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1.
Afr J Paediatr Surg ; 19(2): 65-67, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1614102

ABSTRACT

Background: Domestic accident (DA) is any harmful accidental event that occurs suddenly in the home or its immediate surroundings. Our study aims to describe the impact of the COVID-19 lockdown in the epidemiological and clinical profiles of DAs in children and their management. Materials and Methods: This was a mixed descriptive study, comparing DAs occurring during the COVID-19 lockdown and the same period of the previous year. We exhaustively included all children aged from 0 to 15 years admitted for DAs. Results: The incidence of DAs remains above 50% in both groups. The average age was 7 years and boys were more affected. Before the COVID-19 lockdown, the most common mechanism encountered was accidents on the public highway 20.75%, while during the lockdown, it was represented by falls from a high place with a height of 2 m or more. During the lockdown, 33.86% of patients consulted after more than 24 h of the trauma. Supracondylar fractures and burns remained the most frequent. In all cases, the cumulative frequency of fractures decreased during the lockdown. The COVID-19 lockdown had no impact on patient's management. Conclusion: The COVID-19 lockdown has negatively increased the consultation delay. However, it has considerably reduced the incidence of fractures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Accidental Falls , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Incidence , Male , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e935496, 2021 Dec 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599426

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The COVID-19 pandemic can affect the elderly population's general health. This study aimed to compare the effects of a remote home-based exercise program to improve the mental state, balance, and physical function and to prevent falls in adults aged 65 years and older during the COVID-19 pandemic in Seoul, Korea. MATERIAL AND METHODS Seventy participants were randomly assigned to an experimental group of 35 participants who underwent a remote home-based fall prevention exercise program and a control group of 35 participants. The experimental group performed an exercise program twice weekly for 8 weeks from June 2 to July 21, 2021. The Geriatric Depression Scale, 5 times sit to stand test, grip strength, 10-m walk test, gait analysis, Timed Up and Go test, and static balance test were assessed before and after the 8-week program. RESULTS The group-by-time interaction effect was statistically significant for the Geriatric Depression Scale, five times sit to stand test, grip strength, 10-meter walk, gait speed, step length, stride length, Timed Up and Go test, and static balance test (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, the experimental group showed a significant effect in all dependent variables except dynamic balance (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS In this population, the remote home-based fall prevention exercise program resulted in a significant improvement in physical function, psychological factors, and balance during the COVID-19 pandemic. The findings may have implications for community public health measures to protect the vulnerable during future epidemics and pandemics of infectious disease.


Subject(s)
Accidental Falls/prevention & control , Telemedicine , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Exercise , Exercise Therapy , Female , Geriatric Assessment , Hand Strength , Health Services for the Aged , Humans , Male , Postural Balance , Seoul/epidemiology , Walking Speed
3.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260889, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592578

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Approximately 40-70% of people with Parkinson's disease (PD) fall each year, causing decreased activity levels and quality of life. Current fall-prevention strategies include the use of pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies. To increase the accessibility of this vulnerable population, we developed a multidisciplinary telemedicine program using an Information and Communication Technology (ICT) platform. We hypothesized that the risk for falling in PD would decrease among participants receiving a multidisciplinary telemedicine intervention program added to standard office-based neurological care. OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of a multidisciplinary telemedicine intervention to decrease the incidence of falls in patients with PD. METHODS: Ongoing, longitudinal, randomized, single-blinded, case-control, clinical trial. We will include 76 non-demented patients with idiopathic PD with a high risk of falling and limited access to multidisciplinary care. The intervention group (n = 38) will receive multidisciplinary remote care in addition to standard medical care, and the control group (n = 38) standard medical care only. Nutrition, sarcopenia and frailty status, motor, non-motor symptoms, health-related quality of life, caregiver burden, falls, balance and gait disturbances, direct and non-medical costs will be assessed using validated rating scales. RESULTS: This study will provide a cost-effectiveness assessment of multidisciplinary telemedicine intervention for fall reduction in PD, in addition to standard neurological medical care. CONCLUSION: In this challenging initiative, we will determine whether a multidisciplinary telemedicine intervention program can reduce falls, as an alternative intervention option for PD patients with restricted access to multidisciplinary care. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04694443.


Subject(s)
Accidental Falls/prevention & control , Exercise Therapy/methods , Gait , Parkinson Disease/physiopathology , Patient Care Team/statistics & numerical data , Telemedicine/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Young Adult
4.
Arch Dis Child ; 106(11): 1050-1055, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501685

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Globally, injuries cause >5 million deaths annually and children and young people are particularly vulnerable. Injuries are the leading cause of death in people aged 5-24 years and a leading cause of disability. In most low-income and middle-income countries where the majority of global child injury burden occurs, systems for routinely collecting injury data are limited. METHODS: A new model of injury surveillance for use in emergency departments in Nepal was designed and piloted. Data from patients presenting with injuries were collected prospectively over 12 months and used to describe the epidemiology of paediatric injury presentations. RESULTS: The total number of children <18 years of age presenting with injury was 2696, representing 27% of all patients presenting with injuries enrolled. Most injuries in children presenting to the emergency departments in this study were unintentional and over half of children were <10 years of age. Falls, animal bites/stings and road traffic injuries accounted for nearly 75% of all injuries with poisonings, burns and drownings presenting proportionately less often. Over half of injuries were cuts, bites and open wounds. In-hospital child mortality from injury was 1%. CONCLUSION: Injuries affecting children in Nepal represent a significant burden. The data on injuries observed from falls, road traffic injuries and injuries related to animals suggest potential areas for injury prevention. This is the biggest prospective injury surveillance study in Nepal in recent years and supports the case for using injury surveillance to monitor child morbidity and mortality through improved data.


Subject(s)
Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Global Burden of Disease/economics , Public Health Surveillance/methods , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Accidental Falls/statistics & numerical data , Accidents, Traffic/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Animals , Bites and Stings/epidemiology , Burns/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Drowning/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/trends , Female , Humans , Male , Nepal/epidemiology , Poisoning/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Trauma Severity Indices , Wounds and Injuries/mortality , Wounds and Injuries/prevention & control
5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(20)2021 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480939

ABSTRACT

The number of technical solutions to remotely monitoring elderly citizens and detecting hazard situations has been increasing in the last few years. These solutions have dual purposes: to provide a feeling of safety to the elderly and to inform their relatives about potential risky situations, such as falls, forgotten medication, and other unexpected deviations from daily routine. Most of these solutions are based on IoT (Internet of Things) and dedicated sensors that need to be installed at the elderly's houses, hampering mass adoption. This justifies the search for non-invasive technical alternatives with smooth integration that relying only on existent devices, without the need for any additional installations. Therefore, this paper presents the SecurHome TV ecosystem, a technical solution based on the elderly's interactions with their TV sets-one of the most used devices in their daily lives-acting as a non-invasive sensor enabling one to detect potential hazardous situations through an elaborated warning algorithm. Thus, this paper describes in detail the SecurHome TV ecosystem, with special emphasis on the warning algorithm, and reports on its validation process. We conclude that notwithstanding some constraints while setting the user's pattern, either upon the cold start of the application or after an innocuous change in the user's TV routine, the algorithm detects most hazardous situations contributing to monitor elderly well-being at home.


Subject(s)
Accidental Falls , Ecosystem , Aged , Algorithms , Humans , Monitoring, Physiologic
6.
BMC Neurol ; 21(1): 332, 2021 Aug 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1379784

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The consequences of strict COVID-19 mobility restrictions on motor/non-motor features in Parkinson's disease (PD) have not been systematically studied but worse mobility and quality of life have been reported. To elucidate this question, 12 mild to moderate PD patients were assessed in March 2020 before and after two months of isolation as part of a clinical study that had to be interrupted due to the pandemic and the implementation of COVID19 mobility restrictions. METHODS: Twelve patients were systematically evaluated before and after the lockdown period as part of a larger cohort that previously underwent thermal water rehabilitation. Clinical outcomes were the Body Mass index, the Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test, the MDS-Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale part III, the 6 Minute Walking Test and the New Freezing of Gait Questionnaire. Global cognition was evaluated with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment scale. The impact of COVID-19 restrictions on quality of life and functional independence was evaluated with The Parkinson's disease Quality of life (PDQ-39), the Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living questionnaires (IADL) and the Parkinson's disease cognitive functional rating scales (PD-CFRS). RESULTS: After two months of isolation the Mini-BESTest score worsened (p=0.005), and four patients reported one or more falls during the lockdown. BMI increased (p=0.031) while the remaining clinical variables including quality of life did not change. CONCLUSION: We observed moderate worsening at Mini-BESTest, greater risk of falls and increased body weight as consequence of prolonged immobility. We believe negative effects were partially softened since patients were in contact with our multidisciplinary team during the lockdown and had previously received training to respond to the needs of this emergency isolation. These findings highligh the importnace of patient-centered interventions in PD management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gait Disorders, Neurologic , Mobility Limitation , Parkinson Disease , Accidental Falls , Activities of Daily Living , Communicable Disease Control , Gait Disorders, Neurologic/etiology , Humans , Male , Parkinson Disease/complications , Quality of Life , Risk , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(16)2021 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376823

ABSTRACT

Early childhood education aims to achieve the motor, cognitive, emotional, and social development of preschoolers by providing them with a variety of learning opportunities. The square-stepping exercise (SSE) is a balance and lower limb strength training programme used to prevent falls and stimulate cognitive function in older adults. This project aims to propose an SSE tele-exercise (Tele-SSE) protocol to evaluate its effects on the motor and cognitive development of children aged between 3 and 6 years. A randomized controlled trial with experimental (Tele-SSE) and control (general education) groups will be carried out. The application of Tele-SSE will be performed for 9 months (three times per week) and one additional follow-up after the intervention at the beginning of the next academic year. One-hundred and two preschoolers will be recruited and randomly distributed into the two groups: experimental (n = 51) and control (n = 51). Although the main outcome will be balance due to the nature of the SSE, outcomes will include physical and motor (body mass index, waist circumference, handgrip and lower-limb strength, speed-agility, and cardiorespiratory fitness) and cognitive (executive functions and attention, episodic memory, and language assessment, using the Fitness Assessment in the Preschool Battery (PREFIT) and The National Institutes of Health Toolbox-Early Childhood Cognition Battery. This project aims to improve cognitive and motor skills in preschoolers aged between 3 and 6 years old, based on a 9-month Tele-SSE intervention. If this intervention proves to be effective, it could be implemented in those centres, entities and associations specializing in early childhood education.


Subject(s)
Exercise , Hand Strength , Accidental Falls , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Cognition , Exercise Therapy , Humans , Infant , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
8.
BMC Neurol ; 21(1): 326, 2021 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371955

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Parkinson's Disease (PD) is a highly prevalent neurodegenerative disease whose incidence is increasing with an aging population. One of the most serious manifestations of PD is gait instability, leading to falls and subsequent complications that can be debilitating, even fatal. Boxing therapy (BT) uses gait and balance exercises to improve ambulation in people with PD, though its efficacy has not yet been fully proven. METHODS: In the current longitudinal observational study, 98 participants with idiopathic PD underwent twice-weekly BT sessions. Primary outcome was self-reported falls per month; secondary outcomes were quantitative and semi-quantitative gait and balance performance evaluations. Statistical methods included segmented generalized estimating equation with an independent correlation structure, binomial distribution, and log link. RESULTS: The average number of self-reported falls per month per participant decreased by 87%, from 0.86 ± 3.58 prior to BT, to 0.11 ± 0.26 during BT. During the lockdown imposed by COVID-19, this increased to 0.26 ± 0.48 falls per month. Females and those > 65 years old reported the greatest increase in falls during the lockdown period. Post-lockdown resumption of BT resulted in another decline in falls, to 0.14 ± 0.33. Quantitative performance metrics, including standing from a seated position and standing on one leg, largely mirrored the pattern of falls pre-and post-lockdown. CONCLUSIONS: BT may be an effective option for many PD patients.


Subject(s)
Boxing , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Exercise Therapy , Parkinson Disease/psychology , Parkinson Disease/therapy , Accidental Falls/prevention & control , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Gait , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Postural Balance
9.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 90(4): 708-713, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352347

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the entire global health care system. In California, because of a high burden of cases, a lockdown order was announced on March 19, 2020. This study investigated the impact of the lockdown on the epidemiology and outcomes of trauma admissions at the largest trauma center in Los Angeles. METHODS: A retrospective study comparing epidemiological and clinical characteristics and outcomes of trauma admissions during the lockdown period (March 20, 2020, to June 30, 2020) to a similar period in the previous year (March 20, 2019, to June 30, 2019) was performed. Data collection included demographics, mechanism of injury, prehospital transportation, substance use, injury severity, resource utilization, and outcomes. FINDINGS: There were 1,202 admissions during the lockdown period in 2020 and 1,143 during the same calendar period in 2019. Following the lockdown, there was a reduction in the automobile versus pedestrian admissions by 42.5%, motorcycle injuries by 38.7%, and bicycle accidents by 28.4% but no significant effect on the number of motor vehicle accident admissions. There was an increase in ground level falls by 32.5%, especially in the elderly group. The absolute number of gunshot wounds increased by 6.2% and knife injuries by 39.3%. Suicides increased by 38.5%. Positive testing for substance use increased by 20.9%. During the lockdown, patients suffered less severe trauma, with Injury Severity Score of <9 (p < 0.001), as well as less severe head (p = 0.001) and severe chest trauma (p < 0.001). Trauma deaths were reduced by 27.9%, and the crude overall mortality was significantly lower during the lockdown period (4.1% vs. 5.9%, p = 0.046). Intensive care unit admission rates, mechanical ventilation, and intensive care unit length of stay were all reduced. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 lockdown in 2020 had a significant effect on the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and critical care resource utilization of trauma admissions in a large academic trauma center. These findings may help in planning and optimization of hospital resources during the pandemic. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Epidemiological study, level III; Retrospective observational, level III.


Subject(s)
Accidental Injuries/epidemiology , Accidents, Traffic/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Physical Abuse/statistics & numerical data , Accidental Falls/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Los Angeles/epidemiology , Male , Mortality , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Trauma Centers/statistics & numerical data , Trauma Severity Indices , Wounds, Gunshot/epidemiology
10.
Psychogeriatrics ; 21(5): 826-831, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1346004

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding the physical and mental changes in community-dwelling elderly people is very important during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic when considering preventive measures. The purpose of this study was to clarify the changes of physical function and anxiety for activities of daily living in community-dwelling older adults, focusing on locomotor function during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The study participants were 127 older people who participated in successive surveys, in the summers of 2019 and again in 2020, after the state of emergency. The Locomo 25 questionnaire, Geriatric Depression Scale-15 (GDS-15) questionnaire, medical history, and number of people living together were self-reported. The Locomo 25 covers six aspects of physical pain, movement-related difficulty, usual care, daily activity, social activities, and anxiety. RESULTS: The paired samples t-test revealed that Locomo 25 total scores in 2020 were significantly higher than those in 2019. The GDS-15 score showed no significant difference. The comparison of scores for each item of the Locomo 25 revealed significantly higher scores in 2020 on Q21 ('difficult to perform sports activity', P = 0.0021), Q22 ('restricted from meeting own friends', P < 0.001), Q23 ('restricted from joining social activities', P < 0.001), Q24 ('anxious about falling in own house', P = 0.0023), and Q25 ('anxious about being unable to walk in the future', P = 0.0016). CONCLUSIONS: About 2 months after declaration of the first state of emergency due to the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan, social activity was severely restricted. Older adults showed almost no changes in body pain and locomotive disabilities, but increases in their anxieties about walking ability and falling were remarkable.


Subject(s)
Accidental Falls , COVID-19 , Accidental Falls/prevention & control , Activities of Daily Living , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , Fear , Humans , Independent Living , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Walking
11.
World Neurosurg ; 151: e178-e184, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1297236

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The 2020 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic resulted in state-specific quarantine protocols and introduced the concept of social distancing into modern parlance. We assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on neurotrauma presentations in the first 3 months after shutdown throughout Pennsylvania. METHODS: The Pennsylvania Trauma Systems Foundation was queried for registry data from the Pennsylvania Trauma Outcomes Study between March 12 and June 5 in each year from 2017 to 2020. RESULTS: After the COVID-19 shutdown, there was a 27% reduction in neurotrauma volume, from 2680 cases in 2017 to 2018 cases in 2020, and a 28.8% reduction in traumatic brain injury volume. There was no significant difference in neurotrauma phenotype incurred relative to total cases. Injury mechanism was less likely to be motor vehicle collision and more likely caused by falls, gunshot wound, and recreational vehicle accidents (P < 0.05). Location of injury was less likely on roads and public locations and more likely at indoor private locations (P < 0.05). The proportion of patients with neurotrauma with blood alcohol concentration >0.08 g/dL was reduced in 2020 (11.4% vs. 9.0%; P < 0.05). Mortality was higher during 2020 compared with pre-COVID years (7.7% vs. 6.4%; P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: During statewide shutdown, neurotrauma volume and alcohol-related trauma decreased and low-impact traumas and gunshot wounds increased, with a shift toward injuries occurring in private, indoor locations. These changes increased mortality. However, there was not a change in the types of injuries sustained.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Quarantine/trends , Trauma Centers/trends , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Accidental Falls , Accidents, Traffic/trends , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/epidemiology , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/therapy , Pennsylvania/epidemiology , Registries , Wounds and Injuries/therapy , Wounds, Gunshot/epidemiology , Wounds, Gunshot/therapy , Young Adult
12.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 54: 103111, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284395

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Public health responses to Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) including lockdowns may negatively impact physical and mental functioning in clinical populations. People living with multiple sclerosis (MS) may be more susceptible to physical function deterioration while practicing social distancing. Recent reports have suggested that about 50% of people with MS (pwMS) decreased their leisure physical activity during COVID-19, and upwards of 30% reported decreased physical fitness levels. However, the impact of social distancing on adverse health-related outcomes such as falls has not received much scrutiny. Therefore, we explored the frequency and characteristics of falls experienced by people living with and without MS during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Two-hundred and thirty-nine individuals, including 106 pwMS (median age: 59 years) and 133 people living without MS (median age: 66 years) were recruited for this cross-sectional study. A snowball sampling strategy was used for online recruitment. Participants completed a customized falls questionnaire and the number of falls experienced (if any) during COVID-19 was recorded. Fall-related characteristics such as the timing, locations, activities undertaken before falling and consequences, as well as self-reported physical activity were also recorded. RESULTS: Overall, participants reported 232 falls (1.67 falls/person in pwMS and 0.41 falls/person in non-MS participants). People living with MS (pwMS) had a significantly higher frequency of falls (58.5% vs 21.8%; p< 0.001) and recurrent falls (45.3% vs 9.8%; p< 0.001) compared to non-MS participants. Additionally, pwMS reported a significantly higher proportion of in-home falls (83.9% vs 54.2%; p = 0.004), as well as a higher proportion of overall injuries (44.3% vs 12.5%, p< 0.001), fractures (5.7% vs 0.8%, p = 0.048), and healthcare utilization (9.4% vs 1.6%, p = 0.007) compared to non-MS participants. A similar proportion of pwMS (49.1%) and non-MS participants (52.2%) reported lower physical activity levels during COVID-19. CONCLUSION: This cross-sectional study revealed that pwMS remain at high risk of falls and fall-related outcomes during COVID-19. The high number of falls experienced by pwMS is of clinical concern considering the current strain on the healthcare system. Findings from this study highlight the importance of monitoring falls and the potential for telerehabilitation in persons with MS during COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Accidental Falls , Aged , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Middle Aged , Multiple Sclerosis/complications , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Exp Gerontol ; 152: 111434, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258367

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence-based interventions to improve mobility in older people include balance, strength and cognitive training. Digital technologies provide the opportunity to deliver tailored and progressive programs at home. However, it is unknown if they are effective in older people, especially in those with cognitive impairment. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of a novel tablet-delivered cognitive-motor program on mobility in older people with cognitive impairment. METHODS: This was a 6-month single-blind randomised controlled trial of older people living in the community with subjective and/or objective cognitive impairment. Participants randomised to the intervention were asked to follow a 120 min per week balance, strength and cognitive training program delivered via an app on an iPad. Both the intervention and control group received monthly phone calls and health fact sheets. The primary outcome measure was gait speed. Secondary measures included dual-task gait speed, balance (step test, FISCIT-4), 5 sit to stand test, cognition (executive function, memory, attention), mood and balance confidence. Adherence, safety, usability and feedback were also measured. RESULTS: The planned sample size of 110 was not reached due to COVID-19 restrictions. A total of 93 (mean age 72.8 SD 7.0 years) participants were randomised to the two groups. Of these 77 participants returned to the follow-up clinic. In intention-to-treat analysis for gait speed, there was a non-significant improvement favouring the intervention group (ß 0.04 m/s 95% CI -0.01, 0.08). There were no significant findings for secondary outcomes. Adherence was excellent (84.5%), usability of the app high (76.7% SD 15.3) and no serious adverse events were reported. Feedback on the app was positive and included suggestions for future updates. CONCLUSION: Due to COVID-19 the trial was under powered to detect significant results. Despite this, there was a trend towards improvement in the primary outcome measure. The excellent adherence and positive feedback about the app suggest a fully powered trial is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Accidental Falls , Aged , Cognition , Cognitive Dysfunction/therapy , Exercise , Exercise Therapy , Humans , Postural Balance , SARS-CoV-2 , Single-Blind Method , Tablets
14.
Rev. gaúch. enferm ; 42(spe): e20200221, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1243893

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objectives To describe personal conditions and home structure that predisposes the elderly to the risk of falling, in the perspective of Neuman's stressors; to describe the content, structure and origin of social representations about falling at home by elderly people; and conjecture the implications of this empirical evidence on the daily lives of the elderly in the context of the pandemic caused by COVID-19. Method Mixed method with concomitant triangulation (January-July/2017), qualitative design (structural and procedural approaches to the Social Representations Theory) and quantitative (sectional) approaching elderly people ≥65 years. Results Environmental factors were identified for falling at home, fear of activities of daily living and loss of visual acuity. Feelings and behaviors mentioned in the possible central nucleus justified the modulation of behaviors. Analysis categories: 1) Representation of the (in)adaptability of the home environment; 2) Representation and overcoming limitations arising from weaknesses. Conclusion It was possible to produce conjectures based on empirical evidence in the current situation in the pandemic's dynamics.


RESUMEN Objetivos Describir las condiciones personales y la estructura del hogar que predispone a los ancianos al riesgo de caerse, en la perspectiva de los factores estresantes de Neuman; Describir el contenido, la estructura y el origen de las representaciones sociales sobre el hecho de caer en el hogar por personas mayores. y conjetura las implicaciones de esta evidencia empírica en la vida cotidiana de los ancianos en el contexto de la pandemia causada por COVID-19. Método método mixto con triangulación concomitante (enero-julio / 2017), diseño cualitativo (enfoques estructurales y procesales de la teoría de las representaciones sociales) y enfoque cuantitativo (seccional) para personas mayores ≥65 años. Resultados Se identificaron factores ambientales para caerse en casa, miedo a las actividades de la vida diaria y pérdida de agudeza visual. Los sentimientos y los comportamientos mencionados en el posible núcleo central justificaron la modulación de los comportamientos. Categorías de análisis: 1) Representación de la (in) adaptabilidad del entorno del hogar; 2) Representación y superación de limitaciones derivadas de debilidades. Conclusión Fue posible producir conjeturas basadas en evidencia empírica en la situación actual de la dinámica de la pandemia.


RESUMO Objetivos Descrever condições pessoais e estrutura domiciliar que predispõe a pessoa idosa ao risco de queda, na perspectiva de estressores de Neuman; descrever os conteúdos, a estrutura e a origem das representações sociais sobre queda no domicílio por pessoas idosas; e conjecturar as implicações destas evidências empíricas sobre o cotidiano de idosos no contexto da pandemia ocasionada pelo COVID-19. Método Método misto com triangulação convergente (Janeiro-Julho/2017), delineamento qualitativo (abordagens estrutural e processual da Teoria das Representações Sociais) e quantitativo (seccional) abordando idosos (≥65 anos). Resultados Identificaram-se fatores ambientais para queda no domicílio, medo diante das atividades de vida diária e perda da acuidade visual. Sentimentos e comportamentos mencionados no possível núcleo central justificaram a modulação de comportamentos. Categorias de análise: 1)Representação da (in)adaptabilidade do ambiente domiciliar; 2) Representação e superação de limitações advindas das fragilidades. Conclusão Foi possível produzir conjecturas sustentadas nas evidências empíricas na situação atual na dinâmica da pandemia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Accidental Falls , Residence Characteristics , Risk , Pandemics , COVID-19/psychology , Activities of Daily Living , Population Dynamics , Geriatric Nursing , Housing
15.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(5)2021 May 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223561

ABSTRACT

We present an unusual case of phalangeal fracture resulting from direct penetration by the barb of a conducted electrical weapon (Taser). When a Taser is triggered, compressed gas propels two barbs with trailing insulated wires which deliver a pulsed electrical discharge on contact. A 51-year-old man presented with a single barb of the Taser embedded in the diaphysis of the proximal phalanx and an associated open fracture. The barb was removed under local anaesthesia. The fracture was stable and was mobilised in a flexible splint. Oral antibiotics were commenced in recognition of the risk of flexor sheath and bone inoculation. While the most severe complications associated with Taser are related to the electrical component, the most common injuries are associated with falls and barb penetrations. Clinicians must be mindful of the risk of fracture, infection and soft tissue injury when such a foreign body penetrates a phalanx.


Subject(s)
Finger Phalanges , Fractures, Bone , Accidental Falls , Bone Wires , Fractures, Bone/diagnostic imaging , Fractures, Bone/etiology , Fractures, Bone/surgery , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
16.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 69(7): 1713-1721, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218150

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Emergency department (ED) visits have declined while excess mortality, not attributable to COVID-19, has grown. It is not known whether older adults are accessing emergency care differently from their younger counterparts. Our objective was to determine patterns of ED visit counts for emergent conditions during the COVID-19 pandemic for older adults. DESIGN: Retrospective, observational study. SETTING: Observational analysis of ED sites enrolled in a national clinical quality registry. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred and sixty-four ED sites in 33 states from January 1, 2019 to November 15, 2020. MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURES: We measured daily ED visit counts for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), stroke, sepsis, fall, and hip fracture, as well as deaths in the ED, by age categories. We estimated Poisson regression models comparing early and post-early pandemic periods (defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) to the pre-pandemic period. We report incident rate ratios to summarize changes in visit incidence. RESULTS: For AMI, stroke, and sepsis, the older (75-84) and oldest old (85+ years) had the greatest decline in visit counts initially and the smallest recovery in the post-early pandemic periods. For falls, visits declined early and partially recovered uniformly across age categories. In contrast, hip fractures exhibited less change in visit rates across time periods. Deaths in the ED increased during the early pandemic period, but then fell and were persistently lower than baseline, especially for the older (75-84) and oldest old (85+ years). CONCLUSIONS: The decline in ED visits for emergent conditions among older adults has been more pronounced and persistent than for younger patients, with fewer deaths in the ED. This is concerning given the greater prevalence and risk of poor outcomes for emergent conditions in this age group that are amenable to time-sensitive ED diagnosis and treatment, and may in part explain excess mortality during the COVID-19 era among older adults.


Subject(s)
Accidental Falls/statistics & numerical data , Aging , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Myocardial Infarction , Sepsis , Stroke , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aging/physiology , Aging/psychology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Emergencies/epidemiology , Emergency Medical Services/methods , Emergency Medical Services/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Mortality , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/diagnosis , Sepsis/mortality , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/mortality , United States/epidemiology
17.
Age Ageing ; 50(3): 641-648, 2021 05 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217804

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Frail older persons may have an atypical presentation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The value of real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) testing for identifying severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nursing homes (NHs) residents is not known. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether (i) atypical symptoms may predict rRT-PCR results and (ii) rRT-PCR results may predict immunisation against SARS-CoV-2 in NH residents. DESIGN: A retrospective longitudinal study. SETTING: Eight NHs with at least 10 rRT-PCR-positive residents. SUBJECTS: A total of 456 residents. METHODS: Typical and atypical symptoms recorded in residents' files during the 14 days before and after rRT-PCR testing were analysed. Residents underwent blood testing for IgG-SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein 6 to 8 weeks after testing. Univariate and multivariate analyses compared symptoms and immunisation rates in rRT-PCR-positive and negative residents. RESULTS: A total of 161 residents had a positive rRT-PCR (35.3%), 17.4% of whom were asymptomatic before testing. Temperature >37.8°C, oxygen saturation <90%, unexplained anorexia, behavioural change, exhaustion, malaise and falls before testing were independent predictors of a further positive rRT-PCR. Among the rRT-PCR-positive residents, 95.2% developed SARS-CoV-2 antibodies vs 7.6% in the rRT-PCR-negative residents. Among the residents with a negative rRT-PCR, those who developed SARS-CoV-2 antibodies more often had typical or atypical symptoms (P = 0.02 and <0.01, respectively). CONCLUSION: This study supports a strategy based on (i) testing residents with typical or unexplained atypical symptoms for an early identification of the first SARS-CoV-2 cases, (ii) rT-PCR testing for identifying COVID-19 residents, (iii) repeated wide-facility testing (including asymptomatic cases) as soon as a resident is tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and (iv) implementing SARS-CoV-2 infection control measures in rRT-PCR-negative residents when they have unexplained typical or atypical symptoms.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Immunization , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Accidental Falls , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anorexia , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , False Negative Reactions , False Positive Reactions , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Nursing Homes , Pandemics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serologic Tests/methods
18.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 287, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1208405

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a threat to ongoing clinical trials necessitating regular face-to-face, in-person meetings, particularly in participants with a high risk of complications. Guidance on how to handle and safely continue such trials is lacking. Chronically ill elderly individuals require-in addition to protection from infection-regular physical exercise and social contact to remain healthy. Solutions on how to handle these conflicting necessities are needed. The ENTAIER-randomised controlled trial was investigating the influence of mindful movements on fall risk, fear of falling, mobility, balance, life quality, and other outcomes. The study population was planned to comprise of 550 chronically ill elderly individuals with a high risk of falling. The movements were regularly performed in coached groups over 6 months. After the trial began, COVID-19 lockdowns stopped all in-person meetings, and it was expected that the limitations of this pandemic would continue for a long term. Therefore, the exercise programme, which involved complex movements and was typically conducted face-to-face in groups, had to be substituted by a telemedicine programme within a short timeframe. The objectives, therefore, were to identify challenges and tasks that could to be resolved and steps that could to be taken to achieve high-quality, efficacy, safety, and enable human encounter and motivation. METHODS: We proceeded with four steps: 1) A literature review on the quality and feasibility issues of telemedicine in general, and specifically, in exercise training in elderly individuals. 2) Participation in two international telemedicine task forces on integrative medicine, particularly, mind-body medicine. 3) Interviews with study therapists, (for practical purposes, eurythmy therapists and Tai Chi teachers are summarized here as therapists) personnel, and international experts on providing mindful movement exercises and other physiotherapies via live telecommunication technology, and with scientists and patient representatives. 4) Final evaluation by the core trial team and subsequent planning and implementation of changes in the trial organisation. RESULTS: Various tasks and challenges were identified: for the technical equipment for therapists and patients; for the ability of therapists and trial participants to adequately manage the technology and telemedicine intervention; the reservations and concerns about the technology among therapists and participants; safety and data protection in using the technology; and study design. The two major options found on how to continue the trial in the COVID-19 situation were a complete switch to telemedicine and a partial switch in the form of risk management implemented into the former design. CONCLUSIONS: The management of an ongoing clinical trial in a national or international crisis with a minimum of available time and extra financial resources, alongside with two checklists on steps and procedures for trial continuation and telemedicine implementation, may be informative for other researchers or healthcare providers faced with similar challenges and making similar decisions in the current situation or similar future scenarios. TRAIL REGISTRATION: www.drks.de . DRKS00016609. Registered July 30, 2019.


Subject(s)
Accidental Falls , COVID-19 , Aged , Communicable Disease Control , Exercise Therapy , Fear , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(5)2021 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1143560

ABSTRACT

Falls are one of the leading causes of permanent injury and/or disability among the elderly. When these people live alone, it is convenient that a caregiver or family member visits them periodically. However, these visits do not prevent falls when the elderly person is alone. Furthermore, in exceptional circumstances, such as a pandemic, we must avoid unnecessary mobility. This is why remote monitoring systems are currently on the rise, and several commercial solutions can be found. However, current solutions use devices attached to the waist or wrist, causing discomfort in the people who wear them. The users also tend to forget to wear the devices carried in these positions. Therefore, in order to prevent these problems, the main objective of this work is designing and recollecting a new dataset about falls, falling risks and activities of daily living using an ankle-placed device obtaining a good balance between the different activity types. This dataset will be a useful tool for researchers who want to integrate the fall detector in the footwear. Thus, in this work we design the fall-detection device, study the suitable activities to be collected, collect the dataset from 21 users performing the studied activities and evaluate the quality of the collected dataset. As an additional and secondary study, we implement a simple Deep Learning classifier based on this data to prove the system's feasibility.


Subject(s)
Accidental Falls , Wearable Electronic Devices , Accelerometry , Accidental Falls/prevention & control , Activities of Daily Living , Aged , Algorithms , Ankle , Humans , Neural Networks, Computer
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(4)2021 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110406

ABSTRACT

Physical activity is an important determinant of health in later life. The public health restrictions in response to COVID-19 have interrupted habitual physical activity behaviours in older adults. In response, numerous exercise programmes have been developed for older adults, many involving chair-based exercise. The aim of this systematic review was to synthesise the effects of chair-based exercise on the health of older adults. Ovid Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, PyscInfo and SPORTDiscus databases were searched from inception to 1 April 2020. Chair-based exercise programmes in adults ≥50 years, lasting for at least 2 weeks and measuring the impact on physical function were included. Risk of bias of included studies were assessed using Cochrane risk of bias tool v2. Intervention content was described using TiDieR Criteria. Where sufficient studies (≥3 studies) reported data on an outcome, a random effects meta-analysis was performed. In total, 25 studies were included, with 19 studies in the meta-analyses. Seventeen studies had a low risk of bias and five had a high risk of bias. In this systematic review including 1388 participants, results demonstrated that chair-based exercise programmes improve upper extremity (handgrip strength: MD = 2.10; 95% CI = 0.76, 3.43 and 30 s arm curl test: MD = 2.82; 95% CI = 1.34, 4.31) and lower extremity function (30 s chair stand: MD 2.25; 95% CI = 0.64, 3.86). The findings suggest that chair-based exercises are effective and should be promoted as simple and easily implemented activities to maintain and develop strength for older adults.


Subject(s)
Accidental Falls/prevention & control , Exercise Therapy , Sitting Position , Activities of Daily Living , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Fear , Female , Hand Strength , Humans , Male , Quality of Life
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