Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 13 de 13
Filter
1.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 94(2): e20211283, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833800

ABSTRACT

Aim of this study is to investigate whether the risk of miscarriage increases in pregnant women who had COVID-19 in first trimester. Our study included 52 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection detected by RT-PCR and 53 patients with negative RT-PCR test in samples taken with nasopharyngeal swab in the first trimester between March 1 and December 31, 2020. Complete abortion, incomplete abortion, blighted ovum, intrauterine exitus, biochemical pregnancies were accepted as in the miscarriage group (MG). Pregnant women with COVID-19 and control group were compared in terms of demographic data, miscarriage rate and laboratory results. Patients were divided into MG and ongoing pregnancy groups (OPG) and compared in terms of the diagnosed weeks, clinical findings, laboratory results, treatments, and hospitalization. While miscarriage was observed in 15 (28.8%) of pregnant women infected with SARS-CoV-2 in the first trimester, this number was 7 (13.2%) in the control group. While the common symptoms in the MG were cough (60%), fever (53.3%), shortness of breath (53.3%), and fatigue (46.7%) (p<0.05); asymptomatic patients (51.4%) were higher in the OPG (p<0.001). Hospitalized patients were 33.3% in the MG and 8.1% in the OPG (p=0.02). According to the results of our study, the risk of miscarriage increases in pregnant women infected with SARS-CoV-2 (especially in severe infection) in the first trimester.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Spontaneous , COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Abortion, Spontaneous/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Trimester, First , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Hum Reprod ; 37(6): 1126-1133, 2022 05 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778911

ABSTRACT

STUDY QUESTION: Does maternal infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the first trimester affect the risk of miscarriage before 13 week's gestation? SUMMARY ANSWER: Pregnant women with self-reported diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 in the first trimester had a higher risk of early miscarriage. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Viral infections during pregnancy have a broad spectrum of placental and neonatal pathology. Data on the effects of the SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy are still emerging. Two systematic reviews and meta-analyses reported an increased risk of preterm birth, caesarean delivery, maternal morbidity and stillbirth. Data on the impact of first trimester infection on early pregnancy outcomes are scarce. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to investigate the rates of early pregnancy loss during the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak among women with self-reported infection. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This was a nationwide prospective cohort study of pregnant women in the community recruited using social media between 21 May and 31 December 2020. We recruited 3545 women who conceived during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic who were <13 week's gestation at the time of recruitment. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: The COVID-19 Contraception and Pregnancy Study (CAP-COVID) was an on-line survey study collecting longitudinal data from pregnant women in the UK aged 18 years or older. Women who were pregnant during the pandemic were asked to complete on-line surveys at the end of each trimester. We collected data on current and past pregnancy complications, their medical history and whether they or anyone in their household had symptoms or been diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection during each trimester of their pregnancy. RT-PCR-based SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection from respiratory samples (e.g. nasopharynx) is the standard practice for diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 in the UK. We compared rate of self-reported miscarriage in three groups: 'presumed infected', i.e. those who reported a diagnosis with SARS-CoV-2 infection in the first trimester; 'uncertain', i.e. those who did not report a diagnosis but had symptoms/household contacts with symptoms/diagnosis; and 'presumed uninfected', i.e. those who did not report any symptoms/diagnosis and had no household contacts with symptoms/diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: A total of 3545 women registered for the CAP-COVID study at <13 weeks gestation and were eligible for this analysis. Data for the primary outcome were available from 3041 women (86%). In the overall sample, the rate of self-reported miscarriage was 7.8% (238/3041 [95% CI, 7-9]). The median gestational age (GA) at miscarriage was 9 weeks (interquartile range 8-11). Seventy-seven women were in the 'presumed infected' group (77/3041, 2.5% [95% CI 2-3]), 295/3041 were in the uncertain group (9.7% [95% CI 9-11]) and the rest in the 'presumed uninfected' (87.8%, 2669/3041 [95% CI 87-89]). The rate of early miscarriage was 14% in the 'presumed infected' group, 5% in the 'uncertain' and 8% in the 'presumed uninfected' (11/77 [95% CI 6-22] versus 15/295 [95% CI 3-8] versus 212/2669 [95% CI 7-9], P = 0.02). After adjusting for age, BMI, ethnicity, smoking status, GA at registration and the number of previous miscarriages, the risk of early miscarriage appears to be higher in the 'presumed infected' group (relative rate 1.7, 95% CI 1.0-3.0, P = 0.06). LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: We relied on self-reported data on early pregnancy loss and SARS-CoV-2 infection without any means of checking validity. Some women in the 'presumed uninfected' and 'uncertain' groups may have had asymptomatic infections. The number of 'presumed infected' in our study was low and therefore the study was relatively underpowered. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: This was a national study from the UK, where infection rates were one of the highest in the world. Based on the evidence presented here, women who are infected with SARS-CoV-2 in their first trimester may be at an increased risk of a miscarriage. However, the overall rate of miscarriage in our study population was 8%. This is reassuring and suggests that if there is an effect of SARS-CoV-2 on the risk of miscarriage, this may be limited to those with symptoms substantial enough to lead to a diagnostic test. Further studies are warranted to evaluate a causal association between SARS-CoV-2 infection in early pregnancy and miscarriage risk. Although we did not see an overall increase in the risk of miscarriage, the observed comparative increase in the presumed infected group reinforces the message that pregnant women should continue to exercise social distancing measures and good hygiene throughout their pregnancy to limit their risk of infection. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): This study was supported by a grant from the Elizabeth Garrett Anderson Hospital Charity (G13-559194). The funders of the study had no role in study design, data collection, data analysis, data interpretation or writing of the report. J.A.H. is supported by an NIHR Advanced Fellowship. A.L.D. is supported by the National Institute for Health Research University College London Hospitals Biomedical Research Centre. All authors have completed the ICMJE uniform disclosure form at www.icmje.org/coi_disclosure.pdf and declare: support to J.A.H. and A.L.D. as above; no financial relationships with any organizations that might have an interest in the submitted work in the previous 3 years; no other relationships or activities that could appear to have influenced the submitted work. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: N/A.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Spontaneous , COVID-19 , Premature Birth , Abortion, Spontaneous/epidemiology , Abortion, Spontaneous/etiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Placenta , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Trimester, First , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Premature Birth/etiology , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology
3.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 658, 2021 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770502

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Whilst the impact of Covid-19 infection in pregnant women has been examined, there is a scarcity of data on pregnant women in the Middle East. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the impact of Covid-19 infection on pregnant women in the United Arab Emirates population. METHODS: A case-control study was carried out to compare the clinical course and outcome of pregnancy in 79 pregnant women with Covid-19 and 85 non-pregnant women with Covid-19 admitted to Latifa Hospital in Dubai between March and June 2020. RESULTS: Although Pregnant women presented with fewer symptoms such as fever, cough, sore throat, and shortness of breath compared to non-pregnant women; yet they ran a much more severe course of illness. On admission, 12/79 (15.2%) Vs 2/85 (2.4%) had a chest radiograph score [on a scale 1-6] of ≥3 (p-value = 0.0039). On discharge, 6/79 (7.6%) Vs 1/85 (1.2%) had a score ≥3 (p-value = 0.0438). They also had much higher levels of laboratory indicators of severity with values above reference ranges for C-Reactive Protein [(28 (38.3%) Vs 13 (17.6%)] with p < 0.004; and for D-dimer [32 (50.8%) Vs 3(6%)]; with p < 0.001. They required more ICU admissions: 10/79 (12.6%) Vs 1/85 (1.2%) with p=0.0036; and suffered more complications: 9/79 (11.4%) Vs 1/85 (1.2%) with p=0.0066; of Covid-19 infection, particularly in late pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnant women presented with fewer Covid-19 symptoms but ran a much more severe course of illness compared to non-pregnant women with the disease. They had worse chest radiograph scores and much higher levels of laboratory indicators of disease severity. They had more ICU admissions and suffered more complications of Covid-19 infection, such as risk for miscarriage and preterm deliveries. Pregnancy with Covid-19 infection, could, therefore, be categorised as high-risk pregnancy and requires management by an obstetric and medical multidisciplinary team.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth , Radiography, Thoracic , Symptom Assessment , Abortion, Spontaneous/epidemiology , Abortion, Spontaneous/etiology , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , Case-Control Studies , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Male , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/physiopathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Pregnancy, High-Risk , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Premature Birth/etiology , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Radiography, Thoracic/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Symptom Assessment/methods , Symptom Assessment/statistics & numerical data , United Arab Emirates/epidemiology
5.
J Reprod Immunol ; 148: 103382, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401650

ABSTRACT

The association between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in the first half of pregnancy and pregnancy loss is still unknown. Infections by other coronaviruses, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), appear to increase the risk of miscarriage. The purpose of this study is to assess whether SARS-CoV-2 infection increases the risk of miscarriage. Firstly, a narrative review of the literature on animal and human studies was performed to analyze the immunopathological mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 infection during preconception and early pregnancy, by which it may increase the risk of miscarriage. Secondly, a systematic review/meta-analysis of studies was conducted to assess the prevalence of miscarriage in COVID-19 patients diagnosed during pregnancy. Meta-analysis of proportions was used to combine data, and pooled proportions were reported. Seventeen case series and observational studies and 10 prevalence meta-analyses were selected for the review. The estimate of the overall miscarriage rate in pregnant women with COVID-19 was 15.3 % (95 % CI 10.94-20.59) and 23.1 (95 % CI 13.17-34.95) using fixed and random effect models, respectively. Based on the data in the current literature, the miscarriage rate (<22 weeks gestation) in women with SARS-CoV-2 infection is in the range of normal population. Well-designed studies are urgently needed to determine whether SARS-CoV-2 infection increases the risk of miscarriage during periconception and early pregnancy.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Spontaneous/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Prevalence
8.
Placenta ; 106: 25-29, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1081905

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The possibility of vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from the mother to the fetus is one of the most crucial issues regarding the COVID-19 effects on pregnancy. In this study, we aimed to explore the risk of maternal-fetal transmission before 24 weeks of gestation, through analysis of abortion materials collected from PCR-positive women with pregnancy loss. To the best of our knowledge, apart from case reports, this study is the first prospective work on the vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in early pregnancy. METHODS: The patients who had attended our clinic with the diagnosis of pregnancy loss before 24 weeks of gestation were screened for COVID-19. Vertical transmission in PCR-positive women was assessed through the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in fetal-placental tissues by rt-PCR test. RESULTS: 24 of 210 (%11,4) pregnant women participating in the study had positive rt-PCR results. Placenta and curettage material samples of these PCR-positive patients were analyzed and all valid test results (21 samples) were negative for SARS CoV-2 RNA. In three cases, the rt-PCR results were invalid due to failed internal controls. DISCUSSION: In the literature, the possibility of intrauterine vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is still controversial. The findings of the present study did not reveal any evidence of vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in early pregnancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Abortion, Spontaneous/diagnosis , Abortion, Spontaneous/epidemiology , Abortion, Spontaneous/etiology , Abortion, Spontaneous/virology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Fetus/pathology , Fetus/virology , Gestational Age , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Maternal-Fetal Exchange/physiology , Placenta/pathology , Placenta/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Pregnancy Trimester, First , Pregnancy Trimester, Second , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Turkey/epidemiology , Young Adult
9.
Pan Afr Med J ; 37(Suppl 1): 26, 2020.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068008

ABSTRACT

A new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) highlighted at the end of 2019 in China is spreading around the world. Most often the cause of an infectious syndrome, associating mild symptoms (fever, cough, myalgia, headache and possible digestive disorders) to different degrees. SARS-CoV-2 can also cause serious lung disease and sometimes death. Here we present a case of a 21-year-old woman who consults for a miscarriage of 8 weeks of amenorrhea and has been diagnosed with concomitant SARS-CoV-2 infection. The importance of this observation is to make a remind of the mode of transmission, to discuss the severity of the virus in case of pregnancy and to discuss the therapeutic protocol used in our country in front of this epidemic.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Spontaneous/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Trimester, First , Young Adult
10.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(1): e25241, 2021 01 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1011358

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in changes to normal life and disrupted social and economic function worldwide. However, little is known about the impact of social media use, unhealthy lifestyles, and the risk of miscarriage among pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the association between social media use, unhealthy lifestyles, and the risk of miscarriage among pregnant women in the early stage of the COVID-19 pandemic in China. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, 456 singleton pregnant women in mainland China were recruited during January and February 2020. Sociodemographic characteristics, history of previous health, social media use, and current lifestyles were collected at baseline, and we followed up about the occurrence of miscarriage. Log-binomial regression models were used to estimate the risk ratios (RRs) of miscarriage for women with different exposures to COVID-19-specific information. RESULTS: Among all the 456 pregnant women, there were 82 (18.0%) who did no physical activities, 82 (18.0%) with inadequate dietary diversity, 174 (38.2%) with poor sleep quality, and 54 (11.8%) spending >3 hours on reading COVID-19 news per day. Women with excessive media use (>3 hours) were more likely to be previously pregnant (P=.03), have no physical activity (P=.003), have inadequate dietary diversity (P=.03), and have poor sleep quality (P<.001). The prevalence of miscarriage was 16.0% (n=73; 95% CI 12.6%-19.4%). Compared with women who spent 0.5-2 hours (25/247, 10.1%) on reading COVID-19 news per day, miscarriage prevalence in women who spent <0.5 hours (5/23, 21.7%), 2-3 hours (26/132, 19.7%), and >3 hours (17/54, 31.5%) was higher (P<.001). Miscarriage prevalence was also higher in pregnant women with poor sleep quality (39/174, 22.4% vs 34/282, 12.1%; P=.003) and a high education level (66/368, 17.9% vs 7/88, 8.0%; P=.02). In the multivariable model, poor sleep quality (adjusted RR 2.06, 95% CI 1.24-3.44; P=.006), 2-3 hours of media use daily (adjusted RR 1.74, 95% CI 1.02-2.97; P=.04), and >3 hours of media use daily (adjusted RR 2.56, 95% CI 1.43-4.59; P=.002) were associated with miscarriage. In the sensitivity analysis, results were still stable. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnant women with excessive media use were more likely to have no physical activity, inadequate dietary diversity, and poor sleep quality. Excessive media use and poor sleep quality were associated with a higher risk of miscarriage. Our findings highlight the importance of healthy lifestyles during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Spontaneous/etiology , Life Style , Pregnant Women/psychology , Social Media/trends , Abortion, Spontaneous/epidemiology , Abortion, Spontaneous/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/transmission , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pregnancy , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Social Media/statistics & numerical data
11.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 224(4): 391.e1-391.e7, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-898283

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 was named coronavirus disease 2019 and classified as a global public health emergency. The evidence related to the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 on pregnancy is limited to the second and third trimester of pregnancy, whereas data on the first trimester are scant. Many viral infections can be harmful to the fetus during the first trimester of pregnancy, and whether severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is one of them is still unknown. OBJECTIVE: With this study, we evaluated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection as a risk factor for early pregnancy loss in the first trimester of pregnancy. Furthermore, coronavirus disease 2019 course in the first trimester was assessed. STUDY DESIGN: Between February 22 and May 21, 2020, we conducted a case-control study at S. Anna Hospital, Turin, among pregnant women in their first trimester, paired for last menstruation. The cumulative incidence of coronavirus disease 2019 was compared between women with spontaneous abortion (case group, n=100) and those with ongoing pregnancy (control group, n=125). Current or past infection was determined by the detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 from nasopharyngeal swab and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M antibodies in a blood sample. Patient demographics, coronavirus disease 2019-related symptoms, and the main risk factors for abortion were collected. RESULTS: Of 225 women, 23 (10.2%) had a positive test result for coronavirus disease 2019. There was no difference in the cumulative incidence of coronavirus disease 2019 between the cases (11/100, 11%) and the controls (12/125, 9.6%) (P=.73). Logistic regression analysis confirmed that coronavirus disease 2019 was not an independent predictor of early pregnancy loss (odds ratio, 1.28; confidence interval, 0.53-3.08). Coronavirus disease 2019-related symptoms in the first trimester were fever, anosmia, ageusia, cough, arthralgia, and diarrhea; no cases of pneumonia or hospital admission owing to coronavirus disease 2019-related symptoms were recorded. No difference in the incidence of symptoms was noted between the 2 groups. CONCLUSION: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection during the first trimester of pregnancy does not seem to predispose to early pregnancy loss; its cumulative incidence did not differ between women with spontaneous abortion and women with ongoing pregnancy. Coronavirus disease 2019 appears to have a favorable maternal course at the beginning of pregnancy, consistent with what has been observed during the second and third trimesters.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Spontaneous/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Trimester, First , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
12.
J Assist Reprod Genet ; 37(6): 1265-1266, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-601535
13.
Am J Perinatol ; 37(8): 869-872, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-163401

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To date, no information on late-onset infection in newborns to mother with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) contracted in pregnancy are available. This study aimed to evaluate postdischarge SARS-CoV-2 status of newborns to mothers with COVID-19 in pregnancy that, at birth, were negative to SARS-CoV-2. STUDY DESIGN: This is an observational study of neonates born to mothers with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). RESULTS: Seven pregnant women with documented SARS-CoV-2 infection have been evaluated in our institution. One woman had a spontaneous abortion at 8 weeks of gestational age, four women recovered and are still in follow-up, and two women delivered. Two newborns were enrolled in the study. At birth and 3 days of life, newborns were negative to SARS-CoV-2. At 2-week follow-up, one newborn tested positive although asymptomatic. CONCLUSION: Our findings highlight the importance of follow-up of newborns to mothers with COVID-19 in pregnancy, since they remain at risk of contracting the infection in the early period of life and long-term consequences are still unknown. KEY POINTS: · Newborns to mothers with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in pregnancy can acquire the infection later after birth.. · Newborns to mothers with COVID-19 in pregnancy need a long-term follow-up, even if they tested negative at birth.. · Specific guidelines for the long-term follow-up of newborns to mothers with COVID-19 in pregnancy are needed..


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections , Infant, Newborn, Diseases , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Postnatal Care , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Abortion, Spontaneous/etiology , Aftercare/standards , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Delivery, Obstetric/methods , Female , Gestational Age , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/diagnosis , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/epidemiology , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/physiopathology , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/virology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Needs Assessment , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Postnatal Care/methods , Postnatal Care/standards , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/physiopathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL