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1.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5432-5437, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363681

ABSTRACT

This case series describes three patients affected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, who developed polyradiculoneuritis as a probable neurological complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A diagnosis of Guillain Barré syndrome was made on the basis of clinical symptoms, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, and electroneurography. In all of them, the therapeutic approach included the administration of intravenous immunoglobulin (0.4 gr/kg for 5 days), which resulted in the improvement of neurological symptoms. Clinical neurophysiology revealed the presence of conduction block, absence of F waves, and in two cases, a significant decrease in amplitude of compound motor action potential cMAP. Due to the potential role of inflammation on symptoms development and prognosis, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 levels were measured in serum and cerebrospinal fluid during the acute phase, while only serum was tested after recovery. Both IL-6 and IL-8 were found increased during the acute phase, both in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid, whereas 4 months after admission (at complete recovery), only IL-8 remained elevated in the serum. These results confirm the inflammatory response that might be linked to peripheral nervous system complications and encourage the use of IL-6 and IL-8 as prognostic biomarkers in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/complications , Interleukin-6/cerebrospinal fluid , Interleukin-8/cerebrospinal fluid , Respiratory Insufficiency/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Action Potentials/drug effects , Acute Disease , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/blood , Biomarkers/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Convalescence , Darunavir/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/cerebrospinal fluid , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/drug therapy , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/virology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Interleukin-6/blood , Interleukin-8/blood , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Neural Conduction/drug effects , Peripheral Nervous System/drug effects , Peripheral Nervous System/pathology , Peripheral Nervous System/virology , Prognosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/cerebrospinal fluid , Respiratory Insufficiency/drug therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
2.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5432-5437, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258081

ABSTRACT

This case series describes three patients affected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, who developed polyradiculoneuritis as a probable neurological complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A diagnosis of Guillain Barré syndrome was made on the basis of clinical symptoms, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, and electroneurography. In all of them, the therapeutic approach included the administration of intravenous immunoglobulin (0.4 gr/kg for 5 days), which resulted in the improvement of neurological symptoms. Clinical neurophysiology revealed the presence of conduction block, absence of F waves, and in two cases, a significant decrease in amplitude of compound motor action potential cMAP. Due to the potential role of inflammation on symptoms development and prognosis, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 levels were measured in serum and cerebrospinal fluid during the acute phase, while only serum was tested after recovery. Both IL-6 and IL-8 were found increased during the acute phase, both in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid, whereas 4 months after admission (at complete recovery), only IL-8 remained elevated in the serum. These results confirm the inflammatory response that might be linked to peripheral nervous system complications and encourage the use of IL-6 and IL-8 as prognostic biomarkers in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/complications , Interleukin-6/cerebrospinal fluid , Interleukin-8/cerebrospinal fluid , Respiratory Insufficiency/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Action Potentials/drug effects , Acute Disease , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/blood , Biomarkers/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Convalescence , Darunavir/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/cerebrospinal fluid , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/drug therapy , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/virology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Interleukin-6/blood , Interleukin-8/blood , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Neural Conduction/drug effects , Peripheral Nervous System/drug effects , Peripheral Nervous System/pathology , Peripheral Nervous System/virology , Prognosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/cerebrospinal fluid , Respiratory Insufficiency/drug therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
3.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 170(5): 649-653, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1159147

ABSTRACT

Ivermectin (IVM) belongs to the class of macrocyclic lactones, which is used as an antiparasitic agent. At present, the researchers focus on possibility to use IVM in treatment of certain forms of cancer and viral diseases such as COVID-19. The mechanisms of IVM action are not clear. It is assumed that IVM affects chloride channels and increases cytoplasmic concentration of chloride. This study examines the effect of IVM on chloride currents induced by glycine (IGly). Experiments were carried out on isolated pyramidal neurons of the rat hippocampus with whole-cell patch clamp. A short-term (600 msec) application of IVM in a concentration of 10 µM induced a slow inward current, which persisted after washing the neurons. The low concentrations (0.1-1000 nM) of IVM did not induce any novel current, but it rapidly and reversibly reduced the peak amplitude and accelerated desensitization of IGly in a dose-dependent manner. The threshold concentrations of IVM sufficient to reduce peak amplitude of IGly and to accelerate desensitization of IGly were 100 nM and 0.1 nM, respectively. The study revealed a high sensitivity of neuronal glycine receptors to IVM.


Subject(s)
Chloride Channels/drug effects , Glycine/pharmacology , Ivermectin/pharmacology , Pyramidal Cells/drug effects , Action Potentials/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cells, Cultured , Chloride Channels/metabolism , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Hippocampus/cytology , Hippocampus/metabolism , Ion Channel Gating/drug effects , Patch-Clamp Techniques , Pyramidal Cells/physiology , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Receptors, Glycine/drug effects , Receptors, Glycine/metabolism
4.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol ; 13(11): e008937, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-945067

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARs-CoV-2) has resulted in a global pandemic. Hydroxychloroquine±azithromycin have been widely used to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) despite a paucity of evidence regarding efficacy. The incidence of torsade de pointes remains unknown. Widespread use of these medications forced overwhelmed health care systems to search for ways to effectively monitor these patients while simultaneously trying to minimize health care provider exposure and use of personal protective equipment. METHODS: Patients with COVID-19 positive who received hydroxychloroquine±azithromycin across 13 hospitals between March 1 and April 15 were included in this study. A comprehensive search of the electronic medical records was performed using a proprietary python script to identify any mention of QT prolongation, ventricular tachy-arrhythmias and cardiac arrest. RESULTS: The primary outcome of torsade de pointes was observed in 1 (0.015%) out of 6476 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 receiving hydroxychloroquine±azithromycin. Sixty-seven (1.03%) had hydroxychloroquine±azithromycin held or discontinued due to an average QT prolongation of 60.5±40.5 ms from a baseline QTc of 473.7±35.9 ms to a peak QTc of 532.6±31.6 ms. Of these patients, hydroxychloroquine±azithromycin were discontinued in 58 patients (86.6%), while one or more doses of therapy were held in the remaining nine (13.4%). A simplified approach to monitoring for QT prolongation and arrythmia was implemented on April 5. There were no deaths related to the medications with the simplified monitoring approach and health care provider exposure was reduced. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of torsade de pointes is low in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 receiving hydroxychloroquine±azithromycin therapy.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Azithromycin/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Delivery of Health Care , Heart Conduction System/drug effects , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Torsades de Pointes/chemically induced , Action Potentials/drug effects , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Azithromycin/administration & dosage , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cardiotoxicity , Female , Heart Conduction System/physiopathology , Heart Rate/drug effects , Hospitalization , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , New York , Patient Safety , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Torsades de Pointes/diagnosis , Torsades de Pointes/physiopathology , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
5.
CPT Pharmacometrics Syst Pharmacol ; 10(2): 100-107, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-932472

ABSTRACT

Many drugs that have been proposed for treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are reported to cause cardiac adverse events, including ventricular arrhythmias. In order to properly weigh risks against potential benefits, particularly when decisions must be made quickly, mathematical modeling of both drug disposition and drug action can be useful for predicting patient response and making informed decisions. Here, we explored the potential effects on cardiac electrophysiology of four drugs proposed to treat COVID-19: lopinavir, ritonavir, chloroquine, and azithromycin, as well as combination therapy involving these drugs. Our study combined simulations of pharmacokinetics (PKs) with quantitative systems pharmacology (QSP) modeling of ventricular myocytes to predict potential cardiac adverse events caused by these treatments. Simulation results predicted that drug combinations can lead to greater cellular action potential prolongation, analogous to QT prolongation, compared with drugs given in isolation. The combination effect can result from both PK and pharmacodynamic drug interactions. Importantly, simulations of different patient groups predicted that women with pre-existing heart disease are especially susceptible to drug-induced arrhythmias, compared with diseased men or healthy individuals of either sex. Statistical analysis of population simulations revealed the molecular factors that make certain women with heart failure especially susceptible to arrhythmias. Overall, the results illustrate how PK and QSP modeling may be combined to more precisely predict cardiac risks of COVID-19 therapies.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/chemically induced , COVID-19/drug therapy , Models, Theoretical , Therapies, Investigational/methods , Action Potentials/drug effects , Action Potentials/physiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/diagnosis , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Azithromycin/administration & dosage , Azithromycin/adverse effects , COVID-19/metabolism , Chloroquine/administration & dosage , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Drug Combinations , Drug Interactions/physiology , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Male , Myocytes, Cardiac/drug effects , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Risk Factors , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Ritonavir/adverse effects
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