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1.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(7)2022 Jul 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917622

ABSTRACT

Background and Objective: Bacterial infections are among the major complications of many viral respiratory tract illnesses, such as influenza and coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). These bacterial co-infections are associated with an increase in morbidity and mortality rates. The current observational study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital in Lahore, Pakistan among COVID-19 patients with the status of oxygen dependency to see the prevalence of bacterial co-infections and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns. Materials and Methods: A total of 1251 clinical samples were collected from already diagnosed COVID-19 patients and tested for bacterial identification (cultures) and susceptibility testing (disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration) using gold standard diagnostic methods. Results: From the total collected samples, 234 were found positive for different bacterial isolates. The most common isolated bacteria were Escherichia coli (E. coli) (n = 62) and Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) (n = 47). The E. coli isolates have shown the highest resistance to amoxicillin and ampicillin, while in the case of A. baumannii, the highest resistance was noted against tetracycline. The prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was 14.9%, carbapenem resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) was 4.5%, and vancomycin resistant Enterococcus (VRE) was 3.96%. Conclusions: The results of the current study conclude that empiric antimicrobial treatment in critically ill COVID-19 patients may be considered if properly managed within institutional or national level antibiotic stewardship programs, because it may play a protective role in the case of bacterial co-infections, especially when a patient has other AMR risk factors, such as hospital admission within the previous six months.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter baumannii , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Coinfection/drug therapy , Coinfection/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Escherichia coli , Humans , Pakistan/epidemiology
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 10852, 2022 Jun 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908290

ABSTRACT

The recent outbreak of COVID-19 has increased hospital admissions, which could elevate the risk of nosocomial infections, such as A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa infections. Although effective vaccines have been developed against SARS-CoV-2, no approved treatment option is still available against antimicrobial-resistant strains of A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa. In the current study, an all-in-one antigen was designed based on an innovative, state-of-the-art strategy. In this regard, experimentally validated linear epitopes of spike protein (SARS-CoV-2), OmpA (A. baumannii), and OprF (P. aeruginosa) were selected to be harbored by mature OmpA as a scaffold. The selected epitopes were used to replace the loops and turns of the barrel domain in OmpA; OprF311-341 replaced the most similar sequence within the OmpA, and three validated epitopes of OmpA were retained intact. The obtained antigen encompasses five antigenic peptides of spike protein, which are involved in SARS-CoV-2 pathogenicity. One of these epitopes, viz. QTQTNSPRRARSV could trigger antibodies preventing super-antigenic characteristics of spike and alleviating probable autoimmune responses. The designed antigen could raise antibodies neutralizing emerging variants of SARS-CoV-2 since at least two epitopes are consensus. In conclusion, the designed antigen is expected to raise protective antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, A. baumannii, and P. aeruginosa.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter Infections , Acinetobacter baumannii , COVID-19 , Acinetobacter baumannii/metabolism , Epitopes , Humans , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 8763, 2022 05 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873545

ABSTRACT

Cefiderocol (CFDC) is a novel chlorocatechol-substituted siderophore antibiotic approved to treat complicated urinary tract infections (cUTI) and hospital-acquired and ventilator-acquired pneumonia (HAP/VAP). Previous work determined that albumin-rich human fluids increase the minimum inhibitory concentration (MICs) of Acinetobacter baumannii against CFDC and reduce the expression of genes related to iron uptake systems. This latter effect may contribute to the need for higher concentrations of CFDC to inhibit growth. The presence of human urine (HU), which contains low albumin concentrations, did not modify MIC values of two carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii. Levels of resistance to CFDC were not modified by HU in strain AMA40 but were reduced in strain AB5075. Expanding the studies to other carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii isolates showed that the presence of HU resulted in unmodified or reduced MIC of CDFC values. The expression of piuA, pirA, bauA, and bfnH determined by qRT-PCR was enhanced in A. baumannii AMA40 and AB5075 by the presence of HU in the culture medium. All four tested genes code for functions related to recognition and transport of ferric-siderophore complexes. The effect of HU on expression of pbp1, pbp3, blaOXA-51-like, blaADC, and blaNDM-1, genes associated with resistance to ß-lactams, as well as genes coding for efflux pumps and porins was variable, showing dependence with the strain analyzed. We conclude that the lack of significant concentrations of albumin and free iron in HU makes this fluid behave differently from others we tested. Unlike other albumin rich fluids, the presence of HU does not impact the antibacterial activity of CFDC when tested against A. baumannii.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter baumannii , Albumins/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Carbapenems/pharmacology , Cephalosporins , Humans , Iron/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Siderophores , beta-Lactamases/genetics
4.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 25(5): 702-709, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1863109

ABSTRACT

Background: Epidemiology of nosocomial infections may show variability because of under-estimation of infection control measures (ICMs) in coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) outbreak. Aim: To investigate the Acinetobacter bacteremia outbreak developed in an intensive care unit (ICU) between March 20 to May 15, 2020, examine the risk factors, and re-evaluate ICM retrospectively. Material and Methods: A retrospective cohort analysis was conducted to determine the risk factors, pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed for analysis of the outbreak, ICM practices were observed by a team, and infection control interventions were undertaken. Results: Acinetobacter bacteremia developed in 17 patients (21.5%) within 79 COVID-19 patients included in the study. The mean age of the bacteremic patients was 67.3 (SD = 14.82) years, and 82.4% of them were male; of these, 15 died, leading to 88.2% mortality. The bacteremia rate was higher compared with a 14-month period preceding the COVID-19 pandemic (17/79 versus 12/580 patients, respectively). PFGE revealed that the outbreak was polyclonal. On multi-variate analysis, the bacteremia development rate was 13.7 and 5.06 times higher with central venous catheter (CVC) use and in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), respectively. The mortality rate was higher in bacteremic patients (p = 0.0016). It was observed that ICMs were not followed completely, especially change of gloves and hand hygiene. Contamination of A. baumannii was observed in 38% of the gloves. Conclusion: COPD and CVC use were determined as risk factors for Acinetobacter bacteremia development, and failures in ICM may have led to cross-contamination of endemic A. baumannii. The outbreak could be controlled within 3 weeks of interventions.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter Infections , Acinetobacter baumannii , Bacteremia , COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Acinetobacter Infections/drug therapy , Acinetobacter Infections/epidemiology , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Bacteremia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Pandemics , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
5.
Am J Infect Control ; 50(5): 477-481, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1838507

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii outbreak in the COVID intensive care unit of a community hospital was contained using multidrug resistant organism guidelines. The purpose of this study is to report on an outbreak investigation and containment strategy that was used, and to discuss prevention strategy. METHODS: A multidisciplinary approach contained the spread of infection. Strategies implemented included consultation with experts, screening, and reversal of personal protective equipment conservation. Ensuring infection control best practices are maintained remain important efforts to reduce the spread of multidrug resistant organisms. RESULTS: Five patients with carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii were identified from routine clinical cultures within one week and one patient was identified from active surveillance cultures. DISCUSSION: Personal protective equipment conservation, strategies to prevent health care personnel exposure, and patient surge staffing protocols may have increased the likelihood of multidrug resistant organism transmission. Environmental and behavioral infection control regulations with effective administrative guidance, active surveillance cultures, and antimicrobial stewardship are critical to prevent future outbreaks. CONCLUSIONS: After outbreak containment strategies were implemented, no additional patients were identified with carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Conventional infection prevention and control strategies were re-instituted. A multidisciplinary approach with continued focus on hand hygiene, environmental cleaning, and correct use of personal protective equipment needs to be put in place to successfully contain and prevent the spread of carbapenem resistant infections.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter Infections , Acinetobacter baumannii , COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Acinetobacter Infections/drug therapy , Acinetobacter Infections/epidemiology , Acinetobacter Infections/prevention & control , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Carbapenems/pharmacology , Carbapenems/therapeutic use , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Humans , Intensive Care Units
6.
J Med Microbiol ; 71(4)2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788579

ABSTRACT

Introduction. Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) is the primary pathogen causing hospital-acquired infections. The spread of CRAB is mainly driven by the dissemination of resistant clones, and in Latin America, International Clones IC-1 (also known as clonal complex CC1), IC-4 (CC15) and IC-5 (CC79) are the most prevalent.Gap Statement. There are no documented outbreaks of CRAB International Clone 2 (IC-2) reported in Brazil.Aim. To describe a large outbreak of CRAB caused by the uncommon IC-2 in a Brazilian COVID-19 hospital.Methodology. From May 2020 to May 2021, 224 patients infected or colonized with CRAB were identified in a single hospital; 92 % of them were also infected with SARS-CoV-2. From these patients, 137 isolates were recovered and subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing, PCR analysis and molecular typing. Whole-genome sequencing and downstream analysis were carried out on a representative isolate (the first available isolate).Results. In 76 % of the patients, a single OXA-23-producing CRAB IC-2 was identified. All the isolates were susceptible to polymyxin B, but highly resistant (>95 %) to aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones and beta-lactams. Genomic analysis revealed that the representative isolate also carried the 16S rRNA Methylase ArmA, which was detected for the first time in this species in Brazil.Conclusion. We report the rapid spread of an emerging CRAB clone responsible for causing a large outbreak in a hospital in Brazil, a country with predominance of other CRAB clones. Continuous and prospective surveillance is warranted to evaluate the impact of this clone in Brazilian hospital settings.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter Infections , Acinetobacter baumannii , COVID-19 , Acinetobacter Infections/epidemiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Clone Cells , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , beta-Lactamases/genetics
7.
APMIS ; 130(6): 330-337, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784596

ABSTRACT

Acinetobacter baumannii is known to be an opportunistic pathogen frequently responsible for outbreaks in health-care facilities, particularly in Intensive Care Units (ICU). It can easily survive in the hospital setting for long periods and can be transmitted throughout the hospital in a variety of ways, explored in this review. It can also easily acquire antibiotic resistance determinants rendering several antibiotic drugs useless. In 2019, the US Centre for Disease Control (CDC) considered the organism as an urgent threat. The aim of this review was to raise the awareness of the medical community about the relevance of this pathogen and discuss how it may impact seriously the healthcare institutions particularly in the aftermath of the recent COVID-19 pandemic. PubMed was searched, and articles that met inclusion criteria were reviewed. We conclude by the need to raise awareness to this pathogen's relevance and to encourage the implementation of preventive measures in order to mitigate its consequences namely the triage of specific high-risk patients.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter Infections , Acinetobacter baumannii , COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Acinetobacter Infections/drug therapy , Acinetobacter Infections/epidemiology , Acinetobacter Infections/prevention & control , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Infection/drug therapy , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics/prevention & control
8.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 77(6): 1676-1684, 2022 05 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774396

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the burden of nosocomial infections caused by MDR pathogens has caused a shortage of polymyxins. Thus, we evaluated the in vitro synergism and antibiofilm activity of antimicrobial combinations and propose a test kit for synergism against carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB). METHODS: Fifty-six CRAB isolates were tested for synergy between meropenem, gentamicin and ampicillin/sulbactam. MICs were determined by broth microdilution. Synergism was tested using chequerboard analysis, followed by a time-kill curve. Additionally, minimum biofilm eradication concentration was determined and the antibiofilm activity of the combinations was evaluated by MTT assay and biomass reduction. A test kit was developed for routine laboratory testing to detect synergism. RESULTS: All CRAB isolates were resistant to gentamicin and ampicillin/sulbactam. Chequerboard synergism occurred against 75% of the isolates. Meropenem + ampicillin/sulbactam was the most frequent combination with synergism (69%), followed by ampicillin/sulbactam + gentamicin (64%) and meropenem + gentamicin (51%). All combinations presented only bacteriostatic activity and no bactericidal or antibiofilm effects. The routine laboratory test showed 100% accuracy compared with other in vitro assays. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates the potential role of antibiotic combinations against planktonic bacteria. In vitro synergism is possible and can be an alternative treatment for patients with CRAB infection during a polymyxin shortage.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter Infections , Acinetobacter baumannii , COVID-19 , Acinetobacter Infections/microbiology , Ampicillin , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Biofilms , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Drug Synergism , Gentamicins/pharmacology , Humans , Meropenem/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pandemics , Polymyxins , Sulbactam/pharmacology
9.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 68(2): 142-146, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725074

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The vast majority of patients who hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 are given empirical antibiotic therapy. However, information on the frequency, microorganism species, and resistance rates of secondary bacterial infections in coronavirus disease 2019 patients are insufficient. We aimed to show the frequency of secondary infections and resistance conditions in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 hospitalized in the intensive care unit. METHODS: The results of tracheal aspirate culture, blood culture, and urine culture obtained from coronavirus disease 2019 patients - at least 2 days after their admission to the intensive care unit - were examined microbiologically. RESULTS: A total of 514 patients hospitalized in intensive care unit were included in our study. Tracheal aspirate, blood, or urine cultures were collected from 369 patients (71.8%). Bacterial reproduction was detected in at least one sample in 171 (33.3%) of all patients. The rate of respiratory tract infection and/or bloodstream infection was found to be 21%. Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in tracheal aspirate culture; Coagulase-negative staphylococci, K. pneumoniae, and A. baumannii in blood culture; and Escherichia coli, K. pneumoniae, and Enterococcus faecalis in urine culture were the most common microorganisms. A. baumannii was resistant to most antibiotics except colistin and P. aeruginosa strains were resistant to most antibiotics except amikacin, colistin, cefepime, and imipenem. In K. pneumoniae, the highest meropenem sensitivity (73%) was observed; there was a strong resistance to most of the remaining antibiotics. CONCLUSIONS: We think that our study can be useful in choosing empirical antibiotic therapy in the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and reducing the mortality that may occur with secondary infection.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter baumannii , Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Pneumonia , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacterial Infections/complications , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Sci Adv ; 8(7): eabl5966, 2022 02 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714332

ABSTRACT

The global spread of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infections urgently calls for the identification of novel drug targets. We solved the electron cryo-microscopy structure of the F1Fo-adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) synthase from A. baumannii in three distinct conformational states. The nucleotide-converting F1 subcomplex reveals a specific self-inhibition mechanism, which supports a unidirectional ratchet mechanism to avoid wasteful ATP consumption. In the membrane-embedded Fo complex, the structure shows unique structural adaptations along both the entry and exit pathways of the proton-conducting a-subunit. These features, absent in mitochondrial ATP synthases, represent attractive targets for the development of next-generation therapeutics that can act directly at the culmination of bioenergetics in this clinically relevant pathogen.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter baumannii , Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism , Cryoelectron Microscopy
11.
Eur J Pharm Sci ; 170: 106103, 2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1578592

ABSTRACT

Antibiotic resistance is a major health concern globally and has been estimated to cause 10 million deaths worldwide by year 2050 if the current trend of inappropriate and excessive use of antibiotics continues. Although, the discovery of antibiotics has saved countless of lives for the past 80 years, increasing levels of bacterial resistance to antibiotics would jeopardize the progress in clinical and agricultural sectors and may cause life-threatening situations even for previously treatable bacterial infections. Antibiotic resistance would increase the levels of poverty of low-middle income countries mostly due to extended hospital stays, higher cost of treatment and untimely deaths that directly affect the total productivity rate. Recent incidences of antibiotic resistance have been gradually increasing globally and this may potentiate horizontal transmission of the resistant gene and have been linked with cross-resistance to other antibiotic families as well. This review summarizes the global burden of antibiotic resistance from the economic viewpoint, highlights the recent incidences of antibiotic resistance mainly related to Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus, describes the common mechanistic actions of antibiotic resistance and potential strategies to overcome antibiotic resistance.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter baumannii , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Financial Stress , Humans , Prevalence
12.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 11(1): 12, 2022 01 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643184

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the adoption of strict infection prevention and control measures, many hospitals have reported outbreaks of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) during the Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Following an outbreak of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) in our institution, we sought to systematically analyse characteristics of MDRO outbreaks in times of COVID-19, focussing on contributing factors and specific challenges in controlling these outbreaks. METHODS: We describe results of our own CRAB outbreak investigation and performed a systematic literature review for MDRO (including Candida auris) outbreaks which occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic (between December 2019 and March 2021). Search terms were related to pathogens/resistance mechanisms AND COVID-19. We summarized outbreak characteristics in a narrative synthesis and contrasted contributing factors with implemented control measures. RESULTS: The CRAB outbreak occurred in our intensive care units between September and December 2020 and comprised 10 patients (thereof seven with COVID-19) within two distinct genetic clusters (both ST2 carrying OXA-23). Both clusters presumably originated from COVID-19 patients transferred from the Balkans. Including our outbreak, we identified 17 reports, mostly caused by Candida auris (n = 6) or CRAB (n = 5), with an overall patient mortality of 35% (68/193). All outbreaks involved intensive care settings. Non-adherence to personal protective equipment (PPE) or hand hygiene (n = 11), PPE shortage (n = 8) and high antibiotic use (n = 8) were most commonly reported as contributing factors, followed by environmental contamination (n = 7), prolonged critical illness (n = 7) and lack of trained HCW (n = 7). Implemented measures mainly focussed on PPE/hand hygiene audits (n = 9), environmental cleaning/disinfection (n = 9) and enhanced patient screening (n = 8). Comparing potentially modifiable risk factors and control measures, we found the largest discrepancies in the areas of PPE shortage (risk factor in 8 studies, addressed in 2 studies) and patient overcrowding (risk factor in 5 studies, addressed in 0 studies). CONCLUSIONS: Reported MDRO outbreaks during the COVID-19 pandemic were most often caused by CRAB (including our outbreak) and C. auris. Inadequate PPE/hand hygiene adherence, PPE shortage, and high antibiotic use were the most commonly reported potentially modifiable factors contributing to the outbreaks. These findings should be considered for the prevention of MDRO outbreaks during future COVID-19 waves.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter Infections/prevention & control , Acinetobacter baumannii , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Candidiasis/prevention & control , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Acinetobacter Infections/complications , Acinetobacter baumannii/drug effects , Aged , Candidiasis/complications , Carbapenems/pharmacology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Female , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Switzerland/epidemiology
13.
Microb Pathog ; 164: 105409, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1620930

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early reports have shown that critically ill patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 have a high prevalence of nosocomial pneumonia, particularly ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). METHOD: In the present study, we determined the bacterial agents isolated from endotracheal aspirate (ETA) cultures of Covid-19 general intensive care patients and evaluated the antibiotic resistance profiles of common bacterial agents compared to the pre-pandemic period. RESULTS: While a total of 119 significant growths with polymicrobial growths were detected in the ETA cultures of 73 (7.5%) of 971 patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit before the pandemic, 87 significant growths were detected in the ETA cultures of 67 (11.1%) of 602 patients hospitalized in the Covid-19 intensive care unit (ICU) after the pandemic. While 61 (83.6%) of patients in the ICU died before the pandemic, 63 (94.0%) of patients in the Covid-19 ICU died after the pandemic. In terms of age, gender, and mortality, there was no significant difference between the two ICUs (p > 0.05). Before the pandemic, the mean length of stay in the ICU was 33.59 ± 32.89 days, and after the pandemic, it was 13.49 ± 8.03 days. This was a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05). Acinetobacter baumannii (28.5%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (22.6%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (15.9%), Staphylococcus aureus (6.7%), Escherichia coli (7.5%), Candida spp. (5.0%) were the most prevalent causal microorganisms discovered in pre-pandemic ICU ETA samples, whereas A. baumannii (54.0%), K. pneumoniae (10.3%), P. aeruginosa (6.8%), E. faecium (8%), and Candida spp.(13.7%) were the most common causative microorganisms detected in Covid-19 ICU ETA samples. Except for tigecycline, antibiotic resistance rates in A. baumannii strains increased following the pandemic. Only tobramycin showed a significant difference in the increase of resistance among these antibiotics (p = 0.037). The rate of tigecycline resistance, on the other hand, was 17.6% before the pandemic and 2.2% afterward (p < 0.05). After the pandemic, increased resistance of K. pneumoniae strains to colistin, meropenem, ertapenem, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, piperacillin-tazobactam, ciprofloxacin, tigecycline, and cefepime antibiotics was observed. However, these increases were not statistically significant. Except for imipenem, antibiotic resistance rates in P. aeruginosa strains increased following the pandemic. The increase in resistance of ceftazidime and levofloxacin was statistically significant (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: As a result, the Covid-19 pandemic requires intensive care follow-ups at an earlier age and with a more mortal course. Although the length of stay in the intensive care unit has been shortened, it is observed that this situation is observed due to early mortality. In P. aeruginosa strains, a significant difference was detected in the resistance increase of the ceftazidime and levofloxacin (p < 0.05) and with the exception of tigecycline, antibiotic resistance rates in A. baumannii strains increased following the pandemic. Only tobramycin showed a significant difference in the increase of resistance among these antibiotics (p = 0.037). Secondary infections in patients create more difficult treatment processes due to both Covid-19 and increasing antibiotic resistance today.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter baumannii , COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Critical Care , Cross Infection/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(22)2021 Nov 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1534089

ABSTRACT

Carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CRAB) infection can cause acute host reactions that lead to high-fatality sepsis, making it important to develop new therapeutic options. Previously, we developed a short 9-meric peptide, Pro9-3D, with significant antibacterial and cytotoxic effects. In this study, we attempted to produce safer peptide antibiotics against CRAB by reversing the parent sequence to generate R-Pro9-3 and R-Pro9-3D. Among the tested peptides, R-Pro9-3D had the most rapid and effective antibacterial activity against Gram-negative bacteria, particularly clinical CRAB isolates. Analyses of antimicrobial mechanisms based on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-neutralization, LPS binding, and membrane depolarization, as well as SEM ultrastructural investigations, revealed that R-Pro9-3D binds strongly to LPS and impairs the membrane integrity of CRAB by effectively permeabilizing its outer membrane. R-Pro9-3D was also less cytotoxic and had better proteolytic stability than Pro9-3D and killed biofilm forming CRAB. As an LPS-neutralizing peptide, R-Pro9-3D effectively reduced LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in RAW 264.7 cells. The antiseptic abilities of R-Pro9-3D were also investigated using a mouse model of CRAB-induced sepsis, which revealed that R-Pro9-3D reduced multiple organ damage and attenuated systemic infection by acting as an antibacterial and immunosuppressive agent. Thus, R-Pro9-3D displays potential as a novel antiseptic peptide for treating Gram-negative CRAB infections.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter Infections/drug therapy , Acinetobacter baumannii/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Peptides/pharmacology , Acinetobacter Infections/genetics , Acinetobacter Infections/microbiology , Acinetobacter baumannii/pathogenicity , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/pharmacology , Biofilms/drug effects , Carbapenems/adverse effects , Carbapenems/pharmacology , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
15.
J Hosp Infect ; 120: 43-47, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521276

ABSTRACT

The incidence density trend of the carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria was analysed in device-associated infections and antimicrobial consumption in 99 critical care facilities in a low/middle-income country, between January 2019 and December 2020. Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) per 1000 patient-days increased in 2020 and this finding had a strong positive correlation with the incidence density of COVID-19 by the Spearman test. Polymyxin consumption also increased in 2020 but without significant correlation with CRAB or COVID-19 incidence density, presumably due to empirical and untargeted prescribing as a consequence of concern about CRAB infections. These findings are a warning to infection control programmes and antimicrobial stewardship.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter baumannii , Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Carbapenems , Delivery of Health Care , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(3): e0028321, 2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501550

ABSTRACT

The Infectious Disease Surveillance of Pediatrics (ISPED) program was established in 2015 to monitor and analyze the trends of bacterial epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in children. Clinical bacterial isolates were collected from 11 tertiary care children's hospitals in China in 2016 to 2020. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out using the Kirby-Bauer method or automated systems, with interpretation according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute 2019 breakpoints. A total of 288,377 isolates were collected, and the top 10 predominant bacteria were Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii. In 2020, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic year, we observed a significant reduction in the proportion of respiratory tract samples (from 56.9% to 44.0%). A comparable reduction was also seen in the primary bacteria mainly isolated from respiratory tract samples, including S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and S. pyogenes. Multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) in children were commonly observed and presented higher rates of drug resistance than sensitive strains. The proportions of carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae (CRKP), carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CRAB), carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa (CRPA), and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains were 19.7%, 46.4%%, 12.8%, and 35.0%, respectively. The proportions of CRKP, CRAB, and CRPA strains all showed decreasing trends between 2015 and 2020. Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and CRPA gradually decreased with age, while CRAB showed the opposite trend with age. Both CRE and CRPA pose potential threats to neonates. MDROs show very high levels of AMR and have become an urgent threat to children, suggesting that effective monitoring of AMR and antimicrobial stewardship among children in China are required. IMPORTANCE AMR, especially that involving multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs), is recognized as a global threat to human health; AMR renders infections increasingly difficult to treat, constituting an enormous economic burden and producing tremendous negative impacts on patient morbidity and mortality rates. There are many surveillance programs in the world to address AMR profiles and MDRO prevalence in humans. However, published studies evaluating the overall AMR rates or MDRO distributions in children are very limited or are of mixed quality. In this study, we showed the bacterial epidemiology and resistance profiles of primary pathogens in Chinese children from 2016 to 2020 for the first time, analyzed MDRO distributions with time and with age, and described MDROs' potential threats to children, especially low-immunity neonates. Our study will be very useful to guide antiinfection therapy in Chinese children, as well as worldwide pediatric patients.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/classification , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Acinetobacter baumannii/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria/drug effects , Bacteria/isolation & purification , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , China/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/drug effects , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Humans , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Moraxella catarrhalis , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Staphylococcus epidermidis , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Streptococcus pyogenes
17.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 51(12): e13687, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443255

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether behavioral precautions adopted during Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic also influenced the spreading and multidrug resistance (MDR) of ESKAPEEc (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii [AB], Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter spp and Escherichia Coli, [EC]) among Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We performed a single-center retrospective study in adult patients admitted to our COVID-19-free surgical ICU. Only patients staying in ICU for more than 48 hours were included. The ESKAPEEc infections recorded during the COVID-19 period (June 1, 2020 - February 28, 2021) and in the corresponding pre-pandemic period (June 1, 2019 - February 28, 2020) were compared. An interrupted time series analysis was performed to rule out possible confounders. RESULTS: Overall, 173 patients in the COVID-19 period and 132 in the pre-COVID-19 period were investigated. The ESKAPEEc infections were documented in 23 (13.3%) and 35 (26.5%) patients in the pandemic and the pre-pandemic periods, respectively (p = 0.005). Demographics, diagnosis, comorbidities, type of surgery, Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, length of mechanical ventilation, hospital and ICU length of stay, ICU death rate, and 28-day hospital mortality were similar in the two groups. In comparison with the pre-pandemic period, no AB was recorded during COVID-19 period, (p = 0.017), while extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing EC infections significantly decreased (p = 0.017). Overall, the ESKAPEEc isolates during pandemic less frequently exhibited multidrug-resistant (p = 0.014). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that a robust adherence to hygiene measures together with human contact restrictions in a COVID-19 free ICU might also restrain the transmission of ESKAPEEc pathogens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Infection Control , Acinetobacter Infections/epidemiology , Acinetobacter Infections/microbiology , Acinetobacter Infections/transmission , Acinetobacter baumannii , Aged , Cross Infection/microbiology , Cross Infection/transmission , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Enterobacter , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/epidemiology , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/transmission , Enterococcus faecium , Escherichia coli Infections/epidemiology , Escherichia coli Infections/microbiology , Escherichia coli Infections/transmission , Female , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/transmission , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/transmission , Hand Disinfection , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Klebsiella Infections/epidemiology , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , Klebsiella Infections/transmission , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Male , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Middle Aged , Organizational Policy , Personal Protective Equipment , Pseudomonas Infections/epidemiology , Pseudomonas Infections/microbiology , Pseudomonas Infections/transmission , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcal Infections/transmission , Staphylococcus aureus , Visitors to Patients
18.
Microb Drug Resist ; 27(9): 1167-1175, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406451

ABSTRACT

Background: The aim of this study was to assess the drivers of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial infection development in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its impact on patient outcome. Methods: Retrospective analysis on data from 32 consecutive patients with COVID-19, admitted to our intensive care unit (ICU) from March to May 2020. Outcomes considered were MDR infection and ICU mortality. Results: Fifty percent of patients developed an MDR infection during ICU stay after a median time of 8 [4-11] days. Most common MDR pathogens were carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii, causing bloodstream infections and pneumonia. MDR infections were linked to a higher length of ICU stay (p = 0.002), steroid therapy (p = 0.011), and associated with a lower ICU mortality (odds ratio: 0.439, 95% confidence interval: 0.251-0.763; p < 0.001). Low-dose aspirin intake was associated with both MDR infection (p = 0.043) and survival (p = 0.015). Among MDR patients, mortality was related with piperacillin-tazobactam use (p = 0.035) and an earlier onset of MDR infection (p = 0.042). Conclusions: MDR infections were a common complication in critically ill COVID-19 patients at our center. MDR risk was higher among those dwelling longer in the ICU and receiving steroids. However, MDR infections were not associated with a worse outcome.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter Infections/mortality , COVID-19/mortality , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Klebsiella Infections/mortality , Opportunistic Infections/mortality , Pneumonia/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Acinetobacter Infections/drug therapy , Acinetobacter Infections/microbiology , Acinetobacter Infections/virology , Acinetobacter baumannii/drug effects , Acinetobacter baumannii/growth & development , Acinetobacter baumannii/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Aspirin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/microbiology , COVID-19/virology , Carbapenems/therapeutic use , Critical Illness , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Klebsiella Infections/drug therapy , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , Klebsiella Infections/virology , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Klebsiella pneumoniae/growth & development , Klebsiella pneumoniae/pathogenicity , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Opportunistic Infections/virology , Piperacillin, Tazobactam Drug Combination/therapeutic use , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Pneumonia/microbiology , Pneumonia/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Steroids/therapeutic use , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
19.
J Hosp Infect ; 116: 78-86, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1404776

ABSTRACT

AIM: To describe the nosocomial transmission of Air, multidrug-resistant, Acinetobacter baumannii, nosocomial, COVID-19 Acinetobacter baumannii (MRAB) in an open-cubicle neurology ward with low ceiling height, where MRAB isolates collected from air, commonly shared items, non-reachable high-level surfaces and patients were analysed epidemiologically and genetically by whole-genome sequencing. This is the first study to understand the genetic relatedness of air, environmental and clinical isolates of MRAB in the outbreak setting. FINDINGS: Of 11 highly care-dependent patients with 363 MRAB colonization days during COVID-19 pandemic, 10 (90.9%) and nine (81.8%) had cutaneous and gastrointestinal colonization, respectively. Of 160 environmental and air samples, 31 (19.4%) were MRAB-positive. The proportion of MRAB-contaminated commonly shared items was significantly lower in cohort than in non-cohort patient care (0/10, 0% vs 12/18, 66.7%; P<0.001). Air dispersal of MRAB was consistently detected during but not before diaper change in the cohort cubicle by 25-min air sampling (4/4,100% vs 0/4, 0%; P=0.029). The settle plate method revealed MRAB in two samples during diaper change. The proportion of MRAB-contaminated exhaust air grills was significantly higher when the cohort cubicle was occupied by six MRAB patients than when fewer than six patients were cared for in the cubicle (5/9, 55.6% vs 0/18, 0%; P=0.002). The proportion of MRAB-contaminated non-reachable high-level surfaces was also significantly higher when there were three or more MRAB patients in the cohort cubicle (8/31, 25.8% vs 0/24, 0%; P=0.016). Whole-genome sequencing revealed clonality of air, environment, and patients' isolates, suggestive of air dispersal of MRAB. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the view that patient cohorting in enclosed cubicles with partitions and a closed door is preferred if single rooms are not available.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter Infections , Acinetobacter baumannii , COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Acinetobacter Infections/drug therapy , Acinetobacter Infections/epidemiology , Acinetobacter baumannii/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Cross Infection/drug therapy , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 927, 2021 Sep 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403227

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) is among the most concerning cause of healthcare-associated infections (HAI) due to its high level of antibiotic resistance and high mortality. In the era of the COVID-19 pandemic, the key priority of infection control committees is to contain the dissemination of antibiotic resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Here, we aimed to timely recognize the emergence of CRAB in COVID-19 cases admitted to the wards of a tertiary referral hospital and to identify the genetic relatedness of the isolates. METHODS: From 30 March to 30 May 2020, a total of 242 clinical samples from COVID-19 cases were screened for CRAB isolates using standard microbiologic and antibiotic susceptibility tests. The PCRs targeting oxa23, oxa24, oxa58, blaTEM and blaNDM-1 genes were performed. Two multiplex PCRs for identifying the global clones (GC) of A. baumannii were also performed. The sequence type of CRABs was determined using Institut Pasteur (IP) multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme. RESULTS: Eighteen CRAB isolates were recovered from COVID-19 patients with the mean age of 63.94 ± 13.8 years. All but 4 COVID-19 patients co-infected with CRAB were suffering from an underlying disease. Death was recorded as the outcome in ICUs for 9 (50%) COVID-19 patients co-infected with CRAB. The CRAB isolates belong to GC2 and ST2IP and carried the oxa23 carbapenem resistance gene. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated the co-infection of CRAB isolates and SARS-CoV-2 in the patients admitted to different ICUs at a referral hospital in Tehran. The CRAB isolates were found to belong to ST2IP, share the oxa23 gene and to have caused several outbreaks in the wards admitting COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter Infections , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Acinetobacter Infections/epidemiology , Acinetobacter baumannii/drug effects , Acinetobacter baumannii/genetics , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/microbiology , Carbapenems/pharmacology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Middle Aged , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Pandemics , Tertiary Care Centers , beta-Lactamases/genetics
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