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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2021 12 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1576991

ABSTRACT

This study examined pre-pandemic (2017-early March 2020) to early-pandemic (Spring 2020) changes in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), light PA (LPA), and sedentary behavior/sleep (SS), by weekday/weekend, and age (preschool, elementary, middle school). We re-enrolled children from two pre-pandemic obesity prevention trials and examined differences in accelerometer-measured PA from pre-pandemic to early-pandemic across age groups using linear mixed models. Children (n = 75) were 51% multiple race/ethnicities, 29% preschool, 28% elementary, 43% middle school, 65% suburban, 21% rural, and 13% urban. Pre-pandemic to early-pandemic changes in weekday MVPA (p = 0.006), LPA (p = 0.018), and SS (p = 0.003) differed by age. On weekdays, middle schoolers' MVPA decreased 15.36 min/day (p = 0.002) and SS increased 94.36 min/day (p < 0.001) with non-significant changes among preschoolers and elementary schoolers. Compared to elementary schoolers, middle schoolers' changes in weekday MVPA (b = -16.34, p = 0.036) and SS (b = 63.28, p = 0.039) significantly differed. Declines in weekday MVPA and increases in SS among middle schoolers suggest that, compared with younger children, middle schoolers are dependent on school and recreational facilities for PA, and in their absence engage in more sedentary activities and sleep.


Subject(s)
Accelerometry , Pandemics , Child , Child, Preschool , Exercise , Humans , Policy , Sleep
2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(24)2021 Dec 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1554825

ABSTRACT

Many researchers are beginning to adopt the use of wrist-worn accelerometers to objectively measure personal activity levels. Data from these devices are often used to summarise such activity in terms of averages, variances, exceedances, and patterns within a profile. In this study, we report the development of a clustering utilising the whole activity profile. This was achieved using the robust clustering technique of k-medoids applied to an extensive data set of over 90,000 activity profiles, collected as part of the UK Biobank study. We identified nine distinct activity profiles in these data, which captured both the pattern of activity throughout a week and the intensity of the activity: "Active 9 to 5", "Active", "Morning Movers", "Get up and Active", "Live for the Weekend", "Moderates", "Leisurely 9 to 5", "Sedate" and "Inactive". These patterns are differentiated by sociodemographic, socioeconomic, and health and circadian rhythm data collected by UK Biobank. The utility of these findings are that they sit alongside existing summary measures of physical activity to provide a way to typify distinct activity patterns that may help to explain other health and morbidity outcomes, e.g., BMI or COVID-19. This research will be returned to the UK Biobank for other researchers to use.


Subject(s)
Biological Specimen Banks , COVID-19 , Accelerometry , Cluster Analysis , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom
4.
Scand J Med Sci Sports ; 31(12): 2221-2229, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1413805

ABSTRACT

To contain the recent COVID-19 outbreak, restrictions have been imposed, which has limited outdoor activity. These physical behavior changes can have serious health implications, but there is little objective information quantifying these changes. This study aimed to estimate the change in physical behavior levels during full lockdown conditions using objective data collected from a thigh-worn activity monitor. Data used were from 6492 individuals in the 1970 British Cohort Study, collected between 2016 and 2018. Using walking bout characteristics, days were classified as either "indoor only" (n = 861), "indoor and exercise" (n = 167), and "outdoor active" (n = 31 934). When compared to "outdoor active" days, "indoor only" days had 6590 fewer steps per day (2320 vs 8876, p < 0.001), a longer sedentary time (1.5 h, p < 0.001), longer lying time (1.4 h, p < 0.001) and shorter standing (1.9 h, p < 0.001) and stepping (1.3 h, p < 0.001) times. The "indoor and exercise" days had a smaller number of steps compared to "outdoor active" (7932 vs 8876, p < 0.05). There is a strong relationship between reduced daily stepping, and increased sedentary time, with a range of poor health outcomes. This has important implications for public health policy and messaging during pandemics.


Subject(s)
Accelerometry/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/prevention & control , Exercise , Pandemics , Sedentary Behavior , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cohort Studies , Communicable Disease Control , Fitness Trackers , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(8)2021 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1378412

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate differences in physical activity (PA) patterns and the associations between objectively measured 24-h movement behaviors and musculoskeletal measures (muscle strength, muscle mass, physical performance, and bone mineral density) in a high-income and a low-income community. This cross-sectional study recruited independent living older adults aged 60-85 years from high-income Scottish (n = 150) and low-income South African (n = 138) settings. Participants completed demographic and health questionnaires, and testing included body composition and bone mineral density (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), physical performance (grip strength, gait speed), and PA (accelerometry). Participants accumulated similar amounts of weekly total PA, however, the Scottish cohort engaged in more moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA (MVPA) and sedentary behavior (SB), while the South African cohort spent more time sleeping and in light intensity PA (LPA). From compositional data analysis, more time spent in MVPA relative to the other movement behaviors was positively associated with higher muscle mass (p < 0.001) and strength (p = 0.001) in the Scottish cohort. Conversely, more time spent in MVPA was associated with faster gait speed (p < 0.001) and greater hip bone mineral density (p = 0.011) in the South African cohort. Our findings confirm the beneficial role of MVPA in both high- and low-income cohorts, however, the relationship MVPA had with components of musculoskeletal health in older adults differed between settings.


Subject(s)
Exercise , Sedentary Behavior , Accelerometry , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Middle Aged , Scotland
6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3652, 2021 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275918

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is causing mass disruption to our daily lives. We integrate mobility data from mobile devices and area-level data to study the walking patterns of 1.62 million anonymous users in 10 metropolitan areas in the United States. The data covers the period from mid-February 2020 (pre-lockdown) to late June 2020 (easing of lockdown restrictions). We detect when users were walking, distance walked and time of the walk, and classify each walk as recreational or utilitarian. Our results reveal dramatic declines in walking, particularly utilitarian walking, while recreational walking has recovered and even surpassed pre-pandemic levels. Our findings also demonstrate important social patterns, widening existing inequalities in walking behavior. COVID-19 response measures have a larger impact on walking behavior for those from low-income areas and high use of public transportation. Provision of equal opportunities to support walking is key to opening up our society and economy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Policy , Walking/statistics & numerical data , Accelerometry/instrumentation , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cell Phone , Cities , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Obesity/epidemiology , Prevalence , Recreation , Socioeconomic Factors , Transportation , United States , Weather
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(12)2021 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264457

ABSTRACT

Work from home has increased greatly during the COVID-19 pandemic, and concerns have been raised that this would change physical behaviours. In the present study, 11 Brazilian office workers (five women, six men; mean [SD] age 39.3 [9.6] years) wore two triaxial accelerometers fixed on the upper back and right thigh continuously for five days, including a weekend, before COVID-19 (September 2019), and again while working at home during COVID-19 (July 2020). We determined time used in five behaviours: sedentary, standing, light physical activity (LPA), moderate-to-vigorous activity (MVPA), and time-in-bed. Data on these behaviours were processed using Compositional Data Analysis, and behaviours observed pre-COVID19 and during-COVID19 were compared using repeated-measures MANOVA. On workdays during-COVID19, participants spent 667 min sedentary, 176 standing, 74 LPA, 51 MVPA and 472 time-in-bed; corresponding numbers pre-COVID were 689, 180, 81, 72 and 418 min. Tests confirmed that less time was spent in bed pre-COVID19 (log-ratio -0.12 [95% CI -0.19; -0.08]) and more time in MVPA (log-ratio 0.35, [95% CI 0.08; 0.70]). Behaviours during the weekend changed only marginally. While small, this study is the first to report objectively measured physical behaviours during workdays as well as weekends in the same subjects before and during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Accelerometry , Adult , Brazil/epidemiology , Data Analysis , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Sedentary Behavior , Sleep
8.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 528, 2021 03 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264152

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has triggered national recommendations encouraging people to work from home (WFH), but the possible impact of WFH on physical behaviors is unknown. This study aimed to determine the extent to which the 24-h allocation of time to different physical behaviors changes between days working at the office (WAO) and days WFH in office workers during the pandemic. METHODS: Data were collected on 27 office workers with full-time employment at a Swedish municipal division during the COVID-19 outbreak in May-July 2020. A thigh-worn accelerometer (Axivity) was used to assess physical behavior (sedentary, stand, move) during seven consecutive days. A diary was used to identify periods of work, leisure and sleep. 24-h compositions of sedentary, standing and moving behaviors during work and non-work time were examined using Compositional data analysis (CoDA), and differences between days WAO and days WFH were determined using repeated measures ANOVA. RESULTS: Days WFH were associated with more time spent sleeping relative to awake, and the effect size was large (F = 7.4; p = 0.01; ηp2 = 0.22). The increase (34 min) in sleep time during WFH occurred at the expense of a reduction in work and leisure time by 26 min and 7 min, respectively. Sedentary, standing and moving behaviors did not change markedly during days WFH compared to days WAO. CONCLUSION: Days working from home during the COVID-19 pandemic in Sweden were associated with longer duration of sleep than days working at the office. This behavioral change may be beneficial to health.


Subject(s)
Exercise , Leisure Activities , Sedentary Behavior , Sleep , Teleworking/statistics & numerical data , Accelerometry/instrumentation , Adult , COVID-19 , Data Analysis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Sweden/epidemiology
9.
Open Heart ; 8(1)2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259016

ABSTRACT

AIMS: In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the UK was placed under strict lockdown measures on 23 March 2020. The aim of this study was to quantify the effects on physical activity (PA) levels using data from the prospective Triage-HF Plus Evaluation study. METHODS: This study represents a cohort of adult patients with implanted cardiac devices capable of measuring activity by embedded accelerometery via a remote monitoring platform. Activity data were available for the 4 weeks pre-implementation and post implementation of 'stay at home' lockdown measures in the form of 'minutes active per day' (min/day). RESULTS: Data were analysed for 311 patients (77.2% men, mean age 68.8, frailty 55.9%. 92.2% established heart failure (HF) diagnosis, of these 51.2% New York Heart Association II), with comorbidities representative of a real-world cohort.Post-lockdown, a significant reduction in median PA equating to 20.8 active min/day was seen. The reduction was uniform with a slightly more pronounced drop in PA for women, but no statistically significant difference with respect to age, body mass index, frailty or device type. Activity dropped in the immediate 2-week period post-lockdown, but steadily returned thereafter. Median activity week 4 weeks post-lockdown remained significantly lower than 4 weeks pre-lockdown (p≤0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In a population of predominantly HF patients with cardiac devices, activity reduced by approximately 20 min active per day in the immediate aftermath of strict COVID-19 lockdown measures. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04177199.


Subject(s)
Accelerometry , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Heart Failure , Monitoring, Physiologic , Physical Distancing , Telemedicine , Accelerometry/instrumentation , Accelerometry/methods , Accelerometry/statistics & numerical data , Activities of Daily Living , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Exercise , Female , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Monitoring, Physiologic/instrumentation , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods , Monitoring, Physiologic/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine/instrumentation , Telemedicine/methods , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Wearable Electronic Devices
10.
Sci Adv ; 7(20)2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226704

ABSTRACT

Soft, skin-integrated electronic sensors can provide continuous measurements of diverse physiological parameters, with broad relevance to the future of human health care. Motion artifacts can, however, corrupt the recorded signals, particularly those associated with mechanical signatures of cardiopulmonary processes. Design strategies introduced here address this limitation through differential operation of a matched, time-synchronized pair of high-bandwidth accelerometers located on parts of the anatomy that exhibit strong spatial gradients in motion characteristics. When mounted at a location that spans the suprasternal notch and the sternal manubrium, these dual-sensing devices allow measurements of heart rate and sounds, respiratory activities, body temperature, body orientation, and activity level, along with swallowing, coughing, talking, and related processes, without sensitivity to ambient conditions during routine daily activities, vigorous exercises, intense manual labor, and even swimming. Deployments on patients with COVID-19 allow clinical-grade ambulatory monitoring of the key symptoms of the disease even during rehabilitation protocols.


Subject(s)
Accelerometry/instrumentation , Accelerometry/methods , Electrocardiography, Ambulatory/instrumentation , Electrocardiography, Ambulatory/methods , Wearable Electronic Devices , Body Temperature , COVID-19 , Exercise/physiology , Heart Rate , Humans , Monitoring, Physiologic/instrumentation , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 106: 106428, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1220744

ABSTRACT

Sedentary behavior (SB) has recently been recognized as a strong risk factor for cardiovascular disease, with new guidelines encouraging adults to 'sit less, move more.' Yet, there are few randomized trials demonstrating that reducing SB improves cardiovascular health. The Effect of Reducing Sedentary Behavior on Blood Pressure (RESET BP) randomized clinical trial addresses this gap by testing the effect of a 3-month SB reduction intervention on resting systolic BP. Secondary outcomes include other BP measures, pulse wave velocity, plasma renin activity and aldosterone, and objectively-measured SB (via thigh-mounted activPAL) and physical activity (via waist-worn GT3X accelerometer). RESET BP has a targeted recruitment of 300 adults with desk jobs, along with elevated, non-medicated BP (systolic BP 120-159 mmHg or diastolic BP 80-99 mmHg) and physical inactivity (self-reported aerobic physical activity below recommended levels). The multi-component intervention promotes 2-4 fewer hours of SB per day by replacing sitting with standing and light-intensity movement breaks. Participants assigned to the intervention condition receive a sit-stand desk attachment, a wrist-worn activity prompter, behavioral counseling every two weeks (alternating in-person and phone), and twice-weekly automated text messages. Herein, we review the study rationale, describe and evaluate recruitment strategies based on enrollment to date, and detail the intervention and assessment protocols. We also document our mid-trial adaptations to participant recruitment, intervention deployment, and outcome assessments due to the intervening COVID-19 pandemic. Our research methods, experiences to date, and COVID-specific accommodations could inform other research studying BP and hypertension or targeting working populations, including those seeking remote methods.


Subject(s)
Exercise/physiology , Hypertension/therapy , Sedentary Behavior , Workplace , Accelerometry , Adult , Aged , Aldosterone/blood , Blood Pressure , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Hemodynamics , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Renin/blood , Research Design , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
12.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 18(1): 53, 2021 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191950

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Few adolescents achieve sufficient levels of physical activity, and many are spending most of their time in sedentary behavior. Affective response following sedentary time may influence motivation to remain sedentary. Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) is a real-time data capture methodology that can be used to identify factors influencing sedentary time, such as the context of the home setting, and resulting affective state within a free-living setting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between context at home and adolescent sedentary time, and the relationship of sedentary time and subsequent affect. METHODS: Adolescents (n = 284; 10-16 y) participated in an EMA study that used random, interval-based sampling methods. Adolescents each received 22 unannounced surveys over 7-days through a smartphone application. One survey was randomly sent within each 2-h time-period. These time-periods occurred between 4:00 pm-8:00 pm on weekdays and 8:00 am-8:00 pm on the weekend. This 15-question survey included a series of questions on context (indoors/outdoors, alone/not alone) and positive affect. Adolescents concurrently wore an accelerometer at the hip, and the 30-min bout of accelerometry data prior to each survey was used in analyses. Mixed-effect location scale models were used to examine the association between context at home and sedentary time (stage 1) and the adjusted sedentary time and positive affect (stage 2), with each model adjusted for covariates. RESULTS: Adolescents were 12.6 ± 1.9 y of age on average, about half were White (58%), and engaged in high levels of sedentary behavior during the 30 min prior to the survey (21.4 ± 6.8 min). Most surveys occurred when adolescents were with others (59%) and indoors (88%). In Stage 1, both being alone and being indoors at home were positively associated with sedentary time (p <  0.001 for both). In Stage 2, adjusted sedentary time was not related to positive affect. Age was negatively related to positive affect (p <  0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Both contextual factors, being alone and indoors at home, were related to additional time spent sedentary compared to being with someone or outdoors. After adjustment, sedentary time was not related to subsequent positive affect, indicating other factors may be related to adolescent's positive affect in home settings.


Subject(s)
Affect , Exercise , Fitness Trackers , Sedentary Behavior , Accelerometry , Adolescent , Child , Ecological Momentary Assessment , Female , Humans , Male , Motivation , Research Design , Surveys and Questionnaires
13.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(7)2021 Mar 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154480

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is a virus that spreads through contact with the respiratory droplets of infected persons, so quarantine is mandatory to break the infection chain. This paper proposes a wearable device with the Internet of Things (IoT) integration for real-time monitoring of body temperature the indoor condition via an alert system to the person in quarantine. The alert is transferred when the body thermal exceeds the allowed threshold temperature. Moreover, an algorithm Repetition Spikes Counter (RSC) based on an accelerometer is employed in the role of human activity recognition to realize whether the quarantined person is doing physical exercise or not, for auto-adjustment of threshold temperature. The real-time warning and stored data analysis support the family members/doctors in following and updating the quarantined people's body temperature behavior in the tele-distance. The experiment includes an M5stickC wearable device, a Microelectromechanical system (MEMS) accelerometer, an infrared thermometer, and a digital temperature sensor equipped with the user's wrist. The indoor temperature and humidity are measured to restrict the virus spread and supervise the room condition of the person in quarantine. The information is transferred to the cloud via Wi-Fi with Message Queue Telemetry Transport (MQTT) broker. The Bluetooth is integrated as an option for the data transfer from the self-isolated person to the electronic device of a family member in the case of Wi-Fi failed connection. The tested result was obtained from a student in quarantine for 14 days. The designed system successfully monitored the body temperature, exercise activity, and indoor condition of the quarantined person that handy during the Covid-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Accelerometry , Body Temperature , COVID-19 , Internet of Things , Micro-Electrical-Mechanical Systems , Quarantine , Thermometry , Humans , Pandemics , Telemetry
14.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(5)2021 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1143560

ABSTRACT

Falls are one of the leading causes of permanent injury and/or disability among the elderly. When these people live alone, it is convenient that a caregiver or family member visits them periodically. However, these visits do not prevent falls when the elderly person is alone. Furthermore, in exceptional circumstances, such as a pandemic, we must avoid unnecessary mobility. This is why remote monitoring systems are currently on the rise, and several commercial solutions can be found. However, current solutions use devices attached to the waist or wrist, causing discomfort in the people who wear them. The users also tend to forget to wear the devices carried in these positions. Therefore, in order to prevent these problems, the main objective of this work is designing and recollecting a new dataset about falls, falling risks and activities of daily living using an ankle-placed device obtaining a good balance between the different activity types. This dataset will be a useful tool for researchers who want to integrate the fall detector in the footwear. Thus, in this work we design the fall-detection device, study the suitable activities to be collected, collect the dataset from 21 users performing the studied activities and evaluate the quality of the collected dataset. As an additional and secondary study, we implement a simple Deep Learning classifier based on this data to prove the system's feasibility.


Subject(s)
Accidental Falls , Wearable Electronic Devices , Accelerometry , Accidental Falls/prevention & control , Activities of Daily Living , Aged , Algorithms , Ankle , Humans , Neural Networks, Computer
15.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(6)2021 Mar 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1136536

ABSTRACT

In the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, Remote Patient Monitoring technologies are highly important for clinicians and researchers. These connected-health technologies enable monitoring of patients and facilitate remote clinical trial research while reducing the potential for the spread of the novel coronavirus. There is a growing requirement for monitoring of the full 24 h spectrum of behaviours with a single research-grade sensor. This research describes a free-living and supervised protocol comparison study of the Verisense inertial measurement unit to assess physical activity and sleep parameters and compares it with the Actiwatch 2 actigraph. Fifteen adults (11 males, 23.4 ± 3.4 years and 4 females, 29 ± 12.6 years) wore both monitors for 2 consecutive days and nights in the free-living study while twelve adults (11 males, 23.4 ± 3.4 years and 1 female, 22 ± 0 years) wore both monitors for the duration of a gym-based supervised protocol study. Agreement of physical activity epoch-by-epoch data with activity classification of sedentary, light and moderate-to-vigorous activity and sleep metrics were evaluated using Spearman's rank-order correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots. For all activity, Verisense showed high agreement for both free-living and supervised protocol of r = 0.85 and r = 0.78, respectively. For physical activity classification, Verisense showed high agreement of sedentary activity of r = 0.72 for free-living but low agreement of r = 0.36 for supervised protocol; low agreement of light activity of r = 0.42 for free-living and negligible agreement of r = -0.04 for supervised protocol; and moderate agreement of moderate-to-vigorous activity of r = 0.52 for free-living with low agreement of r = 0.49 for supervised protocol. For sleep metrics, Verisense showed moderate agreement for sleep time and total sleep time of r = 0.66 and 0.54, respectively, but demonstrated high agreement for determination of wake time of r = 0.83. Overall, our results showed moderate-high agreement of Verisense with Actiwatch 2 for assessing epoch-by-epoch physical activity and sleep, but a lack of agreement for activity classifications. Future validation work of Verisense for activity cut-point potentially holds promise for 24 h continuous remote patient monitoring.


Subject(s)
Accelerometry/instrumentation , Actigraphy/instrumentation , Exercise/physiology , Monitoring, Ambulatory/instrumentation , Sleep/physiology , Telemedicine , Telemetry/standards , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Monitoring, Ambulatory/standards , Pandemics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Diabet Med ; 38(10): e14549, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1109524

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Restrictions during the COVID-19 crisis will have impacted on opportunities to be active. We aimed to (a) quantify the impact of COVID-19 restrictions on accelerometer-assessed physical activity and sleep in people with type 2 diabetes and (b) identify predictors of physical activity during COVID-19 restrictions. METHODS: Participants were from the UK Chronotype of Patients with type 2 diabetes and Effect on Glycaemic Control (CODEC) observational study. Participants wore an accelerometer on their wrist for 8 days before and during COVID-19 restrictions. Accelerometer outcomes included the following: overall physical activity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), time spent inactive, days/week with ≥30-minute continuous MVPA and sleep. Predictors of change in physical activity taken pre-COVID included the following: age, sex, ethnicity, body mass index (BMI), socio-economic status and medical history. RESULTS: In all, 165 participants (age (mean±S.D = 64.2 ± 8.3 years, BMI=31.4 ± 5.4 kg/m2 , 45% women) were included. During restrictions, overall physical activity was lower by 1.7 mg (~800 steps/day) and inactive time 21.9 minutes/day higher, but time in MVPA and sleep did not statistically significantly change. In contrast, the percentage of people with ≥1 day/week with ≥30-minute continuous MVPA was higher (34% cf. 24%). Consistent predictors of lower physical activity and/or higher inactive time were higher BMI and/or being a woman. Being older and/or from ethnic minorities groups was associated with higher inactive time. CONCLUSIONS: Overall physical activity, but not MVPA, was lower in adults with type 2 diabetes during COVID-19 restrictions. Women and individuals who were heavier, older, inactive and/or from ethnic minority groups were most at risk of lower physical activity during restrictions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Motor Activity/physiology , Sleep/physiology , Accelerometry , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Young Adult
17.
Pediatr Obes ; 16(9): e12779, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1096818

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Measures during the COVID-19 pandemic, including the closure of schools and sports facilities, may have lasting impact on the physical activity (PA) of children that persists for a long time. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of COVID-19 measures on screen time and PA in Dutch children pre-, during- and post-school closures. METHODS: In cohort A (n = 102, 10.5 ± 3.6 years, 42.4% boys), data on PA and screen time during the lockdown were collected using a questionnaire. In cohort B (n = 131, 10.2 ± 0.9 years, 43.5% boys), data on PA and screen time were collected using a questionnaire and accelerometry 1 year before and after school closure. RESULTS: In cohort A, 62% reported less total PA. Self-reported screen time on week days increased 34 ± 105 min/d during the lockdown. In cohort B, sedentary time as measured by accelerometry, increased by 45 ± 67 min/d and only 20% reached PA levels of 60 min/d compared to 64% in May 2019. Self-reported screen time increased by 59 ± 112 min/d and 62 ± 130 min/d during week and weekend days, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Children were less physically active, and screen time was higher during and after the school closures due to the COVID-19 lockdown. This is alarming as an active lifestyle in children is crucial in preventing chronic diseases such as obesity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Exercise , Pandemics , Schools , Screen Time , Accelerometry , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors
18.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 28, 2021 01 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065848

ABSTRACT

The integration of technology in clinical care is growing rapidly and has become especially relevant during the global COVID-19 pandemic. Smartphone-based digital phenotyping, or the use of integrated sensors to identify patterns in behavior and symptomatology, has shown potential in detecting subtle moment-to-moment changes. These changes, often referred to as anomalies, represent significant deviations from an individual's baseline, may be useful in informing the risk of relapse in serious mental illness. Our investigation of smartphone-based anomaly detection resulted in 89% sensitivity and 75% specificity for predicting relapse in schizophrenia. These results demonstrate the potential of longitudinal collection of real-time behavior and symptomatology via smartphones and the clinical utility of individualized analysis. Future studies are necessary to explore how specificity can be improved, just-in-time adaptive interventions utilized, and clinical integration achieved.


Subject(s)
Health Surveys/methods , Schizophrenia/diagnosis , Telemedicine/methods , Accelerometry/methods , Accelerometry/psychology , Adult , Boston , Ecological Momentary Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Mobile Applications , Movement , Phenotype , Recurrence , Reproducibility of Results , Risk Assessment , Schizophrenia/physiopathology , Screen Time , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sleep , Smartphone , Social Behavior
19.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(1): 156-164, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065442

ABSTRACT

Behavioral lifestyle factors are associated with cardiometabolic disease and obesity, which are risk factors for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to investigate whether physical activity, and the timing and balance of physical activity and sleep/rest, were associated with SARS-CoV-2 positivity and COVID-19 severity. Data from 91,248 UK Biobank participants with accelerometer data and complete covariate and linked COVID-19 data to July 19, 2020, were included. The risk of SARS-CoV-2 positivity and COVID-19 severity-in relation to overall physical activity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), balance between activity and sleep/rest, and variability in timing of sleep/rest-was assessed with adjusted logistic regression. Of 207 individuals with a positive test result, 124 were classified as having a severe infection. Overall physical activity and MVPA were not associated with severe COVID-19, whereas a poor balance between activity and sleep/rest was (odds ratio [OR] per standard deviation: 0.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.62 to 0.81]). This finding was related to higher daytime activity being associated with lower risk (OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.61 to 0.93) but higher movement during sleep/rest being associated with higher risk (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.42) of severe infection. Greater variability in timing of sleep/rest was also associated with increased risk (OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.35). Results for testing positive were broadly consistent. In conclusion, these results highlight the importance of not just physical activity, but also quality sleep/rest and regular sleep/rest patterns, on risk of COVID-19. Our findings indicate the risk of COVID-19 was consistently approximately 1.2-fold greater per approximately 40-minute increase in variability in timing of proxy measures of sleep, indicative of irregular sleeping patterns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Exercise , Rest , Sleep , Accelerometry , Aged , Biological Specimen Banks , Female , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , United Kingdom/epidemiology
20.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 94: 104354, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1051453

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the association between housing characteristics with objectively measured changes in physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) during the COVID-19 pandemic in older adults with hypertension. METHODS: Thirty-five older adults with hypertension were included in this exploratory study. Accelerometer-based PA and SB measures were assessed before and during a period of social distancing policy imposed due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Housing type, housing surface area and household size were tested as predictors of changes in PA and SB. A generalized linear mixed model was used for the analysis. RESULTS: Housing type was associated with changes in PA and SB. Individuals residing in an apartment showed a greater decrease in light PA on weekdays (ß= -65 min/day, p=0.035) and a trend for an increase in SB (ß= 55 min/day, p=0.056) compared to those residing in a detached house. Individuals residing in a row house showed a greater decrease in moderate-vigorous PA (ß= -10 min/day, p=0.037) and steps/day (ß= -2064, p=0.010) compared to those residing in a detached house. Individuals residing in an apartment showed a greater decrease in light PA on the weekends (ß= -83 min/day, p=0.015) and an increase in SB (ß= 72 min/day, p=0.036) compared to those residing in a detached house. No association was found for housing surface area and household size. CONCLUSIONS: Older adults with hypertension residing in an apartment or row house have greater unhealthy changes in movement behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic. Further studies are needed to confirm our preliminary findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Accelerometry , Aged , Housing , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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