Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 97
Filter
1.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(5): 1853-1862, 2021 May.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238966

ABSTRACT

This essay reflects on sexual practices and prevention in the contexts of the AIDS and COVID-19 pandemics. It analyses data collected between July and October 2020 through participant observation, as part of an ethnographic research project on HIV vulnerability and prevention among men who have sex with men in the Metropolitan Region of Recife, state of Pernambuco (PE), Brazil. The results point to the relevance of physical appearance and the affective bond between partners in engendering emotions that mediate coping with the risk of infection during both pandemics. It indicates the need to incorporate those communicational dimensions into informational materials to make them more effective.


Este ensaio reflete sobre práticas sexuais e prevenção nos contextos das pandemias de AIDS e da COVID-19. Analisa dados coletados entre julho e outubro de 2020, por meio de observação participante, no âmbito de uma pesquisa etnográfica sobre vulnerabilidade e prevenção ao HIV entre homens que fazem sexo com homens da Região Metropolitana do Recife. Os resultados apontam para a relevância da aparência corporal e da vinculação afetiva entre os parceiros no engendramento de emoções que medeiam a lida com risco de infecção em ambas as pandemias. Sinaliza para a necessidade de incorporar essas dimensões comunicacionais em materiais informativos, de modo a torná-los mais eficazes.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/prevention & control , Brazil/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexual Behavior , Sexual Partners , Sexuality
3.
BMC Geriatr ; 23(1): 279, 2023 05 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2326140

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Population ageing and access to anti-retroviral therapies in South Africa have resulted in ageing of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, which has implications for policy, planning and practice. Impactful interventions on HIV/AIDS for older persons require knowledge on effects of the pandemic on this population. A study was undertaken to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of HIV/AIDS, as well as health literacy (HL) level of a population aged ≥ 50 years. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted at three sites in South Africa and two sites in Lesotho with an educational intervention at the South African sites. At baseline, data were collected for assessment of KAP of HIV/AIDS and HL levels. The pre- and post-intervention comprised participants at South African sites being familiarised with the contents of a specially constructed HIV/AIDS educational booklet. Participants' KAP was reassessed six weeks later. A composite score of ≥ 75% was considered adequate KAP and an adequate HL level. RESULTS: The baseline survey comprised 1163 participants. The median age was 63 years (range 50-98 years); 70% were female, and 69% had ≤ 8 years' education. HL was inadequate in 56% and the KAP score was inadequate in 64%. A high KAP score was associated with female gender (AOR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.2-2.1), age < 65 years (AOR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.5-2.5) and education level (Primary school: AOR = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.4-3.4); (High school: AOR = 4.4; 95% CI = 2.7-7.0); (University/college: AOR = 9.6; 95% CI = 4.7-19.7). HL was positively associated with education but no association with age or gender. The educational intervention comprised 614 (69%) participants. KAP scores increased post intervention: 65.2% of participants had adequate knowledge, versus 36% pre-intervention. Overall, younger age, being female and higher education level were associated with having adequate knowledge about HIV/AIDS, both pre- and post-intervention. CONCLUSIONS: The study population had low HL, and KAP scores regarding HIV/AIDS were poor but improved following an educational intervention. A tailored educational programme can place older people centrally in the fight against the epidemic, even in the presence of low HL. Policy and educational programmes are indicated to meet the information needs of older persons, which are commensurate with the low HL level of a large section of that population.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Health Literacy , Humans , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Male , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/prevention & control , South Africa/epidemiology , Lesotho/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
4.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0284759, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316215

ABSTRACT

HIV/AIDS and COVID-19 co-infection is a common global health and socio-economic problem. In this paper, a mathematical model for the transmission dynamics of HIV/AIDS and COVID-19 co-infection that incorporates protection and treatment for the infected (and infectious) groups is formulated and analyzed. Firstly, we proved the non-negativity and boundedness of the co-infection model solutions, analyzed the single infection models steady states, calculated the basic reproduction numbers using next generation matrix approach and then investigated the existence and local stabilities of equilibriums using Routh-Hurwiz stability criteria. Then using the Center Manifold criteria to investigate the proposed model exhibited the phenomenon of backward bifurcation whenever its effective reproduction number is less than unity. Secondly, we incorporate time dependent optimal control strategies, using Pontryagin's Maximum Principle to derive necessary conditions for the optimal control of the disease. Finally, we carried out numerical simulations for both the deterministic model and the model incorporating optimal controls and we found the results that the model solutions are converging to the model endemic equilibrium point whenever the model effective reproduction number is greater than unity, and also from numerical simulations of the optimal control problem applying the combinations of all the possible protection and treatment strategies together is the most effective strategy to drastically minimizing the transmission of the HIV/AIDS and COVID-19 co-infection in the community under consideration of the study.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Humans , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Computer Simulation , Models, Theoretical , Basic Reproduction Number
5.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 23(1): 430, 2023 May 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315638

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Providing services to people living with HIV (PLWH) faced many challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to examine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on providing HIV/AIDS-related services in Iran. METHODS: In this qualitative study, the participants were included by purposive sampling between November 2021 and February 2022. Virtually focused group discussion (FGD) meetings were conducted with the first group including policymakers, service providers, and researchers (n = 17), and the interviews were conducted telephonic and face-to-face using a semi-structured guide with the second group including people who received services (n = 38). Data were analyzed by content analysis using the inductive method in MAXQDA 10 software. RESULTS: Six categories were obtained, including mostly affected services, ways of the effect of COVID-19, healthcare systems reaction, effects on social inequality, opportunities created by the pandemic, and suggestions for the future. In addition, people who received services believed the COVID-19 pandemic has affected their life in several ways, including getting COVID-19, mental and emotional problems during the pandemic, financial problems, changes in the care plan, and changes in high-risk behaviors. CONCLUSION: Considering the level of community involvement with the issue of COVID-19 and the shock caused by the pandemic, as mentioned by the world health organization, it is necessary to improve health systems' resilience for better preparedness for similar conditions.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Iran/epidemiology , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/therapy
6.
Lancet HIV ; 10(5): e343-e350, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314965

ABSTRACT

New HIV infections and AIDS-related deaths among children and adolescent girls and young women (aged 15-24 years) in eastern and southern Africa continue to occur at unacceptably high rates. The COVID-19 pandemic has also severely undermined ongoing initiatives for HIV prevention and treatment, threatening to set the region back further in its efforts to end AIDS by 2030. Major impediments exist to attaining the UNAIDS 2025 targets among children, adolescent girls, young women, young mothers living with HIV, and young female sex workers residing in eastern and southern Africa. Each population has specific but overlapping needs with regard to diagnosis and linkage to and retention in care. Urgent action is needed to intensify and improve programmes for HIV prevention and treatment, including sexual and reproductive health services for adolescent girls and young women, HIV-positive young mothers, and young female sex workers.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Sex Workers , Adolescent , Female , Humans , Child , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Africa, Southern/epidemiology
7.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 9: e40591, 2023 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320519

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: China implemented a nationwide lockdown to contain COVID-19 from an early stage. Previous studies of the impact of COVID-19 on sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and diseases caused by blood-borne viruses (BBVs) in China have yielded widely disparate results, and studies on deaths attributable to STDs and BBVs are scarce. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to elucidate the impact of COVID-19 lockdown on cases, deaths, and case-fatality ratios of STDs and BBVs. METHODS: We extracted monthly data on cases and deaths for AIDS, gonorrhea, syphilis, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C between January 2015 and December 2021 from the notifiable disease reporting database on the official website of the National Health Commission of China. We used descriptive statistics to summarize the number of cases and deaths and calculated incidence and case-fatality ratios before and after the implementation of a nationwide lockdown (in January 2020). We used negative binominal segmented regression models to estimate the immediate and long-term impacts of lockdown on cases, deaths, and case-fatality ratios in January 2020 and December 2021, respectively. RESULTS: A total of 14,800,330 cases of and 127,030 deaths from AIDS, gonorrhea, syphilis, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C were reported from January 2015 to December 2021, with an incidence of 149.11/100,000 before lockdown and 151.41/100,000 after lockdown and a case-fatality ratio of 8.21/1000 before lockdown and 9.50/1000 after lockdown. The negative binominal model showed significant decreases in January 2020 in AIDS cases (-23.4%; incidence rate ratio [IRR] 0.766, 95% CI 0.626-0.939) and deaths (-23.9%; IRR 0.761, 95% CI 0.647-0.896), gonorrhea cases (-34.3%; IRR 0.657, 95% CI 0.524-0.823), syphilis cases (-15.4%; IRR 0.846, 95% CI 0.763-0.937), hepatitis B cases (-17.5%; IRR 0.825, 95% CI 0.726-0.937), and hepatitis C cases (-19.6%; IRR 0.804, 95% CI 0.693-0.933). Gonorrhea, syphilis, and hepatitis C showed small increases in the number of deaths and case-fatality ratios in January 2020. By December 2021, the cases, deaths, and case-fatality ratios for each disease had either reached or remained below expected levels. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 lockdown may have contributed to fewer reported cases of AIDS, gonorrhea, syphilis, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C and more reported deaths and case-fatality ratios of gonorrhea, syphilis, and hepatitis C in China.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , COVID-19 , Gonorrhea , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis C , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Syphilis , Humans , Syphilis/epidemiology , Gonorrhea/epidemiology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Communicable Disease Control , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis C/epidemiology
8.
Glob Health Action ; 16(1): 2206207, 2023 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319399

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the early phase of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, health services were disrupted worldwide, including HIV prevention services. While some studies have begun to document the effects of COVID-19 on HIV prevention, little has been done to qualitatively examine how lockdown measures were experienced and perceived to affect access to HIV prevention methods in sub-Saharan Africa. OBJECTIVES: To explore how the COVID-19 pandemic was perceived to affect access to HIV prevention methods in eastern Zimbabwe. METHOD: This article draws on qualitative data from the first three data collection points (involving telephone interviews, group discussions, and photography) of a telephone and WhatsApp-enabled digital ethnography. Data were collected from 11 adolescent girls and young women and five men over a 5-month period (March-July 2021). The data were analysed thematically. RESULTS: Participants reported widespread interruption to their condom supply when beerhalls were shut down as part of a nationwide lockdown. Restrictions in movement meant that participants who could afford to buy condoms from larger supermarkets or pharmacies were unable to. Additionally, the police reportedly refused to issue letters granting permission to travel for the purpose of accessing HIV prevention services. The COVID-19 pandemic was also described to obstruct the demand (fear of COVID-19, movement restrictions) and supply (de-prioritised, stock-outs) for HIV prevention services. Nonetheless, under certain formal and informal circumstances, such as accessing other and more prioritised health services, or 'knowing the right people', some participants were able to access HIV prevention methods. CONCLUSION: People at risk of HIV experienced the COVID-19 epidemic in Zimbabwe as disruptive to access to HIV prevention methods. While the disruptions were temporary, they were long enough to catalyse local responses, and to highlight the need for future pandemic response capacities to circumvent a reversal of hard-won gains in HIV prevention.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Male , Adolescent , Female , Humans , Condoms , Zimbabwe/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology
9.
Pan Afr Med J ; 44: 109, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2304656

ABSTRACT

The Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA), performs world-leading research on the epidemiology, pathogenesis, prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and - more recently - COVID-19. A rigorous yet supportive academic culture has nurtured the careers of many successful health sciences researchers, some of whom have worked for the organization since its inception over 20 years ago. This focus on professional development is founded on a training programme that invests heavily in the individual with the payoff of strengthening the science base for HIV and tuberculosis research in South Africa. Those selected for mentorship are typically medical students from the University of KwaZulu-Natal, adjoining the headquarters of CAPRISA in Durban. Increasingly, however, the institute attracts international fellows from partnering organizations to experience the intellectually demanding, scientifically robust, cutting-edge research environment. The purpose of this voices piece is to narrate and critically evaluate the experience from the dual perspectives of host and visitor of a research training programme undertaken by three undergraduate health sciences students from Vietnam, enrolled at VinUniversity. This was the inaugural running of what is expected to be an annual summer trip to CAPRISA by Hanoi-based medical and nursing students. The formative educational experience in best practice tackling of infectious diseases in challenging clinical contexts demonstrated the importance of investing in research placement programmes for public health impact. The exchange has inspired each student to become a future leader in seeking bold, innovative, and strategic approaches to improve global health issues in their home country.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Students, Nursing , Humans , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/prevention & control , South Africa , Southeast Asian People , Vietnam
11.
Med Trop Sante Int ; 1(2)2021 06 30.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2283723

ABSTRACT

While the concept of "Global Health" has existed since the late 1990s, it is now part of the everyday language of international public health experts, but how can this approach be characterized? Because they transcend borders, because they call for collective and coordinated actions at the global level, and because they require a tripartite approach (multidisciplinary, multi-actor and multisectoral), the AIDS and Covid-19 epidemics illustrate perfectly, each in its own way, this new approach. The fight against AIDS can be considered, in a way, as a laboratory for global health. By provoking, along with others, the reorganization of the international health aid architecture, by stimulating the emergence of new actors on the international scene, and by contributing to the breakdown of borders and disciplines, AIDS has certainly accelerated this new way of thinking about health issues. The Covid-19 crisis is converting the try and forcing the international community to become aware of this new imperative: we have no other choice than global health, cooperation and solidarity on a global scale.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , COVID-19 , Epidemics , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Global Health , Humans , International Cooperation
12.
Ann Ist Super Sanita ; 59(1): 80-92, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2253601

ABSTRACT

Kenya is home to one of the worst HIV/AIDS epidemics, with higher prevalence rates in youths in urban slums. We conducted a cross-sectional mixed-methods study in Nairobi informal settlements. The aim was to investigate knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of this marginalized community, and to identify, with a bottom-up approach, the most appropriate interventions to increase the utilization of HIV/STIs services. Preliminary qualitative research was used to draw questionnaires, which assessed: STIs/HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours; access and barriers to STIs/HIV/AIDS services; perceived quality of services; the impact of COVID-19. One thousand and fifty-four respondents completed the questionnaire. 48.3% were youth in the community, 23% youth in school, 16.8% young mothers, 6.9% drug users and 5% people attending a technical-vocational training. We found unsatisfactory knowledge of STIs/HIV/AIDS transmission and prevention, and low condom use, mainly due to difficult access, poverty, and gender-based violence. We also found limited use of health services, and lack of trust due to poor attitude of the staff. COVID-19 has widened barriers to access to health services. To reach this population, it is necessary to implement educational interventions, facilitate access to free condoms, and train health centre staff to be more welcoming. Respondents found proximity strategies more efficient, including door-to-door testing and community outreach.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Adolescent , Humans , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/prevention & control , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Kenya/epidemiology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/prevention & control
13.
PLoS One ; 18(3): e0268167, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2252955

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Timely descriptions of HIV service characteristics and their evolution over time across diverse settings are important for monitoring the scale-up of evidence-based program strategies, understanding the implementation landscape, and examining service delivery factors that influence HIV care outcomes. METHODS: The International epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) consortium undertakes periodic cross-sectional surveys on service availability and care at participating HIV treatment sites to characterize trends and inform the scientific agenda for HIV care and implementation science communities. IeDEA's 2020 general site assessment survey was developed through a consultative, 18-month process that engaged diverse researchers in identifying content from previous surveys that should be retained for longitudinal analyses and in developing expanded and new content to address gaps in the literature. An iterative review process was undertaken to standardize the format of new survey questions and align them with best practices in survey design and measurement and lessons learned through prior IeDEA site assessment surveys. RESULTS: The survey questionnaire developed through this process included eight content domains covered in prior surveys (patient population, staffing and community linkages, HIV testing and diagnosis, new patient care, treatment monitoring and retention, routine HIV care and screening, pharmacy, record-keeping and patient tracing), along with expanded content related to antiretroviral therapy (differentiated service delivery and roll-out of dolutegravir-based regimens); mental health and substance use disorders; care for pregnant/postpartum women and HIV-exposed infants; tuberculosis preventive therapy; and pediatric/adolescent tuberculosis care; and new content related to Kaposi's sarcoma diagnostics, the impact of COVID-19 on service delivery, and structural barriers to HIV care. The survey was distributed to 238 HIV treatment sites in late 2020, with a 95% response rate. CONCLUSION: IeDEA's approach for site survey development has broad relevance for HIV research networks and other priority health conditions.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Tuberculosis , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Humans , Female , Child , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/diagnosis , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
PLoS One ; 18(3): e0282503, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2261011

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted HIV prevention, care, and transmission opportunities. This likely varies by geography, given differences in COVID-19 burden and mandates over time, and by age, given different likelihoods of severe COVID-19 consequences. We consider changes in sexual behavior, HIV testing, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use and antiretroviral therapy (ART) use among men who have sex with men (MSM) over the first year of the COVID-19 epidemic, comparing the Atlanta metropolitan area and New York City (NYC). We use two continuous time-series datasets and one panel dataset, assessing changes over time within city and comparing across cities, and disaggregate major findings by age. For clinical results, ART use showed by far the smallest reductions, and testing the largest. Disruptions occurred concurrently between cities, despite the major wave of COVID-19, and government mandates, occurring later in Atlanta. Test positivity increased in NYC only. In both cities, younger MSM saw the greatest reductions in testing and PrEP use, but the smallest in sexual behavior. Reduced clinical service usage would be unconcerning if stemming solely from reductions in exposure; however, the patterns for young MSM suggest that the COVID-19 epidemic likely generated new conditions for increased HIV transmission, especially in this cohort.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Male , Humans , Homosexuality, Male , New York City/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Sexual Behavior , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods
15.
PLoS One ; 18(3): e0283025, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2273209

ABSTRACT

In 2018, the pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) program was initiated in British Columbia (BC), Canada, providing PrEP at no cost to qualifying residents. This observational study discussed the steps to develop key evidence-based monitoring indicators and their calculation using real-time data. The indicators were conceptualized, developed, assessed and approved by the Technical Monitoring Committee of representatives from five health authority regions in BC, the BC Ministry of Health, the BC Centre for Disease Control, and the BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS. Indicator development followed the steps adopted from the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention framework for program evaluation in public health. The assessment involved eight selection criteria: data quality, indicator validity, existing scientific evidence, indicator informativeness, indicator computing feasibility, clients' confidentiality maintenance capacity, indicator accuracy, and administrative considerations. Clients' data from the provincial-wide PrEP program (January 2018-December 2020) shows the indicators' calculation. The finalized 14 indicators included gender, age, health authority, new clients enrolled by provider type and by the health authority, new clients dispensed PrEP, clients per provider, key qualifying HIV risk factor(s), client status, PrEP usage type, PrEP quantity dispensed, syphilis and HIV testing and incident cases, and adverse drug reaction events. Cumulative clients' data (n = 6966; 99% cis-gender males) identified an increased new client enrollment and an unexpected drop during the COVID-19 pandemic. About 80% dispensed PrEP from the Vancouver Coastal health authority. The HIV incidence risk index for men who have sex with men score ≥10 was the most common qualifying risk factor. The framework we developed integrating indicators was applied to monitor our PrEP program, which could help reduce the public health impact of HIV.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Anti-HIV Agents , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Male , Humans , British Columbia/epidemiology , Homosexuality, Male , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use
17.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1104828, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2245907

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, a novel pneumonic condition, Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID- 19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), broke out in China and spread globally. The presentation of COVID-19 is more severe in persons with underlying medical conditions such as Tuberculosis (TB), Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and other pneumonic conditions. All three diseases are of global concern and can significantly affect the lungs with characteristic cytokine storm, immunosuppression, and respiratory failure. Co-infections of SARS-CoV-2 with HIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) have been reported, which may influence their pathogenesis and disease progression. Pulmonary TB and HIV/AIDS patients could be more susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection leading to lethal synergy and disease severity. Therefore, the biological and epidemiological interactions of COVID-19, HIV/AIDS, and TB need to be understood holistically. While data is needed to predict the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on these existing diseases, it is necessary to review the implications of the evolving COVID-19 management on HIV/AIDS and TB control, including therapy and funding. Also, the impact of long COVID on patients, who may have this co-infection. Thus, this review highlights the implications of COVID-19, HIV/AIDS, and TB co-infection compares disease mechanisms, addresses growing concerns, and suggests a direction for improved diagnosis and general management.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Tuberculosis , Humans , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , HIV , Coinfection/epidemiology , Pandemics , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculosis/diagnosis
18.
J Biol Dyn ; 17(1): 2175920, 2023 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2245703

ABSTRACT

HIV/AIDS-COVID-19 co-infection is a major public health concern especially in developing countries of the world. This paper presents HIV/AIDS-COVID-19 co-infection to investigate the impact of interventions on its transmission using ordinary differential equation. In the analysis of the model, the solutions are shown to be non-negative and bounded, using next-generation matrix approach the basic reproduction numbers are computed, sufficient conditions for stabilities of equilibrium points are established. The sensitivity analysis showed that transmission rates are the most sensitive parameters that have direct impact on the basic reproduction numbers and protection and treatment rates are more sensitive and have indirect impact to the basic reproduction numbers. Numerical simulations shown that some parameter effects on the transmission of single infections as well as co-infection, and applying the protection rates and treatment rates have effective roles to minimize and also to eradicate the HIV/AIDS-COVID-19 co-infection spreading in the community.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Humans , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Models, Biological , Computer Simulation
20.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 135(22): 2690-2698, 2022 Nov 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2222793

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A more comprehensive understanding of the trends of incidence, prevalence, and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and their complex interrelationships, may provide important evidence for decision-making related to HIV prevention and control. The variances in these indices between different population groups, genders, and ages are critical to decipher evolving patterns of the HIV epidemic in specific populations. METHODS: A secondary analysis of relevant data was conducted using data extracted from the Global Burden of Disease study of 2019. HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) incidence, prevalence, AIDS-related mortality, and mortality-to-prevalence ratio (MPR) for annual percentage change, average annual percentage change (AAPC), and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using joinpoint regression statistical analysis. RESULTS: The AAPC of HIV/AIDS incidence, prevalence, AIDS-related mortality rate, and MPR were -1.4 (95% CI: -1.6, -1.2), 4.1 (95% CI: 4.0, 4.3), 2.0 (95% CI: 1.7, 2.3), and -2.1 (95% CI: -2.3, -1.8) between 1990 and 2019 globally, and were 3.5 (95% CI: 2.2, 4.8), 6.9 (95% CI: 6.8, 7.0), 8.1 (95% CI: 7.1, 9.1), and 1.2 (95% CI: 0.1, 2.3) in China during the same period. In terms of differences in the preceding indicators by gender, we observed a similar pattern of trends for male and female genders both globally and in China during the entire study period. Each specific age group exhibits a distinct pattern in terms of incidence, prevalence, mortality rate, and MPR both globally and in China. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence and mortality rates of HIV/AIDS have increased between 1990 and 2019 globally and in China. While the incidence rate and MPR have declined globally over the past three decades, these two indicators are observed to present an increasing trend in China. There is a high HIV burden among young and middle-aged adults globally; however, the elderly have a high HIV burden in China. HIV screening at older age should be scaled up, and patients with advanced HIV disease should be provided early with additional care and health resources.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , HIV Infections , Adult , Aged , Middle Aged , Humans , Male , Female , HIV , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Incidence , China/epidemiology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL