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1.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0265945, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775450

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Structural forces that drive health inequalities are magnified in crises. This was especially true during the COVID-19 pandemic, and minority communities were particularly affected. The University of California San Francisco and Health, Equity, Action, Leadership Initiative jointly sent volunteer teams of nurses and doctors to work in the Navajo Nation during the COVID-19 pandemic. This presented an opportunity to explore how academic medical centers (AMCs) could effectively partner with vulnerable communities to provide support during healthcare crises. Therefore, the aims of this study were to describe volunteers' perspectives of academic-community partnerships by exploring their personal, professional and societal insights and lessons learned based on their time in the Navajo Nation during COVID-19. METHODS: We recruited key informants using purposeful sampling of physicians and nurses who volunteered to go to the Navajo Nation during the spring 2020 COVID-19 surge, as well as hospital administrators and leaders involved in organizing the COVID-19 efforts. We used in-depth qualitative interviews to explore key informants' experiences pre-departure, during their stay, and after their return, as well as perspectives of the partnership between an AMC and the Navajo Nation. We used thematic analysis to systematically identify, analyze and report patterns (themes) within the data. RESULTS: In total, 37 clinicians and hospital administrators were interviewed including 14 physicians, 16 nurses, and 7 health system leaders. Overall, we found 4 main themes each with several subthemes that defined the partnership between the AMC and the Navajo Nation. Mission and values incorporated civic duty, community engagement, leadership commitment and employee dedication. Solidarity, trust and humility encompassed pre-existing trust, workforce sustainability, humility and erasure of 'savior narratives.' Coordination included logistical coordination, flexibility, selectivity of who and what traveled to the response and coordination around media response. Workforce preparation and support encompassed understanding of historical context and providing healthcare in limited settings, dangers of inadequate preparation and the need for emotional support. CONCLUSION: This study provides guidelines which AMCs might use to develop and improve partnerships they have or would like to develop with vulnerable communities. These guidelines may even be broadly applied to partnerships outside of a pandemic response. Importantly, such partnerships need to be built with trust and with an eye towards sustainability and long-term relationships as opposed to 'medical missions'.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Academic Medical Centers , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics
3.
Crit Care Med ; 50(2): 212-223, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1735675

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Body temperature trajectories of infected patients are associated with specific immune profiles and survival. We determined the association between temperature trajectories and distinct manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. SETTING: Four hospitals within an academic healthcare system from March 2020 to February 2021. PATIENTS: All adult patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019. INTERVENTIONS: Using a validated group-based trajectory model, we classified patients into four previously defined temperature trajectory subphenotypes using oral temperature measurements from the first 72 hours of hospitalization. Clinical characteristics, biomarkers, and outcomes were compared between subphenotypes. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The 5,903 hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 patients were classified into four subphenotypes: hyperthermic slow resolvers (n = 1,452, 25%), hyperthermic fast resolvers (1,469, 25%), normothermics (2,126, 36%), and hypothermics (856, 15%). Hypothermics had abnormal coagulation markers, with the highest d-dimer and fibrin monomers (p < 0.001) and the highest prevalence of cerebrovascular accidents (10%, p = 0.001). The prevalence of venous thromboembolism was significantly different between subphenotypes (p = 0.005), with the highest rate in hypothermics (8.5%) and lowest in hyperthermic slow resolvers (5.1%). Hyperthermic slow resolvers had abnormal inflammatory markers, with the highest C-reactive protein, ferritin, and interleukin-6 (p < 0.001). Hyperthermic slow resolvers had increased odds of mechanical ventilation, vasopressors, and 30-day inpatient mortality (odds ratio, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.13-2.19) compared with hyperthermic fast resolvers. Over the course of the pandemic, we observed a drastic decrease in the prevalence of hyperthermic slow resolvers, from representing 53% of admissions in March 2020 to less than 15% by 2021. We found that dexamethasone use was associated with significant reduction in probability of hyperthermic slow resolvers membership (27% reduction; 95% CI, 23-31%; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Hypothermics had abnormal coagulation markers, suggesting a hypercoagulable subphenotype. Hyperthermic slow resolvers had elevated inflammatory markers and the highest odds of mortality, suggesting a hyperinflammatory subphenotype. Future work should investigate whether temperature subphenotypes benefit from targeted antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory strategies.


Subject(s)
Body Temperature , COVID-19/pathology , Hyperthermia/pathology , Hypothermia/pathology , Phenotype , Academic Medical Centers , Aged , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Coagulation , Cohort Studies , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Inflammation , Male , Middle Aged , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Gen Intern Med ; 37(4): 707-713, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729370

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Care delivered using telemedicine has been steadily growing in the USA but represented a small fraction of overall visits before the COVID-19 pandemic as few clinicians had been providing care using telemedicine. Understanding how experienced clinicians have practiced telemedicine can help guide today's exponential adoption of telemedicine. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to explore barriers and facilitators to providing effective, high-quality urgent care using telemedicine ("tele-urgent care") from the perspective of clinicians experienced in telemedicine. APPROACH: We conducted semi-structured interviews between July 2018 and March 2019 of clinicians who had been providing tele-urgent care services to patients as a part of their routine clinical practice. Themes were identified using content analysis with a constant comparative coding approach. KEY RESULTS: Among the 20 clinicians interviewed, the majority were female (90%) and nurse practitioners (65%). We identified four themes related to barriers and facilitators to providing effective, high-quality tele-urgent care. Workplace factors such as a strong information technology (IT) infrastructure, real-time IT support, an electronic health record, and a collegial work environment, often virtual, were necessary standards. Communication and exam techniques from in-person encounters were adapted to tele-urgent care including active listening skills and teaching patients to conduct specific exam maneuvers virtually. The convenience of tele-urgent care should be preserved to support improvements in access to care. Finally, patients and clinicians occasionally had mismatched expectations about what could or would be provided during a tele-urgent care encounter. Managing the added tension that can occur during a telemedicine encounter was important. CONCLUSION: As telemedicine becomes an integral part of the care continuum, incorporating and accounting for these key insights when we train and support clinicians will be necessary to provide effective, high-quality care to patients in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Academic Medical Centers , Ambulatory Care , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine/methods
5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(5): 821-828, 2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705432

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although mRNA-based severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines report >90% efficacy, breakthrough infections occur. Little is known about their effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 variants, including the highly prevalent B.1.427/B.1.429 variant. METHODS: In this quality improvement project, we collected demographic and clinical information from post-vaccine SARS-CoV-2 cases (PVSCs), defined as healthcare personnel (HCP) with positive SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid amplification test after receiving ≥1 vaccine dose. Available specimens were tested for L452R, N501Y, and E484K mutations using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Mutation prevalence was compared among unvaccinated, early post-vaccinated (≤14 days after dose 1), partially vaccinated (positive test >14 days after dose 1 and <14 days after dose 2), and fully vaccinated (>14 days after dose 2) PVSCs. RESULTS: From December 2020 to April 2021, ≥23 090 HCP received ≥1 dose of an mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, and 660 HCP cases of SARS-CoV-2 occurred, of which 189 were PVSCs. Among the PVSCs, 114 (60.3%), 49 (25.9%), and 26 (13.8%) were early post-vaccination, partially vaccinated, and fully vaccinated, respectively. Of 261 available samples from vaccinated and unvaccinated HCP, 103 (39.5%), including 42 PVSCs (36.5%), had the L452R mutation presumptive of B.1.427/B.1.429. When adjusted for community prevalence of B.1.427/B.1.429, PVSCs did not have significantly elevated risk of B.1.427/B.1.429 compared with unvaccinated HCP. CONCLUSIONS: Most PVSCs occurred prior to expected onset of full, vaccine-derived immunity. Presumptive B.1.427/B.1.429 was not more prevalent in post-vaccine cases than in unvaccinated SARS-CoV-2 HCP. Continued infection control measures, particularly <14 days post-vaccination, and continued variant surveillance in PVSCs are imperative to control future SARS-CoV-2 surges.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Academic Medical Centers , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Incidence , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination
6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(6): 1097-1100, 2022 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705124

ABSTRACT

We assessed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission between patients in shared rooms in an academic hospital between September 2020 and April 2021. In total, 11 290 patients were admitted to shared rooms, of whom 25 tested positive. Among 31 exposed roommates, 12 (39%) tested positive within 14 days. Transmission was associated with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) cycle thresholds ≤21.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Academic Medical Centers , Hospitalization , Humans , Risk Factors
8.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 142, 2022 Feb 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706234

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Thrombotic microangiopathy has been invoked as one of the most important mechanisms of damage in COVID-19 patients. Protease ADAMTS13 is a marker of microangiopathy responsible for controlling von Willebrand multimers size. Von Willebrand factor/ADAMTS13 ratio has been found impaired in COVID-19 patients outside pregnancy. METHODS: We prospectively investigated 90 pregnant women admitted to two tertiary academic hospitals in Italy with a laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Demographic, clinical information and routine laboratory data were collected at the hospital admission and until discharge. We investigated whether vonWillebrand /ADAMTS13 axis imbalance is a predictor of adverse outcomes. Logistic regression analysis, which controlled for potential confounders, was performed to evaluate the association between laboratory parameters and clinical outcomes. RESULTS: Most women (55.6%) were parae, with median gestational age at admission of 39 weeks. At hospital admission, 63.3% were asymptomatic for COVID-19 and 24.4% showed more than one sign or symptom of infection. Nulliparae with group O showed Willebrand / ADA MTS-13 ratios significantly lower than non-O, whereas in multiparae this difference was not observed. Logistic regression showed that ratio von Willebrand to ADAMTS13 was significantly and independently associated with preterm delivery (OR 1.9, 95%CI 1.1-3.5). CONCLUSION: This study shows an imbalance of vonWillebrand /ADAMTS13 axis in pregnant women with COVID-19, leading to a significantly higher and independent risk of preterm delivery. Monitoring these biomarkers might support decision making process to manage and follow-up pregnancies in this setting.


Subject(s)
ADAMTS13 Protein/blood , COVID-19/blood , Pregnancy Complications/blood , Premature Birth/blood , von Willebrand Factor/metabolism , Academic Medical Centers , Adolescent , Adult , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/etiology , Young Adult
9.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263078, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690732

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 posed the healthcare professionals at enormous risk during this pandemic era while vaccination was recommended as one of the effective preventive approaches. It was visualized that almost all health workforces would be under vaccination on a priority basis as they are the frontline fighters during this pandemic. This study was designed to explore the reality regarding infection and vaccination status of COVID-19 among healthcare professionals of Bangladesh. It was a web-based cross-sectional survey and conducted among 300 healthcare professionals available in the academic platform of Bangladesh. A multivariate logistic regression model was used for the analytical exploration. Adjusted and Unadjusted Odds Ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated for the specified setting indicators. A Chi-square test was used to observe the association. Ethical issues were maintained according to the guidance of the declaration of Helsinki. Study revealed that 41% of all respondents identified as COVID-19 positive whereas a significant number (18.3%) found as non-vaccinated due to registration issues as 52.70%, misconception regarding vaccination as 29.10%, and health-related issues as 18.20%. Respondents of more than 50 years of age found more significant on having positive infection rather than the younger age groups. Predictors for the non-vaccination guided that male respondents (COR/p = 3.49/0.01), allied health professionals, and respondents from the public organizations (p = 0.01) who were ≤29 (AOR/p = 4.45/0.01) years of age significantly identified as non-vaccinated. As the older female groups were found more infected and a significant number of health care professionals found as non-vaccinated, implementation of specific strategies and policies are needed to ensure the safety precautions and vaccination among such COVID-19 frontiers.


Subject(s)
Academic Medical Centers/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Professional-to-Patient/prevention & control , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/psychology , /statistics & numerical data
10.
CMAJ Open ; 10(1): E82-E89, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687468

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hospital-based food insecurity is defined as the inability of caregivers to obtain adequate food during their child's hospital admission. We aimed to measure the prevalence of household and hospital-based food insecurity, and to explore the associations with caregiver distress in an academic pediatric hospital setting. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of caregivers of children admitted to the general pediatric ward of an academic pediatric hospital in Toronto, Ontario, from April to October 2020. We measured household food insecurity using the 18-item Household Food Security Survey Module, and included 3 adapted questions about hospital-based food insecurity. We measured caregiver distress with the Distress Thermometer for Parents. We used descriptive statistics to assess the proportion of respondents with food insecurity, and linear regression models to explore the relation of household (adult and child) and hospital-based food insecurity with caregiver distress. We used thematic analysis to explore caregivers' feedback. RESULTS: We contacted 851 caregivers, and 775 (91.1%) provided consent to participate. Overall, 430 (50.5%) caregivers completed at least part of the survey. Caregivers described a high prevalence of household (34.2%) and hospital-based (38.1%) food insecurity. Adult (ß = 0.21, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.07-0.36), child (ß = 0.38, 95% CI 0.10-0.66) and hospital-based (ß = 0.56, 95% CI 0.30-0.83) food insecurity were significantly associated with caregiver distress, independent of covariates. We identified financial burden, emotional and practical barriers, stress obtaining food and advocacy for food as important themes in caregiver feedback. INTERPRETATION: Both household and hospital-based food insecurity were highly prevalent among caregivers. To reduce caregiver distress, hospitals need to consider reducing barriers for caregivers in obtaining food for themselves during their child's admission.


Subject(s)
Academic Medical Centers , COVID-19/epidemiology , Food Insecurity , Food Supply , Hospitals, Pediatric , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/virology , Caregivers , Cross-Sectional Studies , Food Supply/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Ontario/epidemiology , Parents , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 119, 2022 Feb 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1677496

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The provision of care to pregnant persons and neonates must continue through pandemics. To maintain quality of care, while minimizing physical contact during the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-related Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV2) pandemic, hospitals and international organizations issued recommendations on maternity and neonatal care delivery and restructuring of clinical and academic services. Early in the pandemic, recommendations relied on expert opinion, and offered a one-size-fits-all set of guidelines. Our aim was to examine these recommendations and provide the rationale and context to guide clinicians, administrators, educators, and researchers, on how to adapt maternity and neonatal services during the pandemic, regardless of jurisdiction. METHOD: Our initial database search used Medical subject headings and free-text search terms related to coronavirus infections, pregnancy and neonatology, and summarized relevant recommendations from international society guidelines. Subsequent targeted searches to December 30, 2020, included relevant publications in general medical and obstetric journals, and updated society recommendations. RESULTS: We identified 846 titles and abstracts, of which 105 English-language publications fulfilled eligibility criteria and were included in our study. A multidisciplinary team representing clinicians from various disciplines, academics, administrators and training program directors critically appraised the literature to collate recommendations by multiple jurisdictions, including a quaternary care Canadian hospital, to provide context and rationale for viable options. INTERPRETATION: There are different schools of thought regarding effective practices in obstetric and neonatal services. Our critical review presents the rationale to effectively modify services, based on the phase of the pandemic, the prevalence of infection in the population, and resource availability.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Maternal-Child Health Services/organization & administration , Perinatal Care , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Academic Medical Centers , COVID-19/therapy , Canada , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Inpatients , Organizational Policy , Outpatients , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Pediatrics ; 149(12 Suppl 2)2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674081

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has led to drastic public health measures, including school closures to slow the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. Reopening educational settings by using diagnostic testing approaches in schools can help accelerate the safe return of students and staff to on-site learning by quickly and accurately identifying cases, limiting the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, and ultimately preventing unnecessary school and work absenteeism. Although the National Institutes of Health has identified community partnerships as the foundation for reducing health disparities, we found limited application of a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach in school engagement. Guided by the CBPR conceptual model, we provide case studies of 2 established and long-standing school-academic partnerships built on CBPR processes and practices that have served as a research infrastructure to reach underserved children and families during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. The process described in this article can serve as an initial platform to continue to build capacity toward increasing health equity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Community-Institutional Relations , Pandemics , Return to School , Vulnerable Populations , Academic Medical Centers , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Mexican Americans , Rural Population , Schools
13.
Pediatrics ; 149(Suppl 2)2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674079

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic forced the suspension of in-person education in schools serving students in kindergarten through 12th grade (K-12) across the United States. As time passed, teachers, students, and parents struggled with remote education. With limited guidance at the federal level, physicians and school leaders across the country collaborated to develop local solutions for schools. This article describes the lessons learned from the development of 4 academic-community partnerships and collaboration among these partnerships to provide national leadership on managing COVID-19 mitigation in the K-12 environment. In addition, we describe a pathway forward for using academic-community partnerships to improve child health.


Subject(s)
Academic Medical Centers , COVID-19 , Community-Institutional Relations , Pandemics , Schools , Humans
14.
Crit Care Med ; 50(2): 245-255, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1672309

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine the association between time period of hospitalization and hospital mortality among critically ill adults with coronavirus disease 2019. DESIGN: Observational cohort study from March 6, 2020, to January 31, 2021. SETTING: ICUs at four hospitals within an academic health center network in Atlanta, GA. PATIENTS: Adults greater than or equal to 18 years with coronavirus disease 2019 admitted to an ICU during the study period (i.e., Surge 1: March to April, Lull 1: May to June, Surge 2: July to August, Lull 2: September to November, Surge 3: December to January). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Among 1,686 patients with coronavirus disease 2019 admitted to an ICU during the study period, all-cause hospital mortality was 29.7%. Mortality differed significantly over time: 28.7% in Surge 1, 21.3% in Lull 1, 25.2% in Surge 2, 30.2% in Lull 2, 34.7% in Surge 3 (p = 0.007). Mortality was significantly associated with 1) preexisting risk factors (older age, race, ethnicity, lower body mass index, higher Elixhauser Comorbidity Index, admission from a nursing home); 2) clinical status at ICU admission (higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, higher d-dimer, higher C-reactive protein); and 3) ICU interventions (receipt of mechanical ventilation, vasopressors, renal replacement therapy, inhaled vasodilators). After adjusting for baseline and clinical variables, there was a significantly increased risk of mortality associated with admission during Lull 2 (relative risk, 1.37 [95% CI = 1.03-1.81]) and Surge 3 (relative risk, 1.35 [95% CI = 1.04-1.77]) as compared to Surge 1. CONCLUSIONS: Despite increased experience and evidence-based treatments, the risk of death for patients admitted to the ICU with coronavirus disease 2019 was highest during the fall and winter of 2020. Reasons for this increased mortality are not clear.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality/trends , Hospitalization/trends , Intensive Care Units/trends , SARS-CoV-2 , Academic Medical Centers , Aged , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Time Factors
15.
Am J Emerg Med ; 54: 238-241, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1664595

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic compelled healthcare systems to rapidly adapt to changing healthcare needs as well as identify ways to reduce COVID transmission. The relationship between pandemic-related trends in emergency department (ED) visits and telehealth urgent care visits have not been studied. METHODS: We performed an interrupted time series analysis to evaluate trends between ED visits and telehealth urgent medical care visits at two urban healthcare system in Colorado. We performed pairwise comparisons between baseline versus each COVID-19 surge and all three surges combined, for both ED and telehealth encounters at each site and used Wilcoxon rank sum test to compare median values. RESULTS: During the study period, 595,350 patient encounters occurred. We saw ED visits decline in correlation with rising telehealth visits during each COVID surge. CONCLUSIONS: During initial COVID surges, ED visits declined while telehealth visits rose in inverse correlation with falling ED visits, suggesting that some patients shifted their preferred location for clinical care. As EDs cope with future staffing during the ongoing COVID pandemic, telehealth represents an opportunity for emergency physicians and a means to align patients desires for virtual care with ED volumes and staffing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Academic Medical Centers , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 01 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625696

ABSTRACT

Identification of the SARS-CoV-2 virus by RT-PCR from a nasopharyngeal swab sample is a common test for diagnosing COVID-19. However, some patients present clinical, laboratorial, and radiological evidence of COVID-19 infection with negative RT-PCR result(s). Thus, we assessed whether positive results were associated with intubation and mortality. This study was conducted in a Brazilian tertiary hospital from March to August of 2020. All patients had clinical, laboratory, and radiological diagnosis of COVID-19. They were divided into two groups: positive (+) RT-PCR group, with 2292 participants, and negative (-) RT-PCR group, with 706 participants. Patients with negative RT-PCR testing and an alternative most probable diagnosis were excluded from the study. The RT-PCR(+) group presented increased risk of intensive care unit (ICU) admission, mechanical ventilation, length of hospital stay, and 28-day mortality, when compared to the RT-PCR(-) group. A positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR result was independently associated with intubation and 28 day in-hospital mortality. Accordingly, we concluded that patients with a COVID-19 diagnosis based on clinical data, despite a negative RT-PCR test from nasopharyngeal samples, presented more favorable outcomes than patients with positive RT-PCR test(s).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Academic Medical Centers/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Brazil , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
18.
Acad Med ; 97(1): 48-52, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1584029

ABSTRACT

By March 2020, New York City became the early epicenter of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States. Consequently, Columbia University, with its large portfolio of human subjects research, had to address the challenges of protecting thousands of research participants and research staff from potential exposure to COVID-19 while facilitating essential biomedical research, especially pandemic-related studies. The authors describe, from the perspective of Columbia's research administration leadership, how the University and its primary teaching hospital ramped down-and later ramped up-human subjects research and reflect on lessons learned. As the pandemic unfolded, only studies offering the prospect of direct benefit to subjects were permitted to continue with in-person contact. New in-person participant enrollment ceased, except for COVID-19 prevention or treatment studies. Centralized, frequently updated communication about policies and procedures was disseminated to the Columbia research community. Procedural efficiencies were rapidly developed and implemented for review and oversight of human subjects research and contractual agreements for clinical trials. More frequent institutional review board meetings and 24-hour support markedly reduced turnaround time for COVID-19 studies, without delaying approvals of non-COVID-19 research. Research administration worked closely with relevant principal federal agencies, whose regulatory flexibility facilitated the efficient implementation of COVID-19-related research. Overall, the ramp-down and ramp-up of the majority of human subjects research, with specified priorities and accelerated processes, worked well. Adjustments were made to handle the increase in administrative tasks, the need to respond rapidly to added oversight responsibilities, and the management of the many new COVID-19-related research protocols. Timely, centralized communication, support for staff needs, prioritization, and collaboration were critical to successful research oversight at a large-scale academic setting in the midst of a pandemic. These perspectives may be useful to academic research centers addressing the current and future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Academic Medical Centers , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ethics Committees, Research , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Research Subjects
19.
Psychiatry Res ; 308: 114376, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586782

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted utilization volumes and patterns for inpatient psychiatry, though reports have noted inconsistencies on small populations. We obtained demographic and diagnostic data from a retrospective cohort of admitted psychiatric patients at a single-site from March-July 2020 and the corresponding months in 2019. Despite controlling for the modest decrease in inpatient admissions, no statistically significant changes in demographics or utilization was found, except for an increase in patients with substance use disorder (p<0.001). These early findings highlight the demand and necessity for inpatient psychiatry services even during the first COVID-19 spike.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychiatry , Academic Medical Centers , Humans , Inpatients , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Palliat Med ; 36(2): 342-347, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582705

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Advance care planning allows patients to share their preferences for medical care with the aim of ensuring goal-concordant care in times of serious illness. The morbidity and mortality of the COVID-19 pandemic has increased the importance and public visibility of advance care planning. However, little is known about the frequency and quality of advance care planning documentation during the pandemic. AIM: This study examined the frequency, quality, and predictors of advance care planning documentation among hospitalized medical patients with and without COVID-19. DESIGN: This retrospective cohort analysis used multivariate logistic regression to identify factors associated with advance care planning documentation. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: This study included all adult patients tested for COVID-19 and admitted to a tertiary medical center in San Francisco, CA during March 2020. RESULTS: Among 262 patients, 31 (11.8%) tested positive and 231 (88.2%) tested negative for SARS-CoV-2. The rate of advance care planning documentation was 38.7% in patients with COVID-19 and 46.8% in patients without COVID-19 (p = 0.45). Documentation consistently addressed code status (100% and 94.4% for COVID-positive and COVID-negative, respectively), but less often named a surrogate decision maker, discussed prognosis, or elaborated on other wishes for care. Palliative care consultation was associated with increased advance care planning documentation (OR: 6.93, p = 0.004). CONCLUSION: This study found low rates of advance care planning documentation for patients both with and without COVID-19 during an evolving global pandemic. Advance care planning documentation was associated with palliative care consultation, highlighting the importance of such consultation to ensure timely, patient-centered advance care planning.


Subject(s)
Advance Care Planning , COVID-19 , Academic Medical Centers , Adult , Documentation , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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