Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 15 de 15
Filter
1.
Accid Anal Prev ; 173: 106715, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1866757

ABSTRACT

With the advance of intelligent transportation system technologies, contributing factors to crashes can be obtained in real time. Analyzing these factors can be critical in improving traffic safety. Despite many crash models having been successfully developed for safety analytics, most models associate crash observations and contributing factors at the aggregate level, resulting in potential information loss. This study proposes an efficient Gaussian process modulated renewal process model for safety analytics that does not suffer from information loss due to data aggregations. The proposed model can infer crash intensities in the continuous-time dimension so that they can be better associated with contributing factors that change over time. Moreover, the model can infer non-homogeneous intensities by relaxing the independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) exponential assumption of the crash intervals. To demonstrate the validity and advantages of this proposed model, an empirical study examining the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on traffic safety at six interstate highway sections is performed. The accuracy of our proposed renewal model is verified by comparing the areas under the curve (AUC) of the inferred crash intensity function with the actual crash counts. Residual box plot shows that our proposed models have lower biases and variances compared with Poisson and Negative binomial models. Counterfactual crash intensities are then predicted conditioned on exogenous variables at the crash time. Time-varying safety impacts such as bimodal, unimodal, and parabolic patterns are observed at the selected highways. The case study shows the proposed model enables safety analytics at a granular level and provides a more detailed insight into the time-varying safety risk in a changing environment.


Subject(s)
Automobile Driving , COVID-19 , Accidents, Traffic/prevention & control , Humans , Models, Statistical , Pandemics , Safety
2.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e059312, 2022 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788967

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To identify and prioritise the research needed to help Nepali agencies develop an improved road safety system. DESIGN: Delphi study. SETTING: Nepal. PARTICIPANTS: Stakeholders from government institutions, academia, engineering, healthcare and civil society were interviewed to identify knowledge gaps and research questions. Participants then completed two rounds of ranking and a workshop. RESULTS: A total of 93 participants took part in interviews and two rounds of ranking. Participants were grouped with others sharing expertise relating to each of the five WHO 'pillars' of road safety: (1) road safety management; (2) safer roads; (3) safer vehicles; (4) safer road users and (5) effective postcrash response. Interviews yielded 1019 research suggestions across the five pillars. Two rounds of ranking within expert groups yielded consensus on the important questions for each pillar. A workshop involving all participants then led to the selection of 6 questions considered the most urgent: (1) How can implementing agencies be made more accountable? (2) How should different types of roads, and roads in different geographical locations, be designed to make them safer for all road users? (3) What vehicle fitness factors lead to road traffic crashes? (4) How can the driver licensing system be improved to ensure safer drivers? (5) What factors lead to public vehicle crashes and how can they be addressed? and (6) What factors affect emergency response services getting to the patient and then getting them to the right hospital in the best possible time? CONCLUSIONS: The application of the Delphi approach is useful to enable participants representing a range of institutions and expertise to contribute to the identification of road safety research priorities. Outcomes from this study provide Nepali researchers with a greater understanding of the necessary focus for future road safety research.


Subject(s)
Automobile Driving , Accidents, Traffic/prevention & control , Delphi Technique , Humans , Licensure , Nepal , Research , Safety
3.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264484, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736510

ABSTRACT

Companies developing automated driving system (ADS) technologies have spent heavily in recent years to conduct live testing of autonomous vehicles operating in real world environments to ensure their reliable and safe operations. However, the unexpected onset and ongoing resurgent effects of the Covid-19 pandemic starting in March 2020 has serve to halt, change, or delay the achievement of these new product development test objectives. This study draws on data obtained from the California automated vehicle test program to determine the extent that testing trends, test resumptions, and test environments have been affected by the pandemic. The importance of government policies to support and enable autonomous vehicles development during pandemic conditions is highlighted.


Subject(s)
Automation/methods , Mechanical Tests/methods , Accidents, Traffic/prevention & control , Accidents, Traffic/trends , Automation/economics , Automobile Driving/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/economics , California , Humans , Mechanical Tests/economics , User-Centered Design
4.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(12)2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571196

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The burden of road traffic crashes (RTCs) and road traffic fatalities (RTFs) has been increasing in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). Most RTCs and RTFs happen at night. Although few countries, including Zambia, have implemented night travel bans, there is no evidence on the extent to which such policies may reduce crashes and fatalities. METHODS: We exploit the quasi-experimental set up afforded by the banning of night travel of public service vehicles in Zambia in 2016 and interrupted time series analysis to assess whether the ban had an impact on both levels and trends in RTCs and RTFs. We use annual administrative data for the period 2006-2020, with 10 pre-intervention and 4 post-intervention data points. In an alternative specification, we restrict the analysis to the period 2012-2020 so that the number of data points are the same pre-interventions and post-interventions. We also carry out robustness checks to rule out other possible explanation of the results including COVID-19. RESULTS: The night travel ban was associated with a reduction in the level of RTCs by 4131.3 (annual average RTCs before the policy=17 668) and a reduction in the annual trend in RTCs by 2485.5. These effects were significant at below 1%, and they amount to an overall reduction in RTCs by 24%. The policy was also associated with a 57.5% reduction in RTFs. In absolute terms, the trend in RTFs reduced by 477.5 (Annual average RTFs before the policy=1124.7), which is significant at below 1% level. Our results were broadly unchanged in alternative specifications. CONCLUSION: We conclude that a night travel ban may be an effective way of reducing the burden of RTCs and RTFs in Zambia and other LMICs. However, complementary policies are needed to achieve more gains.


Subject(s)
Accidents, Traffic , COVID-19 , Accidents, Traffic/prevention & control , Humans , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Zambia/epidemiology
5.
World J Emerg Surg ; 16(1): 51, 2021 09 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502008

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Various strategies to reduce the spread of COVID-19 including lockdown and stay-at-home order are expected to reduce road traffic characteristics and consequently road traffic collisions (RTCs). We aimed to review the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the incidence, patterns, and severity of the injury, management, and outcomes of RTCs and give recommendations on improving road safety during this pandemic. METHODS: We conducted a narrative review on the effects of COVID-19 pandemic on RTCs published in English language using PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar with no date restriction. Google search engine and websites were also used to retrieve relevant published literature, including discussion papers, reports, and media news. Papers were critically read and data were summarized and combined. RESULTS: Traffic volume dropped sharply during the COVID-19 pandemic which was associated with significant drop in RTCs globally and a reduction of road deaths in 32 out of 36 countries in April 2020 compared with April 2019, with a decrease of 50% or more in 12 countries, 25 to 49% in 14 countries, and by less than 25% in six countries. Similarly, there was a decrease in annual road death in 33 out of 42 countries in 2020 compared with 2019, with a reduction of 25% or more in 5 countries, 15-24% in 13 countries, and by less than 15% in 15 countries. In contrast, the opposite occurred in four and nine countries during the periods, respectively. There was also a drop in the number of admitted patients in trauma centers related to RTCs during both periods. This has been attributed to an increase in speeding, emptier traffic lanes, reduced law enforcement, not wearing seat belts, and alcohol and drug abuse. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has generally reduced the overall absolute numbers of RTCs, and their deaths and injuries despite the relative increase of severity of injury and death. The most important factors that affected the RTCs are decreased mobility with empty lines, reduced crowding, and increased speeding. Our findings serve as a baseline for injury prevention in the current and future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Accidents, Traffic/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
6.
BMJ Open ; 10(11): e040881, 2020 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455706

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Driving is one of the main modes of transport with safe driving requiring a combination of visual, cognitive and physical skills. With population ageing, the number of people living with vision impairment is set to increase in the decades ahead. Vision impairment may negatively impact an individual's ability to safely drive. The association between vision impairment and motor vehicle crash involvement or driving participation has yet to be systematically investigated. Further, the evidence for the effectiveness of vision-related interventions aimed at decreasing crashes and driving errors has not been synthesised. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A search will be conducted for relevant studies on Medline (Ovid), EMBASE and Global Health from their inception to March 2020 without date or geographical restrictions. Two investigators will independently screen abstracts and full texts using Covidence software with conflicts resolved by a third investigator. Data extraction will be conducted on all included studies, and their quality assessed to determine the risk of bias using the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Tools. Outcome measures include crash risk, driving cessation and surrogate measures of driving safety (eg, driving errors and performance). The results of this review will be reported using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis guideline. Meta-analysis will be undertaken for outcomes with sufficient data and reported following the Meta-analyses of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guideline. Where statistical pooling is not feasible or appropriate, narrative summaries will be presented following the Synthesis Without Meta-analysis in systematic reviews guideline. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This review will only report on published data thus no ethics approval is required. Results will be included in the Lancet Global Health Commission on Global Eye Health, published in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at relevant conferences. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020172153.


Subject(s)
Automobile Driving , Accidents, Traffic/prevention & control , Global Health , Humans , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Review Literature as Topic , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Vision, Ocular
7.
Accid Anal Prev ; 162: 106400, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432698

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic significantly altered people's daily lives, including driving. However, how state Divisions of Motor Vehicles (DMV) adapted their operation policies in response to COVID-19 remains unknown. This study analyzed adaptations to the content of state DMV operation policies during the COVID-19 pandemic across 50 US states and assessed the relationships between these policy adoptions and their state-level COVID-19 restriction orders. METHODS: We merged data on policy adaptations due to COVID-19 obtained from DMV websites for all 50 states with data on state-level restrictions obtained from the National Academy for State Health Policy (NASHP). We created a codebook and analyzed the DMV policy adaptations in the following three areas: (1) road testing, (2) licensure extension and renewals, and (3) facility reopening. Two trained coders independently reviewed and coded the adaptations of policy content related to precaution to spread of COVID-19 and ease of obtaining licensure. We calculated summary scores for policy adaptations and ease of licensure and compared these scores across three categories of state-level COVID-19 restrictions using ANOVA. RESULTS: DMVs in all 50 states adapted their policies to slow the spread of COVID-19. The ease of licensure summary scores increased in some states but decreased in others. Extensions for licensure renewals was the most common change. Adoption of COVID-19 precautions during the road test was the most common road test adaptation, while road test waivers were the most controversial. Requiring appointments, social distancing, and/or face coverings/personal protective equipment [PPE] were common adaptations during facility reopening. However, variations in level of policy adaptations and ease of licensure were not associated with the state's COVID-19 restrictions. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide insight into policy adaptations made by state DMVs to reduce the spread of COVID-19 and may inform future policy adaptations in DMVs and other government agencies during public health emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Accidents, Traffic/prevention & control , Humans , Motor Vehicles , Policy , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Accid Anal Prev ; 160: 106324, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347456

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to the implementation of unprecedented public health measures. The effect of these lockdown measures on road safety remain to be fully understood, however preliminary data shows reductions in traffic volume and increases in risky driving behaviors. The objective of the present study is to compare self-reported risky driving behaviors (speeding, distracted driving, drinking and driving, and drugged driving) during the pandemic in Canada and the U.S. to determine what differences exist between these two countries. Data was collected using the Road Safety Monitor (RSM), an annual online public opinion survey that investigates key road safety issues, administered to a representative sample of N = 1,500 Canadian drivers and N = 1,501 U.S. drivers. Respondents were asked about the likelihood of engaging in risky driving during the pandemic as compared to before COVID-19. Results show the majority of respondents indicated their behavior did not change, and most positively, a small proportion reported they were less likely to engage in these risky driving behaviors. However, notable proportions indicated they were more likely to engage in risky driving behaviors during the pandemic, as compared to before COVID-19. Of those who indicated this, U.S. drivers had significantly higher percentages compared to their Canadian counterparts. Behaviors most often reported by this sub-section of drivers who admit to being more likely to engage in risky driving during the pandemic were speeding (7.6%) and drinking and driving (7.6%) in the U.S., and speeding (5.5%) and distracted driving (4.2%) in Canada. Logistic regression results confirm that country was a significant factor, as U.S. drivers had greater odds of reporting they were more likely to engage in these risky driving behaviors, with the exception of speeding. Age also had a significant effect, as increasing age was associated with lower odds of reporting that these risky driving behaviors were more likely during the pandemic. Conversely, sex did not have a significant effect. Overall, the current findings suggest that a small proportion of drivers reported being more likely to engage in risky driving behaviors and the pandemic may have led to changes in the profiles of those drivers engaging in risky driving behaviors during lockdown measures. These results have important implications for policies and can inform how to manage road safety during future lockdowns.


Subject(s)
Automobile Driving , COVID-19 , Accidents, Traffic/prevention & control , Canada/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Pandemics , Risk-Taking , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
9.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254823, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318323

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Mechanical conditions of vehicles may play a determinant role in driving safety, the reason why vehicle periodical technical inspections (VTIs) are mandatory in many countries. However, the high number of drivers sanctioned for not complying with this regulation is surprisingly high, and there is not much evidence on what kind(s) of motives may explain this concerning panorama. This study aimed to identify the aspects that modulate the relationship between complying (or not) with VTI's standards in a nationwide sample of Spanish drivers. The study design also addressed the drivers' awareness regarding different risky behaviors while driving, depending on their sex and their crash record. METHODS: 1,100 Spanish drivers completed a survey on the aforementioned issues. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Bonferroni post-hoc adjustment was conducted to assess significant differences (p<0.05) in the study variables. RESULTS: Most of the surveyed drivers (99.18%) reported that they always comply with VTI's requirements. The main reasons to comply were related to compliance with traffic regulation and fear of penalties, while the reasons attributed to its incompliance are, instead, stated as involuntary. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study support the idea that more actions are needed to increase drivers' awareness of the relevance of VTIs for road safety, as well as warning them about the dangers of neglecting vehicle checking beyond merely punishing measures. For this reason and given the greater prevalence of the issue among younger segments of the driving population, it is suggested that more emphasis on the matter could be made during novice driver's training.


Subject(s)
Accidents, Traffic/prevention & control , Automobile Driving/standards , Automobiles/standards , Humans , Professional Competence/standards , Risk-Taking , Spain , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(3)2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1311144

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Media coverage of road traffic collisions (RTCs) may influence preventative action. India experiences some of the highest RTC mortality and morbidity rates globally, but advocacy and effective action to mitigate this has been limited. We conducted an analysis of Indian media in English to assess whether coverage met the WHO's Reporting on Road Safety guidelines for evidence-based reporting of RTCs. METHODS: English-language articles published online between March 2018 and February 2019 were assessed against the seven recommended story angles and seven recommended key elements in the WHO guidelines. RESULTS: 458 articles were included in the analysis. The most common story angle was descriptions of single collisions, which was not a WHO-recommended story angle. These included limited key elements such as use of human story or linking to road safety risks or evidence-based solutions. However, some articles did follow the WHO-recommended story angles, with 22.1% discussing specific road safety solutions and a further 6.3% discussing vulnerable groups. Almost all articles avoided the use of technical language, but only 2.0% explicitly stated that RTCs were preventable. More than half identified at least one evidence-based solution. Very few articles discussed economic or health impacts of RTCs, including the burden they present to the public health system. CONCLUSION: Indian media in English can improve reporting by focusing on human stories and documenting experiences of those injured in RTCs. Coverage should also focus more on evidence-based solutions, emphasising the systems approach which encourages government action rather than changes to individual behaviour.


Subject(s)
Accidents, Traffic , Communication , Accidents, Traffic/prevention & control , Humans , India
11.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(13)2021 Jul 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295908

ABSTRACT

Traffic cameras are a widely available source of open data that offer tremendous value to public authorities by providing real-time statistics to understand and monitor the activity levels of local populations and their responses to policy interventions such as those seen during the COrona VIrus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This paper presents an end-to-end solution based on the Google Cloud Platform with scalable processing capability to deal with large volumes of traffic camera data across the UK in a cost-efficient manner. It describes a deep learning pipeline to detect pedestrians and vehicles and to generate mobility statistics from these. It includes novel methods for data cleaning and post-processing using a Structure SImilarity Measure (SSIM)-based static mask that improves reliability and accuracy in classifying people and vehicles from traffic camera images. The solution resulted in statistics describing trends in the 'busyness' of various towns and cities in the UK. We validated time series against Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR) cameras across North East England, showing a close correlation between our statistical output and the ANPR source. Trends were also favorably compared against traffic flow statistics from the UK's Department of Transport. The results of this work have been adopted as an experimental faster indicator of the impact of COVID-19 on the UK economy and society by the Office for National Statistics (ONS).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pedestrians , Accidents, Traffic/prevention & control , Cities , Humans , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Safety
12.
Inj Prev ; 27(6): 574-576, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1081443
13.
Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot ; 28(1): 1-2, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1061187
15.
Accid Anal Prev ; 146: 105747, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-746135

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effect of mandated societal lockdown to reduce the transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on road traffic accidents is not known. For this reason, we performed an in-depth analysis using data from Statewide Traffic Accident Records System. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed data on total 2292 road traffic accident records in Missouri from January 1, 2020 through May 15, 2020. We treated March 23 as the first day of mandated societal lockdown and May 3 as the first day of re-opening. RESULTS: We have found that there was a significant reduction in road traffic accidents resulting in minor or no injuries (mean 14.5 versus 10.8, p < 0.0001) but not in accidents resulting in serious or fatal injuries (mean 3.4 versus 3.7, p = 0.42) after mandated societal lockdown. Furthermore, there was a significant reduction in road traffic accidents resulting in minor or no injuries after the mandated social lockdown (parameter estimate -5.9, p = 0.0028) in the time series analysis. There was an increase in road traffic accidents resulting in minor or no injuries after expiration of mandatory societal lockdown (mean 10.8 versus 13.7, p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: The mandated societal lockdown policies led to reduction in road traffic accidents resulting in non-serious or no injuries but not those resulting in serious or fatal injuries.


Subject(s)
Accidents, Traffic/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , COVID-19 , Humans , Missouri
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL