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Viruses ; 14(4)2022 03 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834924


The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 is having devastating effects on a global scale. Since common household disinfectants are often used to minimise the risk of infection in the home and work environment, we investigated the ability of some of these products to inactivate the virus. We tested generic brands of vinegar, bleach, and dishwashing detergent, as well as laboratory-grade acetic acid, sodium hypochlorite, and ethanol. Assays were conducted at room temperature (18-20 °C, 40% relative humidity), and two time points were used to reflect a quick wipe (30 s) and a brief soak (5 min). Vinegar, and its active ingredient, acetic acid, were completely ineffective at virus inactivation even when exposed to the virus at 90% v/v (a final concentration equivalent to 3.6% v/v acetic acid). In contrast, ethanol was capable of inactivating the virus at dilutions as low as 40% v/v. Dishwashing detergent effectively rendered SARS-CoV-2 inactive when diluted 100-fold (1% v/v). Bleach was found to be fully effective against SARS-CoV-2 at 0.21 g/L sodium hypochlorite after a 30 s exposure (1/200 dilution of commercial product). Given reports of infectious virus recovered from the surface of frozen packaging, we tested the persistence of infectiousness after multiple freeze-thaw cycles and found no change in infectious SARS-CoV-2 titre after seven freeze-thaw cycles. These results should help inform readers of how to effectively disinfect surfaces and objects that have potentially been contaminated with SARS-CoV-2 using common household chemicals.

COVID-19 , Disinfectants , Acetic Acid/pharmacology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Detergents/pharmacology , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Ethanol/pharmacology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sodium Hypochlorite/pharmacology
Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol ; 134(3): 367-374, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1734858


OBJECTIVES: To examine the artifacts on intraoral photostimulable storage phosphor (PSP) plate images caused by 3 different disinfectants that are effective against pathogens including SARS-CoV-2. STUDY DESIGN: Nine new PSP plates, to be wiped with hypochlorous acid (HOCl) in group A, alcohol in group B, and white vinegar in group C, were distributed in 3 groups. Twelve images of each PSP plate with increasing numbers of wipes were examined for artifacts. The comparisons were evaluated by Kruskal-Wallis and post hoc tests. The reliability of the measurements was evaluated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Cohen kappa statistic. RESULTS: Artifacts were observed only on group B images. In terms of artifact scores, the difference between group A and group C was not statistically significant (P > .05), whereas group B artifact scores were significantly higher than group A and group C (P < .05). Intraobserver reliability was perfect (ICC and kappa of 1.0) and interobserver reliability was considered excellent (ICC = 0.985) or almost perfect (kappa = 0.956). CONCLUSIONS: HOCl and white vinegar can be alternative disinfection options for PSP plates tested in this study. Unlike alcohol, they did not produce artifacts. Additional research evaluating their effects on image quality is needed to determine if they are appropriate for disinfection.

COVID-19 , Radiography, Dental, Digital , Acetic Acid/pharmacology , Artifacts , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfection/methods , Humans , Hypochlorous Acid , Radiography, Dental, Digital/methods , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2
BMC Microbiol ; 20(1): 265, 2020 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-730206


BACKGROUND: Acetic acid has been used to clean and disinfect surfaces in the household for many decades. The antimicrobial efficacy of cleaning procedures can be considered particularly important for young, old, pregnant, immunocompromised people, but may also concern other groups, particularly with regards to the COVID-19 pandemics. This study aimed to show that acetic acid exhibit an antibacterial and antifungal activity when used for cleaning purposes and is able to destroy certain viruses. Furthermore, a disinfecting effect of laundry in a simulated washing cycle has been investigated. RESULTS: At a concentration of 10% and in presence of 1.5% citric acid, acetic acid showed a reduction of > 5-log steps according to the specifications of DIN EN 1040 and DIN EN 1275 for the following microorganisms: P. aeruginosa, E. coli, S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, K. pneumoniae, E. hirae and A. brasiliensis. For MRSA a logarithmic reduction of 3.19 was obtained. Tests on surfaces according to DIN EN 13697 showed a complete reduction (> 5-log steps) for P. aeruginosa, E. coli, S. aureus, E. hirae, A. brasiliensis and C. albicans at an acetic acid concentration of already 5%. Virucidal efficacy tests according to DIN EN 14476 and DIN EN 16777 showed a reduction of ≥4-log-steps against the Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) for acetic acid concentrations of 5% or higher. The results suggest that acetic acid does not have a disinfecting effect on microorganisms in a dosage that is commonly used for cleaning. However, this can be achieved by increasing the concentration of acetic acid used, especially when combined with citric acid. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show a disinfecting effect of acetic acid in a concentration of 10% and in presence of 1.5% citric acid against a variety of microorganisms. A virucidal effect against enveloped viruses could also be proven. Furthermore, the results showed a considerable antimicrobial effect of acetic acid when used in domestic laundry procedures.

Acetic Acid/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Citric Acid/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Bacteria/drug effects , COVID-19 , Disinfection/methods , Fungi/drug effects , Humans , Norovirus/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2