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1.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260638, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581778

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The study aimed at exploring the adverse events following immunization (AEFI) and their incidences among health workers in three different districts of central and western Nepal following the first dose of Covishield vaccine,. It also aimed at studying the association of AEFI with demographic and clinical characteristics of vaccinees, pre-vaccination anxiety level and prior history of COVID-19 infection (RT- PCR confirmed) status. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study carried out via face-to-face or telephonic interview among 1006 health workers one week after receiving their first dose of the Covishield vaccine. Incidence of adverse events was calculated in percentage while Chi-square Test was used to check the association of AEFI with independent variables. Logistic regression was used to find out the adjusted odd's ratio at 95% CI. RESULTS: Incidence of AEFI was 79.8% with local and systemic AEFI being 68.0% and 59.7% respectively. Injection site tenderness was the commonest manifestation. Local and systemic symptoms resolved in less than one week among 96.8% and 98.7% vaccinees respectively. Females were more likely to develop AEFI than males (AOR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.2-2.4). Vaccinees aged 45-59 years were 50% less likely to develop AEFI as compared to those aged less than 30 years (AOR 0.5, 95% CI = 0.3-0.8). Most of the vaccinees had not undergone RT-PCR testing for COVID-19 (59.8%). Those who were not tested for COVID-19 prior were 1.5 odds more likely to develop AEFI compared to those who were negative (AOR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.1-2.1). CONCLUSION: More than two-third of the vaccinees developed one or more forms of adverse events, but most events were self-limiting. Females and young adults were more prone to develop AEFI.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Acetaminophen/pharmacology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nepal/epidemiology , Time Factors , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccination/psychology
2.
Drug Discov Ther ; 15(5): 278-280, 2021 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542929

ABSTRACT

To help stop the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, vaccines are currently the most critical tool. However, the COVID-19 mRNA vaccines frequently cause systemic side effects shortly after the injection, such as fever, headache and generalized fatigue. In our survey, after receiving the second dose of the COVID-19 vaccine, 80% developed fever, 62% headache and 69% generalized fatigue. Among people who required antipyretics, the average durations of fever and headache were significantly shorter in those who took non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as aspirin, loxoprofen and ibuprofen, than those who took acetaminophen. In our patch-clamp studies, NSAIDs effectively suppressed the delayed rectifier K+-channel (Kv1.3) currents in T-lymphocytes and thus exerted immunosuppressive effects. Because of this pharmacological property, the use of NSAIDs should be more effective in reducing the vaccine-induced systemic side effects that are caused primarily by the enhanced cellular immunity.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Acetaminophen/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Fatigue/drug therapy , Fatigue/etiology , Fever/drug therapy , Fever/etiology , Headache/drug therapy , Headache/etiology , Humans , Ibuprofen/therapeutic use , Patch-Clamp Techniques , Phenylpropionates/therapeutic use , Young Adult
4.
Acta Anaesthesiol Scand ; 65(10): 1505-1513, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455490

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multimodal analgesia is the leading principle for managing postoperative pain. Recent guidelines recommend combinations of paracetamol and a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) for most surgeries. Glucocorticoids have been used for decades due to their potent anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties. Subsequently, glucocorticoids may improve postoperative analgesia. We will perform a systematic review to assess benefits and harms of adding glucocorticoids to paracetamol and NSAIDs. We expect to uncover pros and cons of the addition of glucocorticoid to the basic standard regimen of paracetamol and NSAIDs for postoperative analgesia. METHOD: This protocol for a systematic review was written according to the The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols guidelines. We will search for trials in the following electronic databases: Medline, CENTRAL, CDSR and Embase. Two authors will independently screen trials for inclusion using Covidence, extract data and assess risk of bias using Cochrane's ROB 2 tool. We will analyse data using Review Manager and Trial Sequential Analysis. Meta-analysis will be performed according to the Cochrane guidelines and results will be validated according to the eight-step procedure suggested by Jakobsen et al We will present our primary findings in a 'summary of findings' table. We will evaluate the overall certainty of evidence using the GRADE approach. DISCUSSION: This review will aim to explore the combination of glucocorticoids together with paracetamol and NSAIDs for postoperative pain. We will attempt to provide reliable evidence regarding the role of glucocorticoids as part of a multimodal analgesic regimen in combination with paracetamol and NSAID.


Subject(s)
Acetaminophen , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Acetaminophen/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Glucocorticoids , Humans , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Systematic Reviews as Topic
5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 5189, 2020 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454803

ABSTRACT

Stapled hemorrhoidopexy has a few advantages such as less postoperative pain and faster recovery compared with conventional hemorrhoidectomy. There are two major devices used for stapled hemorrhoidopexy, PPH stapler (Ethicon EndoSurgery) and DST stapler (Covidien). This study was conducted to investigate the postoperative outcomes among patients with grade III and IV hemorrhoids who underwent hemorrhoidopexy with either of these two devices. A total of 242 consecutive patients underwent stapled hemorrhoidopexy with either PPH stapler (110 patients) or DST stapler (132 patients) at a single center in 2017. We performed a retrospective case-control study to compare the short-term postoperative outcomes and the complications between these two groups. After matching the cases in terms of age, gender, and the grade of hemorrhoids, there were 100 patients in each group (PPH versus DST). There were no significant differences in the postoperative visual analog scale (VAS) score and analgesic usage. Among complications, the incidence of anorectal stricture was significantly higher in the DST group (p = 0.02). Evaluation of the mucosal specimen showed that the total surface area, the muscle/mucosa ratio and the surface area of the muscle were also significantly higher in the DST group (p = 0.03). Further analysis of the DST group demonstrated that patients with anorectal stricture after surgery are younger than patients without anorectal stricture, and higher muscle/mucosa ratio (p = 0.03) and a higher surface area of the muscle (p = 0.03) also measured in the surgical specimen. The two devices provide similar outcomes of postoperative recovery. Patients who underwent DST stapled hemorrhoidopexy had a higher incidence rate of stricture, larger area of muscle excision, and higher muscle/mucosa ratio in the surgical specimen. Further investigation is warranted for a better understanding of the correlation between muscle excision and anorectal stricture.


Subject(s)
Hemorrhoidectomy/instrumentation , Hemorrhoids/surgery , Surgical Staplers , Acetaminophen/therapeutic use , Anal Canal/pathology , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Anus Diseases/etiology , Constriction, Pathologic/etiology , Equipment Design , Female , Hemorrhage/etiology , Humans , Intestinal Mucosa/pathology , Isoxazoles/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Organ Size , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Pain, Postoperative/etiology , Pain, Postoperative/prevention & control , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Urinary Retention/etiology
6.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 122(10): 732-738, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441311

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The use of acetaminophen (APAP) is increasing recently, especially with COVID-19 outbreaks. APAP is safe at therapeutic levels, however, an overdose can cause severe liver injury. This study aims to explore possible mechanisms involved in APAP­induced hepatotoxicity and compare different hepatoprotective agents, namely vitamin E, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and necrostatin-1 (NEC-1). METHODS: Adult male albino rats were divided into groups: Control group, APAP­induced hepatotoxicity group, Vitamin E­treated group, H2S­treated group and NEC-1­treated group. Serum levels for aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), interleukin-33 (IL-33), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), reduced glutathione (GSH) and lipid profile were measured. Histopathological examinations of liver tissue with H(et)E stain and immunohistochemistry for activated caspase-3 were also done. RESULTS: APAP­treated group showed elevated liver transaminases, hyperlipidemia, and deficient liver anti-oxidative response together with disturbed hepatic architecture and increased immune-expression of activated caspase-3 in hepatic tissue. Pretreatment with vitamin E, H2S or NEC-1 reversed the affected parameters. Vitamin E and H2S showed greater improvement when compared to NEC-1. CONCLUSION: Vitamin E, H2S and NEC-1 showed protective effects against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity, thus they may be used as an adjuvant therapy when APAP is indicated for long periods as is the case in COVID-19 patients (Tab. 2, Fig. 2, Ref. 45). Text in PDF www.elis.sk Keywords: acetaminophen, hepatotoxicity, apoptosis, necrostatin-1, vitamin E, H2S.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Hydrogen Sulfide , Acetaminophen/toxicity , Alanine Transaminase/metabolism , Animals , Aspartate Aminotransferases/metabolism , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/drug therapy , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/metabolism , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/prevention & control , Humans , Hydrogen Sulfide/metabolism , Imidazoles , Indoles , Liver/metabolism , Male , Oxidative Stress , Rats , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin E/pharmacology
7.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(8)2021 Aug 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341314

ABSTRACT

An 87-year-old man with a history of osteoarthritis presented with worsening knee pain. He was prescribed acetaminophen with codeine. A few days later, he developed a rash on his right buttock and proximal thigh, similar to a rash he experienced in the past when he took over-the-counter (OTC) acetamenophen and an unknown lozenge to treat a presumed viral illness. A fixed drug eruption (FDE) was diagnosed and the patient was asked to avoid Tylenol and other OTC lozenges. Tylenol was entered as an allergy in the electronic medical records. However, since Tylenol, not acetaminophen was listed in the allergy profile, the order for acetaminophen and codeine did not generate an alert for the prescribing physician. Additionally, the dispensing pharmacist did not question the prescribing physician and the patient, unaware that acetaminophen in the pain medication is the same drug as Tylenol, took it and developed recurrent FDE.


Subject(s)
Acetaminophen , Drug Eruptions , Acetaminophen/adverse effects , Aged, 80 and over , Codeine/adverse effects , Drug Eruptions/etiology , Humans , Male , Nonprescription Drugs , Pain
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(14)2021 07 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323235

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pain is a common compensation mechanism in pregnant women that they may face during gestation due to physiological changes. Paracetamol and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the most administered analgesic drugs worldwide. Therefore, safety and efficacy are important measures for the use of analgesics during pregnancy. OBJECTIVE: Assess the knowledge of analgesic drug utilization among Saudi pregnant women. METHOD: We conducted a self-administered survey with an electronic questionnaire via Google Drive among a sample of 406 Saudi women. RESULTS: About half of the respondents took analgesics during the first trimester, and 52.5% of women have used analgesics at least once without any medical advice during their gestation. Most participants agreed that paracetamol is the safest and effective analgesic drug during pregnancy, yet 61.8% of women are not aware that analgesics could be detrimental to the fetus if inappropriately administered in the third trimester. CONCLUSION: Participants have a good perception of the safest and most effective analgesic drug during pregnancy, but they have poor knowledge about analgesics' side effects.


Subject(s)
Acetaminophen , Analgesics , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Saudi Arabia
10.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253543, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282302

ABSTRACT

Based on several lines of evidence, numerous investigators have suggested that acetaminophen exposure during early development can induce neurological disorders. We had previously postulated that acetaminophen exposure early in life, if combined with antioxidants that prevent accumulation of NAPQI, the toxic metabolite of acetaminophen, might be innocuous. In this study, we administered acetaminophen at or below the currently recommended therapeutic dose to male laboratory rat pups aged 4-10 days. The antioxidants cysteine and mannitol were included to prevent accumulation of NAPQI. In addition, animals were exposed to a cassette of common stress factors: an inflammatory diet, psychological stress, antibiotics, and mock infections using killed bacteria. At age 37-49 days, observation during introduction to a novel conspecific revealed increased rearing behavior, an asocial activity, in animals treated with acetaminophen plus antioxidants, regardless of their exposure to oxidative stress factors (2-way ANOVA; P < 0.0001). This observation would suggest that the initial hypothesis is incorrect, and that oxidative stress mediators do not entirely eliminate the effects of acetaminophen on neurodevelopment. This study provides additional cause for caution when considering the use of acetaminophen in the pediatric population, and provides evidence that the effects of acetaminophen on neurodevelopment need to be considered both in the presence and in the absence of oxidative stress.


Subject(s)
Acetaminophen/pharmacology , Behavior, Animal/drug effects , Cysteine/pharmacology , Mannitol/pharmacology , Neurogenesis/drug effects , Animals , Animals, Newborn , Female , Male , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
11.
Nutr Clin Pract ; 36(4): 853-862, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260559

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction is prevalent in critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The acetaminophen absorption test (AAT) has been previously described as a direct method for assessment of GI function. Our study determines whether the AAT can be used to assess GI function in critically ill COVID-19 patients, compared with traditional measures of GI function. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study of critically ill patients with COVID-19. SETTING: Three intensive care units at a tertiary care academic medical center. PATIENTS: Twenty critically ill patients with COVID-19. INTERVENTIONS: The results of AAT and traditional measures for assessing GI function were collected and compared. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Among the study cohort, 55% (11 of 20) of patients had evidence of malabsorption by AAT. Interestingly, all patients with evidence of malabsorption by AAT had clinical evidence of bowel function, as indicated by stool output and low gastric residuals during the prior 24 h. When comparing patients with a detectable acetaminophen level (positive AAT) with those who had undetectable acetaminophen levels (negative AAT), radiologic evidence of ileus was less frequent (20 vs 88%; P = .03), tolerated tube-feed rates were higher (40 vs 10 ml/h; P =.01), and there was a trend toward lower gastric residual volumes (45 vs 830 ml; P =.11). CONCLUSION: Malabsorption can occur in critically ill patients with COVID-19 despite commonly used clinical indicators of tube-feeding tolerance. The AAT provides a simple, rapid, and cost-effective mechanism by which enteral function can be efficiently assessed in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Acetaminophen , COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Humans , Intestinal Absorption , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
12.
J Evid Based Integr Med ; 26: 2515690X211020685, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247472

ABSTRACT

The retrospective cohort study aimed to evaluate the clinical outcomes of Ayurveda treatment exposure as an add-on to conventional care in early stage COVID-19 patients admitted at Samaras COVID care center, Ahmedabad, India. Conventional care included Vitamin-c, Azithromycin, and Paracetamol. Ayurveda formulations used as add-on were Dashamula and Pathyadi decoctions along with Trikatu powder, Sanshamani tablet, AYUSH-64 tablet AND Yastimadhu Ghana tablet for oral administration. Considering Add-on Ayurveda medicines as exposure of interest, patients who received Add-on Ayurveda medicines at least for 7 days were included in the exposed group while those who received only conventional care in unexposed group. Data was collected through record review and telephonic interviews. The outcomes of interest were the development of symptoms, duration of symptomatic phase in those progressing to symptomatic stage and mortality. Total 762 participants were included-[541 (71%) in the exposed group and 221 (29%) in the unexposed. Progression to symptomatic phase did not differ significantly between groups [27.6% in exposed, 24.6% in unexposed, adjusted RR 0.85; 95% CI 0.6-1.2]. The total duration of symptomatic phase among those progressing to the symptomatic stage was significantly decreased in the exposed group (x¯ = 3.66 ± 1.55 days in exposed (n = 133); x¯ = 5.34 ± 3.35 days in unexposed (n = 61), p < 0.001). No mortality was observed in either of the groups. Ayurveda Treatment as adjunctive to conventional care reduced the duration of symptomatic phase in early stage COVID-19 as compared to standalone conventional care. Add-on Ayurveda treatment has promising potential for management of early stage COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acetaminophen/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Medicine, Ayurvedic/methods , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , Antipyretics/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Complementary Therapies/methods , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Treatment Outcome
13.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 73(5): 731-739, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206744

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To identify whether active use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) increases susceptibility to developing suspected or confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) compared to the use of other common analgesics. METHODS: We performed a propensity score-matched cohort study with active comparators, using a large UK primary care data set. The cohort consisted of adult patients age ≥18 years with osteoarthritis (OA) who were followed up from January 30 to July 31, 2020. Patients prescribed an NSAID (excluding topical preparations) were compared to those prescribed either co-codamol (paracetamol and codeine) or co-dydramol (paracetamol and dihydrocodeine). A total of 13,202 patients prescribed NSAIDs were identified, compared to 12,457 patients prescribed the comparator drugs. The primary outcome measure was the documentation of suspected or confirmed COVID-19, and the secondary outcome measure was all-cause mortality. RESULTS: During follow-up, the incidence rates of suspected/confirmed COVID-19 were 15.4 and 19.9 per 1,000 person-years in the NSAID-exposed group and comparator group, respectively. Adjusted hazard ratios for suspected or confirmed COVID-19 among the unmatched and propensity score-matched OA cohorts, using data from clinical consultations in primary care settings, were 0.82 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.62-1.10) and 0.79 (95% CI 0.57-1.11), respectively, and adjusted hazard ratios for the risk of all-cause mortality were 0.97 (95% CI 0.75-1.27) and 0.85 (95% CI 0.61-1.20), respectively. There was no effect modification by age or sex. CONCLUSION: No increase in the risk of suspected or confirmed COVID-19 or mortality was observed among patients with OA in a primary care setting who were prescribed NSAIDs as compared to those who received comparator drugs. These results are reassuring and suggest that in the absence of acute illness, NSAIDs can be safely prescribed during the ongoing pandemic.


Subject(s)
Analgesics/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mortality , Osteoarthritis/drug therapy , Acetaminophen/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Case-Control Studies , Cause of Death , Codeine/analogs & derivatives , Codeine/therapeutic use , Disease Susceptibility , Drug Combinations , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Primary Health Care , Propensity Score , Proportional Hazards Models , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology
14.
Br Dent J ; 229(7): 398, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1127152
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5087, 2021 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117657

ABSTRACT

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been widely used in patients with respiratory infection, but their safety in coronavirus disease 19 (Covid-19) patients has not been fully investigated. We evaluated an association between NSAID use and outcomes of Covid-19. This study was a retrospective observational cohort study based on insurance benefit claims sent to the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service of Korea by May 15, 2020. These claims comprised all Covid-19-tested cases and history of medical service use for the past 3 years in these patients. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality, and the secondary outcome was need for ventilator care. Among 7590 patients diagnosed with Covid-19, two distinct cohorts were generated based on NSAID or acetaminophen prescription within 2 weeks before Covid-19 diagnosis. A total of 398 patients was prescribed NSAIDs, and 2365 patients were prescribed acetaminophen. After propensity score matching, 397 pairs of data set were generated, and all-cause mortality of the NSAIDs group showed no significant difference compared with the acetaminophen group (4.0% vs. 3.0%; hazard ratio [HR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.63-2.88; P = 0.46). The rate of ventilator care also did not show significantly different results between the two groups (2.0% vs. 1.3%; HR, 1.60; 95% CI 0.53-5.30; P = 0.42). Use of NSAIDs was not associated with mortality or ventilator care in Covid-19 patients. NSAIDs may be safely used to relieve symptoms in patients with suspicion of Covid-19.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Acetaminophen/adverse effects , Acetaminophen/therapeutic use , Administration, Oral , Adult , Aged , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/adverse effects , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Propensity Score , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
16.
J AOAC Int ; 104(4): 975-982, 2021 Aug 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1072369

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Paracetamol (PC) is one of the most widely used analgesic and antipyretic drugs and has recently been integrated into the supportive therapy of COVID-19. Pharmaceuticals containing methionine (MT) with PC may contribute to avoid hepatotoxicity and eventual PC overdose-dependent death. OBJECTIVE: The current work purposes to develop and validate two chromatographic methods for the simultaneous determination of MT and PC in the presence of two PC impurities (4-nitrophenol [NP] and 4-aminophenol [AP]). METHOD: Two chromatographic methods were established and validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. The first one was an RP-HPLC/UV method based on applying a "dual-mode" gradient elution. The separation was realized via varying both the composition of the ternary mobile phase (acetonitrile-methanol-water) and its flow rate. This strategy enabled a relatively rapid analysis with a satisfactory resolution, although the investigated compounds exhibit a significant difference in lipophilicity. The second one relied on TLC-densitometry, where the optimum separation was realized using a quaternary mobile phase system composed of butanol-dioxane-toluene-methanol (8:2.5:3.5:0.3, by volume). Both methods were monitored at 220 nm. RESULTS: The developed methods were proven to be robust, accurate, specific, and appropriate for the routine analysis of PC in its pure form or in pharmaceutical formulations with MT in quality control laboratories. CONCLUSIONS: The corresponding methods are suitable to determine MT and PC in the presence of PC impurities. HIGHLIGHTS: The study achieves the analysis of MT and PC in the presence of PC impurities via the application of HPLC and TLC-densitometry methods.


Subject(s)
Acetaminophen , COVID-19 , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Thin Layer , Densitometry , Humans , Methionine , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2
17.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 586: 673-682, 2021 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065294

ABSTRACT

Paracetamol is the most commonly used antipyretic and analgesic drug in the world. The key challenge in paracetamol therapy is associated with the frequency of the dosing. Depending on the gastric filling within 10-20 min paracetamol is released and rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, it must be taken three or four times a day. To address the dose challenge it is desirable that the paracetamol release profile follows the zero-order kinetic model (constant rate of drug release per unit time). This goal can be achieved by using a suitable porous carrier system. Herein, non-toxic wrinkled mesoporous carbons with unique morphology were synthesized via the hard template method as new carriers for paracetamol. These particles can precisely modulate the release of paracetamol over 24 h in a simulated gastric fluid according to the zero-order kinetic model completely eliminating the initial burst release. Overall, these systems could significantly enhance the bioavailability of paracetamol and prolong its therapeutic effect in numerous diseases such as cold, flu, COVID-19, and severe pain.


Subject(s)
Acetaminophen , COVID-19/drug therapy , Carbon/chemistry , Drug Carriers , Pain/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Acetaminophen/chemistry , Acetaminophen/pharmacokinetics , Delayed-Action Preparations/chemistry , Delayed-Action Preparations/pharmacokinetics , Drug Carriers/chemistry , Drug Carriers/pharmacokinetics , Humans
19.
J Clin Psychopharmacol ; 41(2): 98-99, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1030023
20.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(1)2020 12 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1021948

ABSTRACT

The human serine protease serine 2 TMPRSS2 is involved in the priming of proteins of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and represents a possible target for COVID-19 therapy. The TMPRSS2 gene may be co-expressed with SARS-CoV-2 cell receptor genes angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and Basigin (BSG), but only TMPRSS2 demonstrates tissue-specific expression in alveolar cells according to single-cell RNA sequencing data. Our analysis of the structural variability of the TMPRSS2 gene based on genome-wide data from 76 human populations demonstrates that a functionally significant missense mutation in exon 6/7 in the TMPRSS2 gene is found in many human populations at relatively high frequencies, with region-specific distribution patterns. The frequency of the missense mutation encoded by rs12329760, which has previously been found to be associated with prostate cancer, ranged between 10% and 63% and was significantly higher in populations of Asian origin compared with European populations. In addition to single-nucleotide polymorphisms, two copy number variants were detected in the TMPRSS2 gene. A number of microRNAs have been predicted to regulate TMPRSS2 and BSG expression levels, but none of them is enriched in lung or respiratory tract cells. Several well-studied drugs can downregulate the expression of TMPRSS2 in human cells, including acetaminophen (paracetamol) and curcumin. Thus, the interactions of TMPRSS2 with SARS-CoV-2, together with its structural variability, gene-gene interactions, expression regulation profiles, and pharmacogenomic properties, characterize this gene as a potential target for COVID-19 therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic/drug effects , Molecular Targeted Therapy , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Acetaminophen/pharmacology , Acetaminophen/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/biosynthesis , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Asia/epidemiology , Basigin/biosynthesis , Basigin/genetics , Basigin/physiology , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/genetics , Curcumin/pharmacology , Curcumin/therapeutic use , Europe/epidemiology , Exons/genetics , Gene Frequency , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genetic Variation , Humans , MicroRNAs/genetics , Mutation, Missense , Pharmacogenomic Testing , Protein Interaction Mapping , Receptors, Virus/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Virus/biosynthesis , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/biosynthesis , Serine Endopeptidases/physiology , Single-Cell Analysis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
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