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1.
Med Sci Monit ; 28: e936547, 2022 May 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1876159

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND During the current Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, falls have been identified as a potential presenting symptom in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection; however, data on factors increasing fall risk in this patient population are limited. This study aimed to examine the factors that may predispose hospitalized COVID-19 disease patients to falls. MATERIAL AND METHODS In this retrospective observational study, hospitalized COVID-19 disease patients were examined for fall incidence, as well as demographics, comorbidities, and clinical and laboratory data. Patients were stratified according to their fall status and their characteristics were compared using Fisher's exact test or Mann-Whitney U test. A total of 312 hospitalized COVID-19 disease patients were enrolled (median age, 75 years; males, 51.3%), of whom 11 (3.5%) fell. RESULTS There was a greater prevalence of falls among patients who experienced arrhythmias than those that did not (28.6% vs 1.7%; P<0.001). Additionally, a significantly greater proportion of those that were discharged to the internal ward and to the intensive care unit fell (10.3% and 10.0%, respectively) compared to those that were discharged home (1.6%, P=0.008). Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was significantly elevated in patients who fell (5.3 vs 0.97 µIU/mL, P=0.013), while alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was significantly lower in those who fell (17.1 vs 33.5 IU/L, P=0.041). CONCLUSIONS Arrhythmias may be an important predisposing factor for falls in COVID-19 disease patients and fall prevention programs should prioritize interventions directed at this vulnerable patient population.


Subject(s)
Accidental Falls , COVID-19 , Accidental Falls/prevention & control , Aged , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Front Public Health ; 10: 848122, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776063

ABSTRACT

Background: Early childhood fall is a pressing global public health problem and one of the leading causes of child injury. China has a high proportion of children and a high burden of illness from falls. Therefore, educational interventions to prevent childhood fall would be beneficial. Methods: We used the outcome of knowledge, attitude and practice questionnaire, which was conducted by Pudong New District of Shanghai Municipal Government, to summarize demographic and baseline characteristics grouped by intervention or not, and analyzed descriptive statistics of continuous and categorical variables. A logistic stepwise function model was established to study the influence of different covariables on the degree of injury, and AIC/BIC/AICC was used to select the optimal model. Finally, we carried out single-factor analysis and established a multifactor model by the stepwise function method. Results: Attitude and actual behavior scores had significant differences. The intervention and control groups had 20.79 ± 3.20 and 20.39 ± 2.89 attitude scores, respectively. Compared to the control group (5.97 ± 1.32), the intervention group had higher actual behavior scores (5.75 ± 1.50). In the univariate analysis results, fathers' education level, mothers' education level, actual behavior and what cares for children had a significant influence on whether children got injured. In multivariate analysis, attitude had a positive influence on whether injured [odds ratio: 1.13 (1.05-1.21), P < 0.001]. Conclusion: Educational intervention for children and their guardians can effectively reduce the risk of childhood falls, and changes in behavior and attitude are the result of educational influence. Education of childhood fall prevention can be used as a public health intervention to improve children's health.


Subject(s)
Accidental Falls , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Accidental Falls/prevention & control , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
BMJ Open Qual ; 11(1)2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759372

ABSTRACT

Inpatient falls are frequently reported incidents in hospitals around the world. The recent COVID-19 pandemic has further exacerbated the risk. With the rising importance of human factors and ergonomics (HF&E), a fall prevention programme was introduced by applying HF&E principles to reduce inpatient falls from a systems engineering perspective. The programme was conducted in an acute public hospital with around 750 inpatient beds in Hong Kong. A hospital falls review team (the team) was formed in June 2020 to plan and implement the programme. The 'Define, Measure, Analyse, Improve and Control' (DMAIC) method was adopted. Improvement actions following each fall review were implemented. Fall rates in the 'pre-COVID-19' period (January-December 2019), 'COVID-19' period (January-June 2020) and 'programme' period (July 2020-August 2021) were used for evaluation of the programme effectiveness. A total of 120, 85 and 142 inpatient falls in the 'pre-COVID-19', 'COVID-19' and 'programme' periods were reviewed, respectively. Thirteen areas with fall risks were identified by the team where improvement actions applying HF&E principles were implemented accordingly. The average fall rates were 0.476, 0.773 and 0.547 per 1000 patient bed days in these periods, respectively. The average fall rates were found to be significantly increased from the pre-COVID-19 to COVID-19 periods (mean difference=0.297 (95% CI 0.068 to 0.526), p=0.009), which demonstrated that the COVID-19 pandemic might have affected the hospitals fall rates, while a significant decrease was noted between the COVID-19 and programme periods (mean difference=-0.226 (95% CI -0.449 to -0.003), p=0.047), which proved that the programme in apply HF&E principles to prevent falls was effective. Since HF&E principles are universal, the programme can be generalised to other healthcare institutes, which the participation of staff trained in HF&E in the quality improvement team is vital to its success.


Subject(s)
Accidental Falls , COVID-19 , Accidental Falls/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , Ergonomics , Humans , Inpatients , Pandemics/prevention & control
4.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 463, 2022 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731525

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Falls among older people are a major global health concern. This process evaluation investigates the experience of participants aged 60+ in a yoga program aimed at preventing falls which transitioned from studio-based classes to online classes in response to COVID-19 restrictions. We sought to understand how the Successful AGEing (SAGE) yoga program functioned in both settings and as a hybrid program, and to explain why it worked well for most participants. METHODS: Realist process evaluation was used to explore the factors that facilitated a successful transition for most participants, and to consider why it did not work for a minority. This approach develops program theories that describe which mechanisms an intervention is (or is not) activating, and how this is mediated by context to generate process outcomes. Data included interviews with participants (n = 21) and yoga instructors (n = 3), self-report feedback forms (n = 46), observation of classes and routine process measures. RESULTS: Factors that facilitated a successful transition for most participants included the quality of yoga instruction, the program format and inherent characteristics of yoga. Gains in transitioning online included continuity and greater convenience. Losses included perceived reduction in the effectiveness of yoga instruction. There were greater challenges for people struggling with pain and in disadvantageous home environments. We identified six program theories configured around 16 mechanisms: 1. It's worth the effort and 2. In expert hands (these had the same mechanisms: value expectancy, therapeutic alliance and achievement/mastery), 3. A communal experience (these mechanisms were shared experience, social connection, social comparison and peer checking), 4. Putting yoga within reach (accessibility, convenience, gratitude), 5. Building yoga habits (purposeful structure, momentum, accountability and continuity), and 6. Yoga's special properties (embodiment and mindfulness). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that online delivery of a yoga program for people aged 60+ retained much of the value of a face-to-face program for the majority of participants, and increased the value for some. The structured, communal nature of an organised group program delivered by a skilled instructor, together with yoga's intrinsic focus on mindfulness, facilitated continued engagement and perceived health benefits, despite the change in delivery mode.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Meditation , Yoga , Accidental Falls/prevention & control , Aged , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(3)2022 02 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686760

ABSTRACT

In this study, a design science research methodology was used aiming at designing, implementing and evaluating a digital health service to complement the provision of healthcare for elderly people with balance disorders and risk of falling. An explanatory sequential mixed methods study allowed to identify and explore the dissatisfaction with electronic medical records and the opportunity for using digital health solutions. The suggested recommendations helped to elaborate and develop "BALANCE", a digital service implemented on the METHIS platform, which was recently validated for remote monitoring of chronic patients in primary healthcare. "BALANCE" provides clinical and interactive data, questionnaire pre and post-balance rehabilitation, tutorial videos with balance exercises and patient-recorded videos of the exercises. This digital service was demonstrated, including five elderly patients with clinical recommendations for balance rehabilitation at home. Finally, the authors conducted two focus groups with the participants and their caregivers as well as with physicians. The focus groups aimed at exploring their satisfaction level, needs of adjustment in the "BALANCE" service and strategies for applicability. The digital healthcare service evaluation revealed a significant potential for clinical applicability of this digital solution for elderly people with balance disorders and risk of falling.


Subject(s)
Accidental Falls , Exercise , Accidental Falls/prevention & control , Aged , Delivery of Health Care , Exercise Therapy , Health Services , Humans
6.
J Appl Gerontol ; 41(5): 1473-1479, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673731

ABSTRACT

AIM: To examine the relationship between falls among high-risk older adults at one Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE) and the COVID-19 closure of its Day Health Center (DHC), which provides participants with social and rehabilitative services and contributes to their weekly physical activity. METHODS: Self-reported falls during the 3 months before the DHC's closure ("pre-COVID-19") were compared in number and in character to falls during its closure ("COVID-19"). RESULTS: One thirty five participants were enrolled during the entire 6-month period; 37% (n = 50) fell during this time. These participants experienced fewer falls during COVID-19 (mean = 0.64) than they did pre-COVID-19 (mean=1.24, p = .0003). CONCLUSIONS: In this population of high-risk, community-dwelling older adults, an abrupt reduction in activity levels may have reduced falls. Physical activity has been shown to both increase and protect against falls in older adults. The long-term consequences of a comparably prolonged period of inactivity merit further study.


Subject(s)
Accidental Falls , COVID-19 , Accidental Falls/prevention & control , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Exercise , Humans , Independent Living
8.
J Nutr Health Aging ; 26(3): 217-221, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616272

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The ENJOY project (Exercise interveNtion outdoor proJect in the cOmmunitY for older people) is a community-based research project actively promoting physical activity engagement through the delivery of an exercise program using outdoor multimodal exercise equipment. This study investigated the impact of the physical activity program on falls in older people. METHOD: This study was a multi-site prospective study with a pre-post intervention design and 12-month follow up. Eighty older people with increased falls risk underwent a 12-week supervised outdoors exercise program followed by a 6-month maintenance phase. The proportion of fallers and falls incidence were compared between the preceding and the prospective years. RESULTS: A sample of 54 (age 72.4±7.3, 79.6% women) was available for the 12 months analysis (due to COVID19 lockdowns, data of 19 participants were excluded and 4 dropped out). Number of fallers (from 51.8% to 31.4%, p=0.03) and falls incidence (from 42 to 29 falls, p<0.01) were significantly reduced at the 12-months follow up. CONCLUSION: The ENJOY Seniors Exercise Park program integrates outdoor multimodal exercise stations including specific exercises designed to challenge dynamic balance during functional daily movements. The outcomes provide preliminary evidence for the potential positive impact of the ENJOY Seniors Exercise Park in reducing falls for older people.


Subject(s)
Accidental Falls , COVID-19 , Accidental Falls/prevention & control , Aged , Communicable Disease Control , Exercise , Female , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies
9.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e935496, 2021 Dec 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599426

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The COVID-19 pandemic can affect the elderly population's general health. This study aimed to compare the effects of a remote home-based exercise program to improve the mental state, balance, and physical function and to prevent falls in adults aged 65 years and older during the COVID-19 pandemic in Seoul, Korea. MATERIAL AND METHODS Seventy participants were randomly assigned to an experimental group of 35 participants who underwent a remote home-based fall prevention exercise program and a control group of 35 participants. The experimental group performed an exercise program twice weekly for 8 weeks from June 2 to July 21, 2021. The Geriatric Depression Scale, 5 times sit to stand test, grip strength, 10-m walk test, gait analysis, Timed Up and Go test, and static balance test were assessed before and after the 8-week program. RESULTS The group-by-time interaction effect was statistically significant for the Geriatric Depression Scale, five times sit to stand test, grip strength, 10-meter walk, gait speed, step length, stride length, Timed Up and Go test, and static balance test (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, the experimental group showed a significant effect in all dependent variables except dynamic balance (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS In this population, the remote home-based fall prevention exercise program resulted in a significant improvement in physical function, psychological factors, and balance during the COVID-19 pandemic. The findings may have implications for community public health measures to protect the vulnerable during future epidemics and pandemics of infectious disease.


Subject(s)
Accidental Falls/prevention & control , Telemedicine , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Exercise , Exercise Therapy , Female , Geriatric Assessment , Hand Strength , Health Services for the Aged , Humans , Male , Postural Balance , Seoul/epidemiology , Walking Speed
10.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260889, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592578

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Approximately 40-70% of people with Parkinson's disease (PD) fall each year, causing decreased activity levels and quality of life. Current fall-prevention strategies include the use of pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies. To increase the accessibility of this vulnerable population, we developed a multidisciplinary telemedicine program using an Information and Communication Technology (ICT) platform. We hypothesized that the risk for falling in PD would decrease among participants receiving a multidisciplinary telemedicine intervention program added to standard office-based neurological care. OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of a multidisciplinary telemedicine intervention to decrease the incidence of falls in patients with PD. METHODS: Ongoing, longitudinal, randomized, single-blinded, case-control, clinical trial. We will include 76 non-demented patients with idiopathic PD with a high risk of falling and limited access to multidisciplinary care. The intervention group (n = 38) will receive multidisciplinary remote care in addition to standard medical care, and the control group (n = 38) standard medical care only. Nutrition, sarcopenia and frailty status, motor, non-motor symptoms, health-related quality of life, caregiver burden, falls, balance and gait disturbances, direct and non-medical costs will be assessed using validated rating scales. RESULTS: This study will provide a cost-effectiveness assessment of multidisciplinary telemedicine intervention for fall reduction in PD, in addition to standard neurological medical care. CONCLUSION: In this challenging initiative, we will determine whether a multidisciplinary telemedicine intervention program can reduce falls, as an alternative intervention option for PD patients with restricted access to multidisciplinary care. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04694443.


Subject(s)
Accidental Falls/prevention & control , Exercise Therapy/methods , Gait , Parkinson Disease/physiopathology , Patient Care Team/statistics & numerical data , Telemedicine/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Young Adult
11.
BMC Neurol ; 21(1): 326, 2021 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371955

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Parkinson's Disease (PD) is a highly prevalent neurodegenerative disease whose incidence is increasing with an aging population. One of the most serious manifestations of PD is gait instability, leading to falls and subsequent complications that can be debilitating, even fatal. Boxing therapy (BT) uses gait and balance exercises to improve ambulation in people with PD, though its efficacy has not yet been fully proven. METHODS: In the current longitudinal observational study, 98 participants with idiopathic PD underwent twice-weekly BT sessions. Primary outcome was self-reported falls per month; secondary outcomes were quantitative and semi-quantitative gait and balance performance evaluations. Statistical methods included segmented generalized estimating equation with an independent correlation structure, binomial distribution, and log link. RESULTS: The average number of self-reported falls per month per participant decreased by 87%, from 0.86 ± 3.58 prior to BT, to 0.11 ± 0.26 during BT. During the lockdown imposed by COVID-19, this increased to 0.26 ± 0.48 falls per month. Females and those > 65 years old reported the greatest increase in falls during the lockdown period. Post-lockdown resumption of BT resulted in another decline in falls, to 0.14 ± 0.33. Quantitative performance metrics, including standing from a seated position and standing on one leg, largely mirrored the pattern of falls pre-and post-lockdown. CONCLUSIONS: BT may be an effective option for many PD patients.


Subject(s)
Boxing , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Exercise Therapy , Parkinson Disease/psychology , Parkinson Disease/therapy , Accidental Falls/prevention & control , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Gait , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Postural Balance
12.
Psychogeriatrics ; 21(5): 826-831, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1346004

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding the physical and mental changes in community-dwelling elderly people is very important during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic when considering preventive measures. The purpose of this study was to clarify the changes of physical function and anxiety for activities of daily living in community-dwelling older adults, focusing on locomotor function during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The study participants were 127 older people who participated in successive surveys, in the summers of 2019 and again in 2020, after the state of emergency. The Locomo 25 questionnaire, Geriatric Depression Scale-15 (GDS-15) questionnaire, medical history, and number of people living together were self-reported. The Locomo 25 covers six aspects of physical pain, movement-related difficulty, usual care, daily activity, social activities, and anxiety. RESULTS: The paired samples t-test revealed that Locomo 25 total scores in 2020 were significantly higher than those in 2019. The GDS-15 score showed no significant difference. The comparison of scores for each item of the Locomo 25 revealed significantly higher scores in 2020 on Q21 ('difficult to perform sports activity', P = 0.0021), Q22 ('restricted from meeting own friends', P < 0.001), Q23 ('restricted from joining social activities', P < 0.001), Q24 ('anxious about falling in own house', P = 0.0023), and Q25 ('anxious about being unable to walk in the future', P = 0.0016). CONCLUSIONS: About 2 months after declaration of the first state of emergency due to the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan, social activity was severely restricted. Older adults showed almost no changes in body pain and locomotive disabilities, but increases in their anxieties about walking ability and falling were remarkable.


Subject(s)
Accidental Falls , COVID-19 , Accidental Falls/prevention & control , Activities of Daily Living , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , Fear , Humans , Independent Living , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Walking
13.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 23(1): 98-104.e3, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1290228

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine whether the benefits of long (24 weeks) and short (4 weeks) training programs persisted after short (6 weeks) and long (14 weeks) periods of inactivity in older adult nursing home residents with sarcopenia. DESIGN: Multicenter randomized trial. INTERVENTION: The Vivifrail tailored, multicomponent exercise program (http://vivifrail.com) was conducted to individually prescribe exercise for frail older adults, depending on their functional capacity. The training included 4 levels combining strength and power, balance, flexibility, and cardiovascular endurance exercises. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-four institutionalized older adults (87.1 ± 7.1 years, 58.3% women) diagnosed with sarcopenia were allocated into 2 groups: the Long Training-Short Detraining (LT-SD) group completed 24 weeks of supervised Vivifrail training followed by 6 weeks of detraining; the Short Training-Long Detraining (ST-LD) group completed 4 weeks of training and 14 weeks of detraining. MEASURES: Changes in functional capacity and strength were evaluated at baseline, and after short and long training and detraining periods. RESULTS: Benefits after short and long exercise interventions persisted when compared with baseline. Vivifrail training was highly effective in the short term (4 weeks) in increasing functional and strength performance (effect size = 0.32-1.44, P < .044) with the exception of handgrip strength. Continued training during 24 weeks produced 10% to 20% additional improvements (P < .036). Frailty status was reversed in 36% of participants, with 59% achieving high self-autonomy. Detraining resulted in a 10% to 25% loss of strength and functional capacity even after 24 weeks of training (effects size = 0.24-0.92, P < .039). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Intermittent strategies such as 4 weeks of supervised exercise 3 times yearly with no more than 14 weeks of inactivity between exercise periods appears as an efficient solution to the global challenge of maintaining functional capacity and can even reverse frailty in vulnerable institutionalized older adults.


Subject(s)
Frailty , Accidental Falls/prevention & control , Aged , Exercise , Exercise Therapy , Female , Hand Strength , Humans , Male , Nursing Homes
14.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(5)2021 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1143560

ABSTRACT

Falls are one of the leading causes of permanent injury and/or disability among the elderly. When these people live alone, it is convenient that a caregiver or family member visits them periodically. However, these visits do not prevent falls when the elderly person is alone. Furthermore, in exceptional circumstances, such as a pandemic, we must avoid unnecessary mobility. This is why remote monitoring systems are currently on the rise, and several commercial solutions can be found. However, current solutions use devices attached to the waist or wrist, causing discomfort in the people who wear them. The users also tend to forget to wear the devices carried in these positions. Therefore, in order to prevent these problems, the main objective of this work is designing and recollecting a new dataset about falls, falling risks and activities of daily living using an ankle-placed device obtaining a good balance between the different activity types. This dataset will be a useful tool for researchers who want to integrate the fall detector in the footwear. Thus, in this work we design the fall-detection device, study the suitable activities to be collected, collect the dataset from 21 users performing the studied activities and evaluate the quality of the collected dataset. As an additional and secondary study, we implement a simple Deep Learning classifier based on this data to prove the system's feasibility.


Subject(s)
Accidental Falls , Wearable Electronic Devices , Accelerometry , Accidental Falls/prevention & control , Activities of Daily Living , Aged , Algorithms , Ankle , Humans , Neural Networks, Computer
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(4)2021 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110406

ABSTRACT

Physical activity is an important determinant of health in later life. The public health restrictions in response to COVID-19 have interrupted habitual physical activity behaviours in older adults. In response, numerous exercise programmes have been developed for older adults, many involving chair-based exercise. The aim of this systematic review was to synthesise the effects of chair-based exercise on the health of older adults. Ovid Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, PyscInfo and SPORTDiscus databases were searched from inception to 1 April 2020. Chair-based exercise programmes in adults ≥50 years, lasting for at least 2 weeks and measuring the impact on physical function were included. Risk of bias of included studies were assessed using Cochrane risk of bias tool v2. Intervention content was described using TiDieR Criteria. Where sufficient studies (≥3 studies) reported data on an outcome, a random effects meta-analysis was performed. In total, 25 studies were included, with 19 studies in the meta-analyses. Seventeen studies had a low risk of bias and five had a high risk of bias. In this systematic review including 1388 participants, results demonstrated that chair-based exercise programmes improve upper extremity (handgrip strength: MD = 2.10; 95% CI = 0.76, 3.43 and 30 s arm curl test: MD = 2.82; 95% CI = 1.34, 4.31) and lower extremity function (30 s chair stand: MD 2.25; 95% CI = 0.64, 3.86). The findings suggest that chair-based exercises are effective and should be promoted as simple and easily implemented activities to maintain and develop strength for older adults.


Subject(s)
Accidental Falls/prevention & control , Exercise Therapy , Sitting Position , Activities of Daily Living , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Fear , Female , Hand Strength , Humans , Male , Quality of Life
18.
Endocrine ; 69(2): 237-240, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-648625

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19) mostly adversely affects the elderly, a population at higher risk for low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels. In this viewpoint, we highlight the well-known musculoskeletal properties of vitamin D, which are particularly relevant in the context of COVID-19, suggesting further potential benefits through extra-skeletal effects. Maintaining optimal 25(OH)D is crucial to prevent falls, frailty and fractures in elderly patients, with low activity levels due to lockdown, or who are relatively immobilized during hospitalization and after discharge for prolonged periods of time. Hypovitaminosis D is also associated with susceptibility to respiratory infections, admissions to the intensive care unit, and mortality. We underscore the importance of achieving desirable serum 25(OH)D in COVID-19 elderly patients, to ensure beneficial musculoskeletal effects and possibly respiratory effects of vitamin D, in the context of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Bone Density Conservation Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Fractures, Bone/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Accidental Falls/prevention & control , Aged , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , Vitamin D Deficiency/prevention & control
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