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Nucleic Acids Res ; 50(D1): D497-D508, 2022 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2232151


Almost twenty years after its initial release, the Eukaryotic Linear Motif (ELM) resource remains an invaluable source of information for the study of motif-mediated protein-protein interactions. ELM provides a comprehensive, regularly updated and well-organised repository of manually curated, experimentally validated short linear motifs (SLiMs). An increasing number of SLiM-mediated interactions are discovered each year and keeping the resource up-to-date continues to be a great challenge. In the current update, 30 novel motif classes have been added and five existing classes have undergone major revisions. The update includes 411 new motif instances mostly focused on cell-cycle regulation, control of the actin cytoskeleton, membrane remodelling and vesicle trafficking pathways, liquid-liquid phase separation and integrin signalling. Many of the newly annotated motif-mediated interactions are targets of pathogenic motif mimicry by viral, bacterial or eukaryotic pathogens, providing invaluable insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying infectious diseases. The current ELM release includes 317 motif classes incorporating 3934 individual motif instances manually curated from 3867 scientific publications. ELM is available at:

Communicable Diseases/genetics , Databases, Protein , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Software , Actin Cytoskeleton/chemistry , Actin Cytoskeleton/metabolism , Animals , Binding Sites , Cell Cycle/genetics , Cell Membrane/chemistry , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Communicable Diseases/metabolism , Communicable Diseases/virology , Cyclins/chemistry , Cyclins/genetics , Cyclins/metabolism , Eukaryotic Cells/cytology , Eukaryotic Cells/metabolism , Eukaryotic Cells/virology , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Integrins/chemistry , Integrins/genetics , Integrins/metabolism , Mice , Molecular Sequence Annotation , Protein Binding , Rats , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Transport Vesicles/chemistry , Transport Vesicles/metabolism , Viruses/genetics , Viruses/metabolism
J Virol ; 96(17): e0107422, 2022 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038239


Rotavirus (RV) viroplasms are cytosolic inclusions where both virus genome replication and primary steps of virus progeny assembly take place. A stabilized microtubule cytoskeleton and lipid droplets are required for the viroplasm formation, which involves several virus proteins. The viral spike protein VP4 has not previously been shown to have a direct role in viroplasm formation. However, it is involved with virus-cell attachment, endocytic internalization, and virion morphogenesis. Moreover, VP4 interacts with actin cytoskeleton components, mainly in processes involving virus entrance and egress, and thereby may have an indirect role in viroplasm formation. In this study, we used reverse genetics to construct a recombinant RV, rRV/VP4-BAP, that contains a biotin acceptor peptide (BAP) in the K145-G150 loop of the VP4 lectin domain, permitting live monitoring. The recombinant virus was replication competent but showed a reduced fitness. We demonstrate that rRV/VP4-BAP infection, as opposed to rRV/wt infection, did not lead to a reorganized actin cytoskeleton as viroplasms formed were insensitive to drugs that depolymerize actin and inhibit myosin. Moreover, wild-type (wt) VP4, but not VP4-BAP, appeared to associate with actin filaments. Similarly, VP4 in coexpression with NSP5 and NSP2 induced a significant increase in the number of viroplasm-like structures. Interestingly, a small peptide mimicking loop K145-G150 rescued the phenotype of rRV/VP4-BAP by increasing its ability to form viroplasms and hence improve virus progeny formation. Collectively, these results provide a direct link between VP4 and the actin cytoskeleton to catalyze viroplasm assembly. IMPORTANCE The spike protein VP4 participates in diverse steps of the rotavirus (RV) life cycle, including virus-cell attachment, internalization, modulation of endocytosis, virion morphogenesis, and virus egress. Using reverse genetics, we constructed for the first time a recombinant RV, rRV/VP4-BAP, harboring a heterologous peptide in the lectin domain (loop K145-G150) of VP4. The rRV/VP4-BAP was replication competent but with reduced fitness due to a defect in the ability to reorganize the actin cytoskeleton, which affected the efficiency of viroplasm assembly. This defect was rescued by adding a permeable small-peptide mimicking the wild-type VP4 loop K145-G150. In addition to revealing a new role of VP4, our findings suggest that rRV harboring an engineered VP4 could be used as a new dual vaccination platform providing immunity against RV and additional heterologous antigens.

Actin Cytoskeleton , Capsid Proteins , Rotavirus , Actin Cytoskeleton/metabolism , Capsid Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Lectins , Reverse Genetics , Rotavirus/genetics , Rotavirus/physiology , Rotavirus Infections , Viral Replication Compartments , Virus Replication
Eur J Cell Biol ; 101(2): 151222, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1881962


Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is the major route through which cells internalise various substances and recycle membrane components. Via the coordinated action of many proteins, the membrane bends and invaginates to form a vesicle that buds off-along with its contents-into the cell. The contribution of the actin cytoskeleton to this highly dynamic process in mammalian cells is not well understood. Unlike in yeast, where there is a strict requirement for actin in CME, the significance of the actin cytoskeleton to mammalian CME is variable. However, a growing number of studies have established the actin cytoskeleton as a core component of mammalian CME, and our understanding of its contribution has been increasing at a rapid pace. In this review, we summarise the state-of-the-art regarding our understanding of the endocytic cytoskeleton, its physiological significance, and the questions that remain to be answered.

Actin Cytoskeleton , Clathrin , Actin Cytoskeleton/metabolism , Actins/metabolism , Animals , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Clathrin/metabolism , Cytoskeleton/metabolism , Endocytosis/physiology , Mammals/metabolism , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism