. In multivariable analysis, predictors of MIS-C included age, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, platelets, conjunctivitis, oral mucosa changes, abdominal pain and hypotension. CONCLUSIONS: Among hospitalised children undergoing evaluation for MIS-C, children with MIS-C were older, more likely to present with conjunctivitis, oral mucosa changes, abdominal pain and hypotension, and had higher neutrophil/lymphocyte ratios and lower platelet counts. These data may be helpful for discrimination of MIS-C from other febrile illnesses, including bacterial lymphadenitis and acute viral infection, with overlapping features.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Adolescent , Age of Onset , Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/pathology , Child , Child, Preschool , Conjunctivitis/etiology , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Hypotension/etiology , Leukocyte Count , Lymphadenitis/diagnosis , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Mouth Mucosa/pathology , Neutrophils , Platelet Count , Retrospective Studies , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/pathology , Urinary Tract Infections/diagnosis , Virus Diseases/diagnosis
13.
Arch Pediatr ; 28(7): 573-575, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358159

ABSTRACT

In the context of the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, cutaneous lesions are being described. Here, we report on a 13-year-old girl with SARS-CoV-2-associated Henoch-Schönlein purpura and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. She presented without any respiratory symptoms, only a purpuric skin rash, abdominal pain, low-grade fever, and pharyngitis. Virology tests by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were positive for SARS-CoV-2 and EBV. The potential association of Henoch-Schönlein purpura and SARS-CoV-2 should be kept in mind in order to reduce the spread of the virus, particularly in children with few respiratory symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/diagnosis , Herpesvirus 4, Human/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Adolescent , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/complications , Exanthema/etiology , Female , Fever/etiology , Herpesvirus 4, Human/genetics , Humans , Pharyngitis/etiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
16.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(25): e181, 2021 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286918

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory disease in children is a Kawasaki disease like illness occurring after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection in children. As the pandemic progresses, similar syndromes were also reported in adult with a decreased incidence. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A) can be characterized with shock, heart failure, and gastrointestinal symptoms with elevated inflammatory markers after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Herein, we describe the first case of MIS-A in South Korea. A 38-year-old man presented to our hospital with a 5-day history of abdominal pain and fever. He had been treated with antibiotics for 5 days at the previous hospital, but symptoms had worsened and he had developed orthopnea on the day of presentation. He suffered COVID-19 six weeks ago. Laboratory data revealed elevated white blood cell counts with neutrophil dominance, C-reactive protein, and B-type natriuretic peptide. Chest X-ray showed normal lung parenchyme and echocardiography showed severe biventricular failure with normal chamber size. We diagnosed him as MIS-A and treated with intravenous immunoglobulin and steroid.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Fever/etiology , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Male , Republic of Korea , Shock/etiology , Shock/therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy
17.
Praxis (Bern 1994) ; 110(8): 449-451, 2021 Jun.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281672

ABSTRACT

Abdominal Pain Caused by Viral Infection Is Not Always Trivial Abstract. We report on a 28-year-old previously healthy patient with initially elevated temperature and cough and developing most severe epigastric pain and peritonism in the right upper abdomen. A "bedside" sonography revealed a portal vein thrombosis, the CT additionally partial thromboses of the vena lienalis, vena mesenterica superior. During the examination, a SARS-CoV-2 infection (IgM, IgG) was confirmed. Currently (pandemic), extrapulmonary thromboembolism must also be considered. For this purpose, sonography is the appropriate "search method" - it can be used from "head to toe", immediately and at the "bedside".


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Adult , Humans , Mesenteric Veins , Portal Vein , SARS-CoV-2
18.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 9: 23247096211024773, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270925

ABSTRACT

The gastrointestinal (GI) involvement, including acute pancreatitis (AP) from the novel coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), is increasingly being reported. Recent evidence suggests that the pathogenesis of COVID-19 is mediated by the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2) receptors and transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) for "priming," which is highly expressed in the pancreas. To our knowledge, there is no other reported case of AP associated with COVID-19 after the respiratory symptoms are resolved. In this article, we present a patient with COVID-19, who came with intractable epigastric pain and resolved respiratory symptoms. A diagnosis of AP complicated with COVID-19 was made after laboratory and imaging workup, which was successfully managed conservatively.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Pancreatitis/diagnosis , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Leukocytosis/etiology , Lipase/blood , Male , Pancreatitis/therapy , Piperacillin, Tazobactam Drug Combination/therapeutic use , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
19.
Nutr Hosp ; 38(3): 622-630, 2021 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264738

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Compared with adults, children with SARS-CoV-2 infection may have fewer and less severe symptoms. Gastrointestinal symptoms are commonly reported in children, sometimes as the only manifestation of the disease, and most often manifest as anorexia, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting, or abdominal pain. Although most children have asymptomatic or mild disease, 10 % of those infected may experience serious or critical disease, or even death. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome is a rare but serious condition recently reported in children with COVID-19. Studies indicate that children with obesity are at higher risk of developing severe COVID-19, and inflammation associated with obesity could be one of the factors that worsens COVID-19 symptoms due to an increased inflammatory response involving molecules such as interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and monocyte chemoattractant protein. On the other hand, evidence has been reported of a higher protein expression of ACE2 in the visceral adipose tissue of obese and malnourished humans, and this could be associated with complications and severity of COVID-19. Therefore, regulation of the intake of macronutrients or micronutrients could be used as a strategy to reduce the consequences of COVID-19. Diet in general and bioactive compounds could play an important role in the prevention of the inflammatory cascade. The micronutrients with the most evidence suggesting a role in immune support are vitamins C and D, zinc, and polyphenols.


INTRODUCCIÓN: La enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) está causada por el virus "síndrome respiratorio agudo severo-coronavirus 2" (SARS-CoV-2). En comparación con los adultos, los niños con infección por SARS-CoV-2 pueden tener menos síntomas y estos pueden ser menos graves. Los síntomas gastrointestinales se informan comúnmente en los niños, a veces como única manifestación de la enfermedad. Los más comunes son anorexia, diarrea, náuseas y vómitos, y dolor abdominal. Aunque la mayoría de los niños tienen un cuadro leve o asintomático, el 10 % de los infectados pueden experimentar un cuadro grave o crítico, e incluso la muerte. El síndrome inflamatorio multisistémico es una afección poco común, pero grave, que se documentó recientemente en niños con COVID-19. Los estudios indican que los niños con obesidad tienen mayor riesgo de desarrollar COVID-19 grave, y la inflamación asociada con la obesidad podría ser uno de los factores que empeoran los síntomas de la COVID-19 debido a una respuesta inflamatoria aumentada en donde se ven involucradas moléculas como la interleucina 6, el factor de necrosis tumoral alfa y la proteína quimioatrayente de monocitos. Por otro lado, se ha encontrado evidencia de una mayor expresión proteica de ACE2 en el tejido adiposo visceral de los seres humanos obesos y desnutridos, y esto podría estar asociado a las complicaciones y la severidad de la COVID-19. Por tanto, la regulación de la ingesta de macronutrientes o micronutrientes podría utilizarse como estrategia para reducir las consecuencias de la enfermedad. La dieta en general y los compuestos bioactivos podrían desempeñar un papel importante en la prevención de la cascada inflamatoria. Los micronutrientes con mayor evidencia indicativa de que desempeñan un papel en el apoyo inmunológico son las vitaminas C y D, el zinc y los polifenoles.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/etiology , Pediatric Obesity/complications , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Anorexia/etiology , Ascorbic Acid/administration & dosage , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/metabolism , Child , Diarrhea/etiology , Female , Humans , Inflammation/complications , Male , Nausea/etiology , Overweight/complications , Oxidative Stress , Pediatric Obesity/metabolism , Polyphenols/administration & dosage , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology , Thinness/complications , Thinness/metabolism , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Vomiting/etiology , Zinc/administration & dosage , Zinc/deficiency
20.
Lancet ; 397(10286): 1749, 2021 05 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219082
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