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1.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0243263, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1576004

ABSTRACT

As mobile device location data become increasingly available, new analyses are revealing the significant changes of mobility pattern when an unplanned event happened. With different control policies from local and state government, the COVID-19 outbreak has dramatically changed mobility behavior in affected cities. This study has been investigating the impact of COVID-19 on the number of people involved in crashes accounting for the intensity of different control measures using Negative Binomial (NB) method. Based on a comprehensive dataset of people involved in crashes aggregated in New York City during January 1, 2020 to May 24, 2020, people involved in crashes with respect to travel behavior, traffic characteristics and socio-demographic characteristics are found. The results show that the average person miles traveled on the main traffic mode per person per day, percentage of work trip have positive effect on person involved in crashes. On the contrary, unemployment rate and inflation rate have negative effects on person involved in crashes. Interestingly, different level of control policies during COVID-19 outbreak are closely associated with safety awareness, driving and travel behavior, and thus has an indirect influence on the frequency of crashes. Comparing to other three control policies including emergence declare, limits on mass gatherings, and ban on all nonessential gathering, the negative relationship between stay-at-home policy implemented in New York City from March 20, 2020 and the number of people involved crashes is found in our study.


Subject(s)
Accidents, Traffic/statistics & numerical data , Automobile Driving/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Safety/statistics & numerical data , Travel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , New York City , Public Policy , Risk-Taking
2.
Arch Dis Child ; 106(11): 1050-1055, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501685

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Globally, injuries cause >5 million deaths annually and children and young people are particularly vulnerable. Injuries are the leading cause of death in people aged 5-24 years and a leading cause of disability. In most low-income and middle-income countries where the majority of global child injury burden occurs, systems for routinely collecting injury data are limited. METHODS: A new model of injury surveillance for use in emergency departments in Nepal was designed and piloted. Data from patients presenting with injuries were collected prospectively over 12 months and used to describe the epidemiology of paediatric injury presentations. RESULTS: The total number of children <18 years of age presenting with injury was 2696, representing 27% of all patients presenting with injuries enrolled. Most injuries in children presenting to the emergency departments in this study were unintentional and over half of children were <10 years of age. Falls, animal bites/stings and road traffic injuries accounted for nearly 75% of all injuries with poisonings, burns and drownings presenting proportionately less often. Over half of injuries were cuts, bites and open wounds. In-hospital child mortality from injury was 1%. CONCLUSION: Injuries affecting children in Nepal represent a significant burden. The data on injuries observed from falls, road traffic injuries and injuries related to animals suggest potential areas for injury prevention. This is the biggest prospective injury surveillance study in Nepal in recent years and supports the case for using injury surveillance to monitor child morbidity and mortality through improved data.


Subject(s)
Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Global Burden of Disease/economics , Public Health Surveillance/methods , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Accidental Falls/statistics & numerical data , Accidents, Traffic/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Animals , Bites and Stings/epidemiology , Burns/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Drowning/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/trends , Female , Humans , Male , Nepal/epidemiology , Poisoning/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Trauma Severity Indices , Wounds and Injuries/mortality , Wounds and Injuries/prevention & control
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20391, 2021 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469985

ABSTRACT

Wildlife-vehicle collisions threaten both humans and wildlife, but we still lack information about the relationship between traffic volume and wildlife-vehicle collisions. The COVID-19 pandemic allowed us to investigate the effects of traffic volume on wildlife-vehicle collisions in the United States. We observed decreased traffic nationwide, particularly in densely populated states with low or high disease burdens. Despite reduced traffic, total collisions were unchanged; wildlife-vehicle collisions did decline at the start of the pandemic, but increased as the pandemic progressed, ultimately exceeding collisions in the previous year. As a result, nationwide collision rates were higher during the pandemic. We suggest that increased wildlife road use offsets the effects of decreased traffic volume on wildlife-vehicle collisions. Thus, decreased traffic volume will not always reduce wildlife-vehicle collisions.


Subject(s)
Accidents, Traffic , Animals, Wild , COVID-19 , Accidents, Traffic/statistics & numerical data , Animals , Animals, Wild/injuries , COVID-19/epidemiology , Conservation of Natural Resources , Humans , Pandemics , United States
4.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256610, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367710

ABSTRACT

The impacts of COVID-19 on travel demand, traffic congestion, and traffic safety are attracting heated attention. However, the influence of the pandemic on electric bike (e-bike) safety has not been investigated. This paper fills the research gap by analyzing how COVID-19 affects China's e-bike safety based on a province-level dataset containing e-bike safety metrics, socioeconomic information, and COVID-19 cases from 2017 to 2020. Multi-output regression models are adopted to investigate the overall impact of COVID-19 on e-bike safety in China. Clustering-based regression models are used to examine the heterogeneous effects of COVID-19 and the other explanatory variables in different provinces/municipalities. This paper confirms the high relevance between COVID-19 and the e-bike safety condition in China. The number of COVID-19 cases has a significant negative effect on the number of e-bike fatalities/injuries at the country level. Moreover, two clusters of provinces/municipalities are identified: one (cluster 1) with lower and the other (cluster 2 that includes Hubei province) higher number of e-bike fatalities/injuries. In the clustering-based regressions, the absolute coefficients of the COVID-19 feature for cluster 2 are much larger than those for cluster 1, indicating that the pandemic could significantly reduce e-bike safety issues in provinces with more e-bike fatalities/injuries.


Subject(s)
Accidents, Traffic/statistics & numerical data , Bicycling/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cluster Analysis , Humans , Mortality , Regression Analysis , Seasons , Socioeconomic Factors , Wounds and Injuries/mortality
5.
Traffic Inj Prev ; 22(7): 501-506, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364677

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the relationship between Stay-At-Home orders issued by state governments due to the COVID-19 pandemic and their impacts on motor vehicle-related injuries. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the presence of a Stay-At-Home order was associated with lower rates of motor vehicle-related injuries requiring emergency medical treatment among population sub-groups in West Virginia (i.e., males, females, 0-17, 18-25, 26-45, 46-65, ≥66 years old). METHODS: A Stay-At-Home order was in effect in West Virginia from March 23-May 4, 2020. Counts of individuals who incurred motor-vehicle-related injuries that required emergency medical treatment were obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Syndromic Surveillance Program from January 1 thru September 6 of 2019 and 2020. Counts were obtained by week-year and by population sub-group in West Virginia. The presence of the Stay-At-Home order was binary coded by week. Negative binomial regression was used to assess the relationship between the presence of a Stay-At-Home and injury rates. 2019 population sub-group estimates were obtained from the United States Census Bureau and used as offsets in the models. Models were also adjusted for year and vehicle miles traveled by week-year. RESULTS: There were 23,418 motor-vehicle related injuries during the study period. The presence of the Stay-At-Home order was associated with 44% less injuries overall [Incident Rate Ratio (IRR)=0.56, 95% CI 0.48, 0.64]. Females experienced fewer injuries than males (IRR = 0.49 vs 0.63, respectively) and the number of injuries decreased with age (p-value 0.031) when comparing time periods when the Stay-At-Home was in effect compared to times when it was not. CONCLUSIONS: West Virginia's Stay-At-Home order was associated with lower motor-vehicle injury rates requiring medical treatment across all population sub-groups. Most population sub-groups likely altered their travel behaviors which resulted in lower motor-vehicle injury rates. These findings may inform future policies that impose emergency travel restrictions in populations.


Subject(s)
Accidents, Traffic , COVID-19 , Pandemics , Public Health , Wounds and Injuries , Accidents, Traffic/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health/legislation & jurisprudence , West Virginia/epidemiology , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Young Adult
6.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 90(4): 708-713, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352347

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the entire global health care system. In California, because of a high burden of cases, a lockdown order was announced on March 19, 2020. This study investigated the impact of the lockdown on the epidemiology and outcomes of trauma admissions at the largest trauma center in Los Angeles. METHODS: A retrospective study comparing epidemiological and clinical characteristics and outcomes of trauma admissions during the lockdown period (March 20, 2020, to June 30, 2020) to a similar period in the previous year (March 20, 2019, to June 30, 2019) was performed. Data collection included demographics, mechanism of injury, prehospital transportation, substance use, injury severity, resource utilization, and outcomes. FINDINGS: There were 1,202 admissions during the lockdown period in 2020 and 1,143 during the same calendar period in 2019. Following the lockdown, there was a reduction in the automobile versus pedestrian admissions by 42.5%, motorcycle injuries by 38.7%, and bicycle accidents by 28.4% but no significant effect on the number of motor vehicle accident admissions. There was an increase in ground level falls by 32.5%, especially in the elderly group. The absolute number of gunshot wounds increased by 6.2% and knife injuries by 39.3%. Suicides increased by 38.5%. Positive testing for substance use increased by 20.9%. During the lockdown, patients suffered less severe trauma, with Injury Severity Score of <9 (p < 0.001), as well as less severe head (p = 0.001) and severe chest trauma (p < 0.001). Trauma deaths were reduced by 27.9%, and the crude overall mortality was significantly lower during the lockdown period (4.1% vs. 5.9%, p = 0.046). Intensive care unit admission rates, mechanical ventilation, and intensive care unit length of stay were all reduced. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 lockdown in 2020 had a significant effect on the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and critical care resource utilization of trauma admissions in a large academic trauma center. These findings may help in planning and optimization of hospital resources during the pandemic. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Epidemiological study, level III; Retrospective observational, level III.


Subject(s)
Accidental Injuries/epidemiology , Accidents, Traffic/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Physical Abuse/statistics & numerical data , Accidental Falls/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Los Angeles/epidemiology , Male , Mortality , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Trauma Centers/statistics & numerical data , Trauma Severity Indices , Wounds, Gunshot/epidemiology
7.
BMC Emerg Med ; 21(1): 88, 2021 07 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1327808

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To present the new trends in epidemiology of road traffic injuries (RTIs) during the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Suzhou. METHODS: Pre-hospital records of RTIs from January to May in 2020 and the same period in 2019 were obtained from the database of Suzhou pre-hospital emergency center, Jiangsu, China. Data were extracted for analysis, including demographic characteristics, pre-hospital vital signs, transport, shock index, consciousness, pre-hospital death. A retrospective study comparing epidemiological characteristics of RTIs in Suzhou during the 5-month period in 2020 to the parallel period in 2019 was performed. RESULTS: A total of 7288 RTIs in 2020 and 8869 in 2019 met inclusion criteria. The overall volume of RTIs has statistical difference between the 2 years (p < 0.001), with fewer RTIs in 2020 compared with 2019. Electric bicycle related RTIs increased during the pandemic (2641, 36.24% vs 2380, 26.84%, p < 0.001), with a higher incidence of RTIs with disorder of consciousness (DOC) (7.22% vs 6.13%, p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: Under the impact of COVID-19, the total number of RTIs in Suzhou from January to May 2020 decreased. This observation was coupled with a rise in electric bicycle related injuries and an increase in the incidence of RTIs with DOC.


Subject(s)
Accidents, Traffic/statistics & numerical data , Bicycling/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , China , Humans , Incidence , Motorcycles/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13147, 2021 06 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281728

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has affected every sector of our society, among which human mobility is taking a dramatic change due to quarantine and social distancing. We investigate the impact of the pandemic and subsequent mobility changes on road traffic safety. Using traffic accident data from the city of Los Angeles and New York City, we find that the impact is not merely a blunt reduction in traffic and accidents; rather, (1) the proportion of accidents unexpectedly increases for "Hispanic" and "Male" groups; (2) the "hot spots" of accidents have shifted in both time and space and are likely moved from higher-income areas (e.g., Hollywood and Lower Manhattan) to lower-income areas (e.g., southern LA and southern Brooklyn); (3) the severity level of accidents decreases with the number of accidents regardless of transportation modes. Understanding those variations of traffic accidents not only sheds a light on the heterogeneous impact of COVID-19 across demographic and geographic factors, but also helps policymakers and planners design more effective safety policies and interventions during critical conditions such as the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Accidents, Traffic , COVID-19 , Safety , Accidents, Traffic/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Los Angeles , Male , New York City
9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(2): e211320, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1092488

ABSTRACT

Importance: Describing the changes in trauma volume and injury patterns during the course of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic could help to inform policy development and hospital resource planning. Objective: To examine trends in trauma admissions throughout Los Angeles County (LAC) during the pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cohort study, all trauma admissions to the 15 verified level 1 and level 2 trauma centers in LAC from January 1 to June 7, 2020 were reviewed. All trauma admissions from the same period in 2019 were used as historical control. For overall admissions, the study period was divided into 3 intervals based on daily admission trend analysis (January 1 through February 28, March 1 through April 9, April 10 through June 7). For the blunt trauma subgroup analysis, the study period was divided into 3 similar intervals (January 1 through February 27, February 28 through April 5, April 6 through June 7). Exposures: COVID-19 pandemic. Main Outcomes and Measures: Trends in trauma admission volume and injury patterns. Results: A total of 6777 patients in 2020 and 6937 in 2019 met inclusion criteria. Of those admitted in 2020, the median (interquartile range) age was 42 (28-61) years and 5100 (75.3%) were men. Mechanisms of injury were significantly different between the 2 years, with a higher incidence of penetrating trauma and fewer blunt injuries in 2020 compared with 2019 (penetrating: 1065 [15.7%] vs 1065 [15.4%]; blunt: 5309 [78.3%] vs 5528 [79.7%]). Overall admissions by interval in 2020 were 2681, 1684, and 2412, whereas in 2019 they were 2462, 1862, and 2613, respectively. There was a significant increase in overall admissions per week during the first interval (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 1.02; 95% CI, 1.002-1.04; P = .03) followed by a decrease in the second interval (IRR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.90-0.94; P < .001) and, finally, an increase in the third interval (IRR, 1.05; CI, 1.03-1.07; P < .001). On subgroup analysis, blunt admissions followed a similar pattern to overall admissions, while penetrating admissions increased throughout the study period. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, trauma centers throughout LAC experienced a significant change in injury patterns and admission trends during the COVID-19 pandemic. A transient decrease in volume was followed by a quick return to baseline levels. Trauma centers should prioritize maintaining access, capacity, and functionality during pandemics and other national emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/trends , Trauma Centers , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Abbreviated Injury Scale , Accidental Falls/statistics & numerical data , Accidents, Traffic/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Bites and Stings/epidemiology , California/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Injury Severity Score , Los Angeles/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Violence/statistics & numerical data , Wounds, Gunshot/epidemiology , Wounds, Stab/epidemiology
10.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 23(2): 82-86, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085778

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic changed medical environments worldwide. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on trauma-related visits to the emergency department (ED). METHODS: A single tertiary center retrospective study was conducted that compared ED attendance of patients with injury-related morbidity between March 2020 (COVID-19 outbreak) and pre-COVID-19 periods: February 2020 and the same 2 months in 2018 and 2019. RESULTS: Overall, 6513 patients were included in the study. During the COVID-19 outbreak, the daily number of patients visiting the ED for acute trauma declined by 40% compared to the average in previous months (P < 0.01). A strong negative correlation was found between the number of trauma-related ED visits and the log number of confirmed cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Israel (Pearson's r = -0.63, P < 0.01). In the COVID-19 period there was a significant change in the proportion of elderly patients (7% increase, P = 0.002), admissions ratio (12% increase, P < 0.001), and patients brought by emergency medical services (10% increase, P < 0.001). The number of motor vehicle accident related injury declined by 45% (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: A significant reduction in the number of trauma patients presenting to the ED occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic, yet trauma-related admissions were on the rise.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Accidents, Traffic/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Emergency Medical Services/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Israel/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , Wounds and Injuries/therapy , Young Adult
11.
Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg ; 47(3): 637-645, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1070810

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The global pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has impacted population health and care delivery worldwide. As information emerges regarding the impact of "lockdown measures" and changes to clinical practice worldwide; there is no comparative information emerging from the United Kingdom with regard to major trauma. METHODS: This observational study from a UK Major Trauma Centre matched a cohort of patients admitted during a 10-week period of the SARS-CoV-2-pandemic (09/03/2020-18/05/2020) to a historical cohort of patients admitted during a similar time period in 2019 (11/03/2019-20/05/2019). Differences in demographics, Clinical Frailty Scale, SARS-CoV-2 status, mechanism of injury and injury severity were compared using Fisher's exact and Chi-squared tests. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses examined the associated factors that predicted 30-days mortality. RESULTS: A total of 642 patients were included, with 405 in the 2019 and 237 in the 2020 cohorts, respectively. 4/237(1.69%) of patients in the 2020 cohort tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. There was a 41.5% decrease in the number of trauma admissions in 2020. This cohort was older (median 46 vs 40 years), had more comorbidities and were frail (p < 0.0015). There was a significant difference in mechanism of injury with a decrease in vehicle related trauma, but an increase in falls. There was a twofold increased risk of mortality in the 2020 cohort which in adjusted multivariable models, was explained by injury severity and frailty. A positive SARS-CoV-2 status was not significantly associated with increased mortality when adjusted for other variables. CONCLUSION: Patients admitted during the COVID-19 pandemic were older, frailer, more co-morbid and had an associated increased risk of mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Infection Control , Surgical Procedures, Operative/statistics & numerical data , Wounds and Injuries , Accidental Falls/statistics & numerical data , Accidents, Traffic/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/organization & administration , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Trauma Severity Indices , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Wounds and Injuries/classification , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Wounds and Injuries/etiology , Wounds and Injuries/surgery
12.
Acta Orthop ; 92(3): 249-253, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1062816

ABSTRACT

Background and purpose - COVID-19 lockdowns have resulted in noteworthy changes in trauma admissions. We report and compare the incidence and characteristics of severe injuries (New Injury Severity Score [NISS] > 15) during the COVID-19 lockdown in Finland with earlier years.Methods - We retrospectively analyzed incidence rate, injury severity scores, injury patterns, and mechanisms of injury of all severely injured patients (NISS >15) in 4 Finnish hospitals (Tampere University Hospital, Kuopio University Hospital, Central Finland Hospital, Mikkeli Central Hospital) during the 11-week lockdown period (March 16-May 31, 2020) with comparison with a matching time period in earlier years (2016-2018). These 4 hospitals have a combined catchment area of 1,150,000 people or roughly one-fifth of the population of Finland.Results - The incidence rate of severe injuries during the lockdown period was 4.9/105 inhabitants (95% CI 3.7-6.4). The incidence rate of severe injuries during years 2016-2018 was 5.1/105 inhabitants (CI 3.9-6.5). We could not detect a significant incidence difference between the lockdown period and the 3 previous years (incidence rate difference -0.2 (CI -2.0 to 1.7). The proportion of traffic-related accidents was 55% during the lockdown period and 51% during previous years. There were no detectable differences in injury patterns. During the lockdown period, the mean age of patients was higher (53 years vs. 47 years, p = 0.03) and the rate of severely injured elderly patients (aged 70 or more) was higher (30% vs. 16%).Interpretation - Despite heavy social restrictions, the incidence of severe injuries during the lockdown period was similar to previous years. Notably, a decline in road use and traffic volumes did not reduce the number of severe traffic accidents. Although our data is compatible with a decrease of 2.0 to an increase of 1.7 severely injured patients per 105 inhabitants, we conclude that severely injured patients do not disappear even during pandemic and stabile hospital resources are needed to treat these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Wounds, Nonpenetrating/epidemiology , Abbreviated Injury Scale , Abdominal Injuries/epidemiology , Abdominal Injuries/etiology , Accidental Falls/statistics & numerical data , Accidents, Traffic/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Cohort Studies , Communicable Disease Control , Craniocerebral Trauma/epidemiology , Craniocerebral Trauma/etiology , Extremities/injuries , Facial Injuries/epidemiology , Facial Injuries/etiology , Female , Finland/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Injury Severity Score , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Pelvis/injuries , Public Policy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Soft Tissue Infections/epidemiology , Soft Tissue Infections/etiology , Thoracic Injuries/epidemiology , Thoracic Injuries/etiology , Wounds and Injuries/etiology
13.
Health Promot Chronic Dis Prev Can ; 40(11-12): 336-341, 2020 12 09.
Article in English, French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1029022

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Research has shown that during the 2003 SARS pandemic, emergency department (ED) visits among the pediatric population decreased. We set out to investigate if this was also true for injury-related ED visits during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Using data from the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP), we looked at 28 years of injury-related ED visits at the Montreal Children's Hospital, a provincially designated Pediatric Trauma Centre. We compared data from a two-month period during the COVID-19 lockdown (16 March to 15 May) to the same period in previous years (1993-2019) to determine whether the 2020 decrease in ED visit numbers was unprecedented (i.e. a similar decrease had never occurred) for different age groups, nature of injuries, mechanisms and severity. RESULTS: The 2020 decrease was unprecedented across all age groups between 1993 and 2019. When compared with the 2015 to 2019 average, the decrease was smallest in children aged 2 to 5 years (a 35% decrease), and greatest in the group aged 12 to 17 years (83%). Motor vehicle collisions and sports-related injuries practically vanished during the COVID-19 lockdown. Surprisingly, more children aged 6 to 17 years presented with less urgent injuries during the COVID-19 lockdown than in previous years. CONCLUSION: As was the case with SARS in 2003, COVID-19 acted as a deterrent for pediatric ED visits. The lockdown in particular had a profound impact on injury-related visits. The de-confinement period will be monitored to determine the impact in both the short and the long term.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Accidents, Traffic/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Athletic Injuries/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Hospitals, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Protective Factors , Quebec/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Wounds and Injuries/etiology
14.
S Afr Med J ; 0(0): 13183, 2020 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-984642

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In response to the coronavirus pandemic, lockdown restrictions and a ban on alcohol sales were introduced in South Africa. Objectives. To investigate the impact of lockdown measures on the number of patients who visited a tertiary urban trauma centre. Methods. The period of investigation was from 1 February to 30 June 2020 and was segmented into three intervals: pre-lockdown (February and March 2020), hard lockdown (April and May 2020) and immediately post lockdown (June 2020). The electronic HECTIS health record registry was interrogated for the total number of patients that were seen per month. These were further categorised according to mechanism of injury (stab, gunshot, blunt assault and road traffic injuries). Penetrating (stab and gunshot) and blunt assault victims were collectively grouped as violent trauma. Results. The mean total number of patients seen decreased by 53% during the hard lockdown period. There was a moderate reduction (15%) in patients with gunshot injuries seen during the hard lockdown phase, but there was an 80% increase in the post-lockdown period. The proportion of patients injured in road traffic collisions pre lockdown, hard lockdown and immediate post lockdown was 16.4%, 8.9% and 11.1%, respectively. Patients injured in road traffic collisions decreased by 74% during the hard lockdown period and maintained a reduction of 32% during the immediate post-lockdown period. The mean total number of patients who visited the trauma unit returned to pre-lockdown levels in June. Conclusions. There was an overall trend of reduced number of patients who visited the trauma unit during the hard lockdown period; however, these numbers returned to pre-lockdown levels during the immediate post-lockdown period. The number of road traffic injury admissions remained reduced during all three phases of lockdown, while the number of gunshot victims increased substantially during the post-lockdown period.


Subject(s)
Accidents, Traffic/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Violence/statistics & numerical data , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Wounds, Gunshot/epidemiology , Adult , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , South Africa/epidemiology , Trauma Centers/statistics & numerical data
15.
S Afr Med J ; 110(11): 1110-1112, 2020 10 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-979204

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Trauma care places a significant burden on the South African (SA) healthcare system, and this has not changed significantly in recent history. We speculated that the COVID-19 lockdown regulations (travel restriction and alcohol ban) would affect trauma patterns. OBJECTIVES: To compare the burden and nature of trauma over the COVID-19 lockdown period with the equivalent period over the past 5 years using routinely collected data from the Pietermaritzburg Metropolitan Trauma Service in KwaZulu-Natal Province, SA. METHODS: All trauma patients admitted to Grey's Hospital in Pietermaritzburg between 23 March 2015 and 31 May 2020 were identified and reviewed. RESULTS: A total of 8 859 trauma patients were admitted over the 6-year period, with a total of 1 676 admitted during the periods 23 March - 31 May. These 1 676 formed the study cohort. Of these patients, 998 had sustained blunt trauma, 665 penetrating trauma, and 13 a combination of blunt and penetrating trauma. A total of 14 categories of blunt trauma were reviewed, of which the three most common were assault, motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) and pedestrian vehicle accidents (PVAs). Between 23 March and 31 May 2020, a total of 23 patients were victims of blunt assault. The median number of assault victims over the equivalent period during the previous 5 years was 48. The 5 preceding years had a median of 56 MVAs and 33 PVAs, compared with 23 and 10 during the lockdown. The median number of gunshot wound (GSW) victims for the preceding years was 41, compared with 30 during the lockdown. During the lockdown, 24 stab wound victims were admitted, compared with a median of 73 for the preceding years. The proportion of females who sustained penetrating trauma and blunt assault increased significantly during the lockdown. The proportion of females sustaining a GSW or blunt trauma secondary to an MVA remained constant. CONCLUSIONS: The study showed that during the period of lockdown in SA there was a significant decrease in MVAs, PVAs and interpersonal violence. Assaults involving a knife seemed to decrease dramatically, but the rate of GSWs remained constant.


Subject(s)
Accidents, Traffic/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Sex Distribution , Violence/statistics & numerical data , Wounds, Gunshot/epidemiology , Wounds, Nonpenetrating/epidemiology , Wounds, Stab/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pedestrians , SARS-CoV-2 , South Africa/epidemiology , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology
17.
Prev Med ; 143: 106331, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-939373

ABSTRACT

Although lockdown measures to stop COVID-19 have direct effects on disease transmission, their impact on violent and accidental deaths remains unknown. Our study aims to assess the early impact of COVID-19 lockdown on violent and accidental deaths in Peru. Based on data from the Peruvian National Death Information System, an interrupted time series analysis was performed to assess the immediate impact and change in the trend of COVID-19 lockdown on external causes of death including homicide, suicide, and traffic accidents. The analysis was stratified by sex and the time unit was every 15 days. All forms of deaths examined presented a sudden drop after the lockdown. The biggest drop was in deaths related to traffic accidents, with a reduction of 12.22 deaths per million men per month (95% CI: -14.45, -9.98) and 3.55 deaths per million women per month (95% CI:-4.81, -2.30). Homicide and suicide presented similar level drop in women, while the homicide reduction was 2.5 the size of the suicide reduction in men. The slope in homicide in men during the lock-down period increased by 6.66 deaths per million men per year (95% CI:3.18, 10.15). External deaths presented a sudden drop after the lockdown was implemented and an increase in homicide in men was observed. Falls in mobility have a natural impact on traffic accidents, however, the patterns for suicide and homicide are less intuitive and reveal important characteristics of these events, although we expect all of these changes to be transient.


Subject(s)
Accidents, Traffic/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Homicide/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Suicide/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Peru/epidemiology , Population Surveillance , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors
18.
Inj Prev ; 27(1): 3-9, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-894885

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Understanding how the COVID-19 pandemic has impacted our health and safety is imperative. This study sought to examine the impact of COVID-19's stay-at-home order on daily vehicle miles travelled (VMT) and MVCs in Connecticut. METHODS: Using an interrupted time series design, we analysed daily VMT and MVCs stratified by crash severity and number of vehicles involved from 1 January to 30 April 2017, 2018, 2019 and 2020. MVC data were collected from the Connecticut Crash Data Repository; daily VMT estimates were obtained from StreetLight Insight's database. We used segmented Poisson regression models, controlling for daily temperature and daily precipitation. RESULTS: The mean daily VMT significantly decreased 43% in the post stay-at-home period in 2020. While the mean daily counts of crashes decreased in 2020 after the stay-at-home order was enacted, several types of crash rates increased after accounting for the VMT reductions. Single vehicle crash rates significantly increased 2.29 times, and specifically single vehicle fatal crash rates significantly increased 4.10 times when comparing the pre-stay-at-home and post-stay-at-home periods. DISCUSSION: Despite a decrease in the number of MVCs and VMT, the crash rate of single vehicles increased post stay-at-home order enactment in Connecticut after accounting for reductions in VMT.


Subject(s)
Accidents, Traffic/statistics & numerical data , Automobile Driving/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Motor Vehicles/statistics & numerical data , Connecticut/epidemiology , Humans , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Transportation/statistics & numerical data , Travel/statistics & numerical data
19.
Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg ; 47(3): 631-636, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-807824

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted healthcare systems globally, little is known about the trauma patterns during a national lockdown. The aim of this study is to delineate the trauma patterns and outcomes at Aintree University Teaching Hospital level 1 Major Trauma Centre (MTC) during the COVID-19 lockdown imposed by the U.K. government. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study data from the Merseyside and Cheshire Trauma Audit and Research Network database were analysed. The 7-week 'lockdown period' was compared to a 7-week period prior to the lockdown and also to an equivalent 7-week period corresponding to the previous year. RESULTS: A total of 488 patients were included in the study. Overall, there was 37.6% and 30.0% reduction in the number of traumatic injuries during lockdown. Road traffic collisions (RTC) reduced by 42.6% and 46.6%. RTC involving a car significantly reduced during lockdown, conversely, bike-related RTC significantly increased. No significant changes were noted in deliberate self-harm, trauma severity and crude mortality during lockdown. There was 1 mortality from COVID-19 infection in the lockdown cohort. CONCLUSION: Trauma continues during lockdown, our MTC has continued to provide a full service during lockdown. However, trauma patterns have changed and departments should adapt to balance these alongside the COVID-19 pandemic. As the U.K. starts its cautious transition out of lockdown, trauma services are required to be flexible during changes in national social restrictions and changing trauma patterns. COVID-19 and lockdown state were found to have no significant impact on survival outcomes for trauma.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Infection Control , Surgical Procedures, Operative/statistics & numerical data , Wounds and Injuries , Accidents, Traffic/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Clinical Audit/methods , Clinical Audit/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/organization & administration , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Self-Injurious Behavior/epidemiology , Trauma Centers/statistics & numerical data , Trauma Severity Indices , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Wounds and Injuries/classification , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Wounds and Injuries/etiology , Wounds and Injuries/therapy
20.
Injury ; 51(12): 2811-2815, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-764865

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In Iran, like most other countries, COVID-19 has had a deep impact on children's lives. Our hypothesis was that, a significant change in the number of pediatric injuries has happened in trauma centers. In the current study, we intend to identify the possible epidemiological shift in pediatric fracture patterns, by comparing the data from 'COVID-19 era' and the mean data from the past 2 years. To the best of our knowledge there are only few reports on epidemiology of pediatric fractures during the COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: Data are reported in two sections. In the descriptive section, epidemiological data regarding pediatric fractures referred to Taleghani tertiary trauma center, including demographics, distribution curves, etiologies and fracture types are presented during the 'COVID era', from 1 March 2020 to 15 April 2020. In the comparative section, the aforementioned data are compared with mean data from the past 2 years, the 'non-COVID era'. RESULTS: Altogether 117 of the 288 trauma children (40.62%) had a fractured bone (145 fractures). Patients were mostly boys, with a mean age of 9.87 years (SD=5.27). The three most common fracture types in children included distal radius, mid-forearm and humeral supracondylar fractures. Compared to non-COVID era, the number of pediatric trauma admissions dropped from 589 to 288. No significant change happened in the mean age, male/female ratio and percentage of motor vehicle accidents. Proportion of proximal humeral, proximal forearm, carpal, and hand fractures declined. The number of open fractures significantly dropped (from 12 to 2). CONCLUSIONS: In Iran, overall trend of pediatric trauma has been decreasing during the outbreak; but the lack of reduction in proportion of accidents may pose an alarm that an effective lock-down has not been imposed. This study has implications as to preparing appropriate resources particular to common "COVID era fractures".


Subject(s)
Accidents, Traffic/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Trauma Centers/statistics & numerical data , Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology , Accidents, Traffic/trends , Adolescent , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Sex Factors , Trauma Centers/standards , Trauma Centers/trends , Wounds and Injuries/etiology
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