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2.
Lancet ; 397(10279): 1127-1138, 2021 03 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525996

ABSTRACT

In 2010, the US health insurance system underwent one of its most substantial transformations with the passage of the Affordable Care Act, which increased coverage for millions of people in the USA, including those with and at risk of HIV. Even so, the system of HIV care and prevention services in the USA is a complex patchwork of payers, providers, and financing mechanisms. People with HIV are primarily covered by Medicaid, Medicare, private insurance, or a combination of these; many get care through other programmes, particularly the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, which serves as the nation's safety net for people with HIV who remain uninsured or underinsured but offers modest to no support for prevention services. While uninsurance has drastically declined over the past decade, the USA trails other high-income countries in key HIV-specific metrics, including rates of viral suppression. In this paper in the Series, we provide an overview of the coverage and financing landscape for HIV treatment and prevention in the USA, discuss how the Affordable Care Act has changed the domestic health-care system, examine the major programmes that provide coverage and services, and identify remaining challenges.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , COVID-19/economics , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Insurance Coverage/legislation & jurisprudence , Insurance, Health/legislation & jurisprudence , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Gender Identity , HIV Infections/economics , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Male , Medicaid/statistics & numerical data , Medically Uninsured/statistics & numerical data , Medicare/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , United States/epidemiology
3.
Lancet ; 397(10279): 1116-1126, 2021 03 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525995

ABSTRACT

Men who have sex with men (MSM) in the USA were the first population to be identified with AIDS and continue to be at very high risk of HIV acquisition. We did a systematic literature search to identify the factors that explain the reasons for the ongoing epidemic in this population, using a social-ecological perspective. Common features of the HIV epidemic in American MSM include role versatility and biological, individual, and social and structural factors. The high-prevalence networks of some racial and ethnic minority men are further concentrated because of assortative mixing, adverse life experiences (including high rates of incarceration), and avoidant behaviour because of negative interactions with the health-care system. Young MSM have additional risks for HIV because their impulse control is less developed and they are less familiar with serostatus and other risk mitigation discussions. They might benefit from prevention efforts that use digital technologies, which they often use to meet partners and obtain health-related information. Older MSM remain at risk of HIV and are the largest population of US residents with chronic HIV, requiring culturally responsive programmes that address longer-term comorbidities. Transgender MSM are an understudied population, but emerging data suggest that some are at great risk of HIV and require specifically tailored information on HIV prevention. In the current era of pre-exposure prophylaxis and the undetectable equals untransmittable campaign, training of health-care providers to create culturally competent programmes for all MSM is crucial, since the use of antiretrovirals is foundational to optimising HIV care and prevention. Effective control of the HIV epidemic among all American MSM will require scaling up programmes that address their common vulnerabilities, but are sufficiently nuanced to address the specific sociocultural, structural, and behavioural issues of diverse subgroups.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Homosexuality, Male/statistics & numerical data , Sexual and Gender Minorities/psychology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , HIV Infections/transmission , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Minority Groups/psychology , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sexual Behavior/psychology , Sexual Partners/psychology , Transgender Persons/psychology , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
4.
PLoS Med ; 18(10): e1003831, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477511

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: UNAIDS has established new program targets for 2025 to achieve the goal of eliminating AIDS as a public health threat by 2030. This study reports on efforts to use mathematical models to estimate the impact of achieving those targets. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We simulated the impact of achieving the targets at country level using the Goals model, a mathematical simulation model of HIV epidemic dynamics that includes the impact of prevention and treatment interventions. For 77 high-burden countries, we fit the model to surveillance and survey data for 1970 to 2020 and then projected the impact of achieving the targets for the period 2019 to 2030. Results from these 77 countries were extrapolated to produce estimates for 96 others. Goals model results were checked by comparing against projections done with the Optima HIV model and the AIDS Epidemic Model (AEM) for selected countries. We included estimates of the impact of societal enablers (access to justice and law reform, stigma and discrimination elimination, and gender equality) and the impact of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Results show that achieving the 2025 targets would reduce new annual infections by 83% (71% to 86% across regions) and AIDS-related deaths by 78% (67% to 81% across regions) by 2025 compared to 2010. Lack of progress on societal enablers could endanger these achievements and result in as many as 2.6 million (44%) cumulative additional new HIV infections and 440,000 (54%) more AIDS-related deaths between 2020 and 2030 compared to full achievement of all targets. COVID-19-related disruptions could increase new HIV infections and AIDS-related deaths by 10% in the next 2 years, but targets could still be achieved by 2025. Study limitations include the reliance on self-reports for most data on behaviors, the use of intervention effect sizes from published studies that may overstate intervention impacts outside of controlled study settings, and the use of proxy countries to estimate the impact in countries with fewer than 4,000 annual HIV infections. CONCLUSIONS: The new targets for 2025 build on the progress made since 2010 and represent ambitious short-term goals. Achieving these targets would bring us close to the goals of reducing new HIV infections and AIDS-related deaths by 90% between 2010 and 2030. By 2025, global new infections and AIDS deaths would drop to 4.4 and 3.9 per 100,000 population, and the number of people living with HIV (PLHIV) would be declining. There would be 32 million people on treatment, and they would need continuing support for their lifetime. Incidence for the total global population would be below 0.15% everywhere. The number of PLHIV would start declining by 2023.


Subject(s)
Disease Eradication , Global Health , Goals , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Models, Biological , Models, Theoretical , Public Health , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/prevention & control , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/therapy , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19 , Cause of Death , Epidemics , Female , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/therapy , Humans , Incidence , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Determinants of Health , United Nations , Young Adult
5.
Curr HIV Res ; 19(2): 103-105, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435695

ABSTRACT

In 2014, The Joint United Nations Program on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS) has set an ambitious target code-named 90-90-90, which aims to ensure that 90% of all people living with HIV will know their state, 90% of all people diagnosed will receive sustained antiretroviral therapy, and 90% of all people receiving ART will have viral suppression by 2020. Since 2014, many tests and treatment programs have been developed to achieve the above goals worldwide. In 2019, it was reported that many developed countries can reach the target with the right strategies, as well as regions that are still far from the targets. It has been reported that the fourth 90 should be one of the targets related to HIV infection in recent years. This view, beyond virological suppression, was towards developing programs that would enable people living with HIV to live not only longer but also healthy. The socio-cultural and economic obstacles to reach the targets may vary according to geographical regions, but it is clear that COVID-19 disease, which has taken the whole world under the influence since 2019, is a major obstacle to the 90-90-90 targets worldwide. Difficulties in the diagnosis and access to ART and treatment nonadherence which may be encountered more frequently due to many factors may threaten both the health of people living with HIV and public health. The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted many programs developed in the fight against the HIV epidemic. Considering COVID-19 disease and future epidemics that may create a chaotic environment, analyzing the difficulties experienced in the pandemic retrospectively, and determining new strategies that will bring appropriate solutions to the problems will play an important role in the proper management of future issues.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/prevention & control , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United Nations
8.
Afr J AIDS Res ; 20(2): 117-124, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1311356

ABSTRACT

By the end of the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic, in February 2021, the numbers of cases and deaths in southern Africa were low in absolute and relative numbers. The BBC ran a story (which was later retracted) headlined "Coronavirus in Africa: Could poverty explain mystery of low death rate?". A heading in the New York Post said: "Scientists can't explain puzzling lack of coronavirus outbreaks in Africa". Journalist Karen Attiah concluded: "It's almost as if they are disappointed that Africans aren't dying en masse and countries are not collapsing". We wondered if the knowledge that southern African countries have acquired in their struggle against AIDS has contributed to a more effective approach against COVID-19. The viral origins of the diseases through zoonotic events are similar; neither has a cure, yet. In both diseases, behaviour change is an important prevention tool, and there are specific groups that are more vulnerable to infection. Equally, there are important differences: most people with COVID-19 will recover relatively quickly, while people living with HIV will need lifelong treatment. COVID-19 is extremely infectious, while HIV is less easily transmitted.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/prevention & control , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/transmission , Africa, Southern/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , HIV Infections/transmission , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e210071, 2021.
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1288716

ABSTRACT

In the space of four decades, Brazil has faced two serious pandemics: human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The country's response to HIV/AIDS was coordinated by several stakeholders and recognised the importance of scientific evidence in guiding decision-making, and a network offering monitoring and antiretroviral treatment was provided through coordinated efforts by the country's universal health system. Conversely, the lack of a centrally coordinated strategy and misalignment between government ministries regarding the COVID-19 pandemic response, together with the denial of scientific evidence, promotion of ineffective treatments and insufficient vaccination efforts, have all led to the uncontrolled spread of infection, the near-total collapse of the health system and excess deaths.


Subject(s)
Humans , HIV Infections , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/prevention & control , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Brazil/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(6): 1553-1560, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236653

ABSTRACT

June 2021 marks the 40th anniversary of the first description of AIDS. On the 30th anniversary, we defined priorities as improving use of existing interventions, clarifying optimal use of HIV testing and antiretroviral therapy for prevention and treatment, continuing research, and ensuring sustainability of the response. Despite scientific and programmatic progress, the end of AIDS is not in sight. Other major epidemics over the past decade have included Ebola, arbovirus infections, and coronavirus disease (COVID-19). A benchmark against which to compare other global interventions is the HIV/AIDS response in terms of funding, coordination, and solidarity. Lessons from Ebola and HIV/AIDS are pertinent to the COVID-19 response. The fifth decade of AIDS will have to position HIV/AIDS in the context of enhanced preparedness and capacity to respond to other potential pandemics and transnational health threats.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/prevention & control , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Stat Med ; 40(11): 2513-2514, 2021 05 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219266

ABSTRACT

Human immunodeficiency virus and Covid-19 (or SARS-CoV-2) differ in their incubation distributions and in their susceptibility to immunologic defense. These features affect our ability to predict the course of these epidemics and to control them.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , COVID-19 , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Research Personnel , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Stat Med ; 40(11): 2499-2510, 2021 05 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219208

ABSTRACT

The world has experienced three global pandemics over the last half-century: HIV/AIDS, H1N1, and COVID-19. HIV/AIDS and COVID-19 are still with us and have wrought extensive havoc worldwide. There are many differences between these two infections and their global impacts, but one thing they have in common is the mobilization of scientific resources to both understand the infection and develop ways to combat it. As was the case with HIV, statisticians have been in the forefront of scientists working to understand transmission dynamics and the natural history of infection, determine prognostic factors for severe disease, and develop optimal study designs to assess therapeutics and vaccines.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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