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medrxiv; 2022.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2022.03.23.22272811


ObjectiveTo study whether COVID-19 infection may be associated with increased hospitalization and mortality from other diseases. DesignCohort study. SettingThe UK Biobank. ParticipantsAll subjects in the UK Biobank with available hospitalization records and alive as of 31-Jan-2020 (N= 412,096; age 50-87). Main outcome measuresWe investigated associations of COVID-19 with hospitalization and mortality due to different diseases post-infection. We conducted a comprehensive survey on disorders from all systems (up to 135 disease categories). Multivariable Cox and Poisson regression was conducted controlling for main confounders. For sensitivity analysis, we also conducted separate analysis for new-onset and recurrent cases, and other analysis such as the prior event rate adjustment(PERR) approach to minimize effects of unmeasured confounders. We also performed association analyses stratified by vaccination status. Time-dependent effects on subsequent hospitalization and mortality were also tested. ResultsCompared to individuals with no known history of COVID-19, those with severe COVID-19 (requiring hospitalization) exhibited higher hazards of hospitalization and/or mortality due to multiple disorders (median follow-up=608 days), including disorders of respiratory, cardiovascular, neurological, gastrointestinal, genitourinary and musculoskeletal systems. Increased hazards of hospitalizations and/or mortality were also observed for injuries due to fractures, various infections and other non-specific symptoms. These results remained largely consistent after sensitivity analyses. Severe COVID-19 was also associated with increased all-cause mortality (HR=14.700, 95% CI: 13.835-15.619). Mild (non-hospitalized) COVID-19 was associated with modestly increased risk of all-cause mortality (HR=1.237, 95% CI 1.037-1.476) and mortality from neurocognitive disorders, as well as hospital admission from a few disorders such as aspiration pneumonitis, musculoskeletal pain and other general signs/symptoms. All-cause mortalities and hospitalizations from other disorders post-infection were generally higher in the pre-vaccination era. The deleterious effect of COVID-19 was observed to wane over time, with maximum HR in the initial phase. ConclusionsIn conclusion, this study revealed increased risk of hospitalization and mortality from a wide variety of pulmonary and extra-pulmonary diseases after COVID-19, especially for severe infections. Mild disease was also associated with increased all-cause mortality. Causality however cannot be established due to observational nature of the study. Further studies are required to replicate our findings.

COVID-19 , Infections , Epilepsy, Post-Traumatic , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Musculoskeletal Pain , Pneumonia , Fractures, Bone , Central Nervous System Diseases , Lung Diseases , Musculoskeletal Diseases , Abnormalities, Multiple
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 71(2): 153-155, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-729245


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may lead to a severe inflammatory response referred to as a cytokine storm. We describe a case of severe COVID-19 infection in a recently diagnosed pediatric Crohn disease patient successfully treated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) blockade. The patient presented with 5 days of fever, an erythematous maculopapular facial rash, and abdominal pain without respiratory symptoms. SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction was positive. Despite inpatient treatment for COVID-19 and a perianal abscess, the patient acutely decompensated, with worsening fever, tachycardia, fluid-refractory hypotension, elevation of liver enzymes, and transformation of the rash into purpura extending from the face to the trunk, upper and lower extremities, including the palmar and plantar surfaces of the hands and feet. Cytokine profile revealed rising levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and TNF-α, higher than those described in either inflammatory bowel disease or severe COVID-19 alone. The patient was treated with infliximab for TNF-α blockade to address both moderately to severely active Crohn disease and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children temporally related to COVID-19. Within hours of infliximab treatment, fever, tachycardia, and hypotension resolved. Cytokine profile improved with normalization of TNF-α, a decrease in IL-6, and IL-8 concentrations. This case supports a role for blockade of TNF-α in the treatment of COVID-19 inflammatory cascade. The role of anti-TNF agents in patients with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children temporally related to COVID-19 requires further investigation.

Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Crohn Disease/complications , Genetic Diseases, X-Linked/complications , Ichthyosiform Erythroderma, Congenital/complications , Infliximab/therapeutic use , Interleukin-6/blood , Interleukin-8/blood , Limb Deformities, Congenital/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors , Abnormalities, Multiple , Adolescent , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood
researchsquare; 2020.


Background: In this study, we aimed to find out the features of the maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients infected with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the Blood Purification Center of Wuhan No.1 Hospital, Hubei Province, China, and provide evidences for clinical treatment.Methods: We collected the data of all the MHD patients in this hemodialysis center by February 20, 2020, including those infected with COVID-19. These patients were divided into three groups: the control group (537 cases), confirmed group (66 cases) and suspected group (24 cases). We compared the relevant data of the three groups and analyzed the factors that may affect the possibility of catching COVID-19.Results: 1. By February 20, 2020, there were 627 MHD patients in the Hemodialysis Center of Wuhan No.1 Hospital. The prevalence rate of the COVID-19 was 14.35% (90/627, including 66 confirmed cases and 24 suspected cases); the fatality rate 13.33% (12/90, including 12 death cases); the mortality rate 1.91% (12/627).2. The comparison between the three groups revealed the following results: weekly hemodialysis duration (WHD), ultrafiltration volume (UFV) and ultrafiltration rate (UFR) of the confirmed group were obviously lower than those of the control and suspected groups (P<0.05); the neutrophil ratio (N%), neutrophil (N#), monocyte (M#) and total carbon dioxide (TCO2) were significantly higher than those of the control group while the lymphocyte ratio (L%) was much lower (P<0.05).3. The lung CT scans found three common features: bilateral abnormalities (81.54%), multiple abnormalities (84.62%) and patchy opacity (61.54%).4. The binary logstic regression analysis showed that diabetes (OR=5.404,95% CI 1.950~14.976, P=0.001) and hypertension (OR=3.099,95% CI 1.380~6.963, P=0.006) are independent risk factors for MHD patients to be infected with COVID-19; WHD (OR=0.846,95% CI 0.737~0.970, P=0.017), UFR (OR=0.012,95% CI 0.002~0.058, P<0.001) and serum ferritin (SF, OR=0.823,95% CI 0.748~0.906, P<0.001) are independent protective factors.Conclusion: MHD patients with diabetes or hypertension are more likely to be infected with COVID-19. In clinical treatment, hemodialysis duration, UFR and SF levels should be controlled appropriately to reduce the risk of infection.

COVID-19 , Hypertension , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Diabetes Mellitus , Hemophilia B , Abnormalities, Multiple , Death