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1.
Cardiol Rev ; 29(6): 285-288, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238469

ABSTRACT

As the global coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus 2 continues to cause higher mortality and hospitalization rates among older adults, strategies such as frailty screening have been suggested for resource allocation and clinical management. Frailty is a physiologic condition characterized by a decreased reserve to stressors and is associated with disability, hospitalization, and death. Measuring frailty can be a useful tool to determine the risk and prognosis of COVID-19 patients in the acute setting, and to provide higher quality of care for vulnerable individuals in the outpatient setting. A literature review was conducted to examine current research regarding frailty and COVID-19. Frailty can inform holistic care of COVID-19 patients, and further investigation is needed to elucidate how measuring frailty should guide treatment and prevention of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Frailty/epidemiology , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Mortality , Activities of Daily Living , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Frailty/physiopathology , Hospitalization , Humans , Mass Screening , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi ; 60(2): 184-190, 2023.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237118

ABSTRACT

We herein report the outcomes of rehabilitation intervention for a patient in his 80s with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on prolonged mechanical ventilation after COVID-19 infection. The patient was forced to be long-term bedridden due to respirator dependence, showing notable muscle weakness and needing full assistance for all of his activities of daily living (ADL). We implemented rehabilitation for the purposes of withdrawal from mechanical ventilation and improvement of his physical function. We provided a combination program of range of motion exercise, resistance training, and gradual mobilization, such as sitting on the edge of the bed, moving between the bed and wheelchair, sitting on the wheelchair, standing and walking. After rehabilitation for 24 days, the patient was withdrawn from mechanical ventilation, his muscle strength recovered to a level of 4 (Good) on manual muscle testing (MMT) and he became able to walk using a walker. A follow-up survey one year later confirmed that he performed ADL without assistance and returned to work.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Medicine , Male , Humans , Activities of Daily Living , Follow-Up Studies , Respiration, Artificial
3.
Phys Ther ; 103(5)2023 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234265

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can result in irreversible lung damage, with some individuals requiring lung transplantation. The purpose of this case series is to describe the initial experience with the rehabilitation and functional outcomes of 9 patients receiving a lung transplant for COVID-19. METHODS: Nine individuals, ranging in age from 37 to 68 years, received bilateral orthotopic lung transplantation (BOLT) for COVID-19 between December 2020 and July 2021. Rehabilitation was provided before and after the transplant, including in-hospital rehabilitation, postacute care inpatient rehabilitation, and outpatient rehabilitation. RESULTS: Progress with mobility was limited in the pretransplant phase despite rehabilitation efforts. Following transplantation, 2 individuals expired before resuming rehabilitation, and 2 others had complications that delayed their progress. The remaining 5 experienced clinically important improvements in mobility and walking capacities. CONCLUSION: Considerable rehabilitation resources are required to care for individuals both before and after BOLT for COVID-19. Rehabilitation can have a profound impact on both functional and clinical outcomes for this unique patient population. IMPACT: There is limited literature on the rehabilitation efforts and outcomes for patients who received BOLT for COVID-19. Occupational therapists and physical therapists play an important role during the pretransplant and posttransplant recovery process for this novel patient population. LAY SUMMARY: Patients with a bilateral orthotopic lung transplant due to COVID-19 require a unique rehabilitation process. They have significant difficulties with activities of daily living and functional mobility across the pretransplant and posttransplant continuum of care, but progressive gains in functional performance may be possible with a comprehensive multidisciplinary rehabilitation program.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Transplantation , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Activities of Daily Living , Lung Transplantation/rehabilitation , Inpatients
4.
Clin Nurs Res ; 32(6): 983-991, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233914

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection can induce acute and chronic complications by affecting the self-management behaviors of individuals with diabetes. The objective of this study is to examine the physical, psychosocial health, and self-management experiences of type 2 diabetes patients who have recovered from COVID-19, 1 year after the infection. The study adopted a qualitative research design, specifically content analysis. In all, 14 patients with type 2 diabetes who presented to the diabetes outpatient clinic were interviewed by teleconferencing, which lasted approximately 25 to 30 minutes. The Standards for Reporting Qualitative Research guidelines were used. Based on the participants' responses, four main themes were determined: obstacles in activities of daily living, feeling of psychosocial problems, changes in health and treatment management, and patient self-management practices. Amid the pandemic, diabetes nurses should strive to recognize the issues that diabetes patients encounter. To assist patients, telemedicine should be leveraged, and evidence-based practices must be developed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Humans , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Pandemics , Activities of Daily Living , Qualitative Research
5.
J Med Internet Res ; 25: e46721, 2023 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245387

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the benefits of digital health technology use, older adults with cancer (ie, aged 65 years) have reported challenges to technology adoption. However, there has been a lack of a good understanding of their digital health technology use patterns and the associated influential factors in the past few years. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the trends in and factors associated with digital health technology use among older adults with cancer. METHODS: The National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS) data set is a national longitudinal cohort study with annual survey waves of Medicare beneficiaries 65 years and older. Participants were community-dwelling older adults who self-reported previous or current cancer diagnoses in each round. The study sample size of each round ranged from 1996 (2015) to 1131 (2021). Digital health technology use was defined as using the internet or online in the last month to order or refill prescriptions, contact medical providers, handle Medicare or other insurance matters, or get information about their health conditions. The association of sociodemographics, clinical factors (self-rated health, chronic conditions, difficulties in activities of daily living, dementia, anxiety, and depression), and physical function (Short Physical Performance Battery and grip strength) with digital health technology use was examined using design-based logistic regression. All statistical analyses accounted for the complex sample design. RESULTS: The prevalence of any digital health technology use increased from 36% in 2015 to 45% in 2019. In 2020-2021, which was amid the COVID-19 pandemic, it ranged from 51% to 52%. In terms of each digital health technology use behavior, in 2015, overall, 28% of older cancer survivors used digital health technology to obtain health information, followed by contacting clinicians (19%), filling prescriptions (14%), and handling insurance (11%). Greater use of digital health technology was associated with younger age, being White, having a college or higher education, having a higher income, having more comorbidities, nondementia, and having a higher gait speed. CONCLUSIONS: Digital health technology use in older adults with cancer has gradually increased, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, socioeconomic and racial disparities have remained in older cancer survivors. Additionally, older adults with cancer may have some unique features associated with digital health technology use; for example, their use of digital health may be increased by their comorbidities (ie, health care needs) and reduced by their frailty.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Humans , Aged , United States , Medicare , Longitudinal Studies , Activities of Daily Living , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Biomedical Technology , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/therapy
6.
BMJ Open ; 13(6): e069217, 2023 06 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244402

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe self-reported characteristics and symptoms of treatment-seeking patients with post-COVID-19 syndrome (PCS). To assess the impact of symptoms on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and patients' ability to work and undertake activities of daily living. DESIGN: Cross-sectional single-arm service evaluation of real-time user data. SETTING: 31 post-COVID-19 clinics in the UK. PARTICIPANTS: 3754 adults diagnosed with PCS in primary or secondary care deemed suitable for rehabilitation. INTERVENTION: Patients using the Living With Covid Recovery digital health intervention registered between 30 November 2020 and 23 March 2022. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was the baseline Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS). WSAS measures the functional limitations of the patient; scores of ≥20 indicate moderately severe limitations. Other symptoms explored included fatigue (Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue), depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-Eight Item Depression Scale), anxiety (Generalised Anxiety Disorder Scale, Seven-Item), breathlessness (Medical Research Council Dyspnoea Scale and Dyspnoea-12), cognitive impairment (Perceived Deficits Questionnaire, Five-Item Version) and HRQoL (EQ-5D). Symptoms and demographic characteristics associated with more severe functional limitations were identified using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: 3541 (94%) patients were of working age (18-65); mean age (SD) 48 (12) years; 1282 (71%) were female and 89% were white. 51% reported losing ≥1 days from work in the previous 4 weeks; 20% reported being unable to work at all. Mean WSAS score at baseline was 21 (SD 10) with 53% scoring ≥20. Factors associated with WSAS scores of ≥20 were high levels of fatigue, depression and cognitive impairment. Fatigue was found to be the main symptom contributing to a high WSAS score. CONCLUSION: A high proportion of this PCS treatment-seeking population was of working age with over half reporting moderately severe or worse functional limitation. There were substantial impacts on ability to work and activities of daily living in people with PCS. Clinical care and rehabilitation should address the management of fatigue as the dominant symptom explaining variation in functionality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Life , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Activities of Daily Living , COVID-19/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fatigue/etiology , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Adolescent , Young Adult , Aged
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(10)2023 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235659

ABSTRACT

The Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment analyzes the health and quality of life of the elderly. Basic and instrumental daily activities may be compromised due to neuroimmunoendocrine changes, and studies suggest that possible immunological changes occur during infections in the elderly. Thus, this study aimed to analyze cytokine and melatonin levels in serum and correlate the Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment in elderly patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The sample consisted of 73 elderly individuals, 43 of whom were without infection and 30 of whom had positive diagnoses of COVID-19. Blood samples were collected to quantify cytokines by flow cytometry and melatonin by ELISA. In addition, structured and validated questionnaires were applied to assess basic (Katz) and instrumental (Lawton and Brody) activities. There was an increase in IL-6, IL-17, and melatonin in the group of elderly individuals with infection. In addition, a positive correlation was observed between melatonin and IL-6 and IL-17 in elderly patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Furthermore, there was a reduction in the score of the Lawton and Brody Scale in the infected elderly. These data suggest that the melatonin hormone and inflammatory cytokines are altered in the serum of the elderly with SARS-CoV-2 infection. In addition, there is a degree of dependence, mainly regarding the performance of daily instrumental activities, in the elderly. The considerable impact on the elderly person's ability to perform everyday tasks necessary for independent living is an extremely important result, and changes in cytokines and melatonin probably are associated with alterations in these daily activities of the elderly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Melatonin , Humans , Aged , Interleukin-17 , Quality of Life , Interleukin-6 , Activities of Daily Living , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Arch Clin Neuropsychol ; 38(4): 570-585, 2023 May 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2326664

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic necessitated use of remote assessments by clinical neuropsychologists. Telehealth was particularly important for vulnerable groups, including persons living with HIV (PLWH); however, limited internet access can be a serious barrier to care. This study examined the preliminary validity of a telephone-based neuropsychological assessment in a clinical sample of PLWH. METHOD: A consecutive series of 59 PLWH were assessed via telephone at an HIV clinic in the southern U.S. between April 2020 and July 2022. The battery included auditory-verbal neuropsychological tests of memory, attention, and executive functions, and questionnaires assessing self-reported mood and activities of daily living (ADL). RESULTS: Study measures demonstrated acceptable internal consistency. PLWH demonstrated worse neuropsychological performance compared with expectations derived from the normal curve and an HIV-seronegative adult sample (N = 44). PLWH assessed via telephone demonstrated similar impairment rates to that of a consecutive series of PLWH (N = 41) assessed in-person immediately prior to the pandemic. Higher telephone-based global neuropsychological scores were related to younger age, more education, better fund of knowledge, White race/ethnicity, fewer medical conditions, and fewer depression symptoms. Global neuropsychological impairment was strongly and independently associated with greater dependence in ADL domains, particularly for instrumental activities. CONCLUSIONS: Although telephone-based approaches to neuropsychological assessment are not ideal, these data provide support for the feasibility, internal consistency, and preliminary validity of this method in a consecutive clinical series of PLWH. The direct comparability of telephone-based and in-person neuropsychological assessments remains to be determined by prospective, counterbalanced study designs examining both PLWH and seronegative individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adult , Humans , Activities of Daily Living , Prospective Studies , Pandemics , Neuropsychological Tests , HIV Infections/psychology , Telephone
9.
J Patient Rep Outcomes ; 7(1): 46, 2023 05 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324311

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 put older individuals at high risk for morbidity and mortality, isolation, reduced coping, and lower satisfaction with life. Many older adults experienced social isolation, fear, and anxiety. We hypothesized that successful coping with these stressors would maintain or improve satisfaction with life, a crucial psychological outcome during the pandemic. Our study investigated relationships between older people's coping and life satisfaction during the pandemic and their optimism, sense of mastery, closeness with spouse, family, and friends, and vulnerabilities from frailty, comorbid diseases, memory problems, and dependencies in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). METHODS: The study was based on a special COVID-19 sample of 1351 community-dwelling older adults who participated in the 2020 Health and Retirement Survey. A comprehensive structural equation modeling was used to test direct and indirect effects, with life satisfaction as the main outcome and coping as a mediator between the other variables and coping. RESULTS: Most survey respondents were female and between the ages of 65-74 years. They averaged 1.7 chronic conditions, one in seven was frail, about one-third rated their memory as fair or poor, and about one in seven reported one or more difficulties in IADL. As hypothesized-older people with increased sense of mastery and optimism were better able to cope and had greater life satisfaction. In addition, close relationships with friends and with other family members besides the spouse/partner or children contributed to more successful coping, while the interpersonal closeness of all types contributed directly to greater life satisfaction. Finally, older people with more IADL limitations reported greater difficulty coping and lower life satisfaction, and those older people who were frail or had multiple comorbid diseases reported lower life satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: Optimism, sense of mastery and closeness with family/friends promotes coping and life satisfaction, whereas frailty and comorbidities make coping more challenging and lead to lower life satisfaction particularly during a pandemic. Our study improves on prior research because of its nationally representative sample and formal specification and testing of a comprehensive theoretical framework.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Child , Humans , Female , Aged , Male , Independent Living , Frailty/epidemiology , Pandemics , Activities of Daily Living , COVID-19/epidemiology , Adaptation, Psychological , Personal Satisfaction
10.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 71(5): 2193-2198, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324264

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The second wave of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic triggered a mucormycosis epidemic in India. Diabetes mellitus and dysregulated immune response were contributors, and rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM) was the most common presentation. It is however not known whether bio-chemical parameters at presentation correlate with stage of ROCM or final outcome in terms of vision or mortality. Methods: This retrospective, hospital-based study included all in-patients of mucormycosis with ophthalmic manifestations at presentation admitted during June 1, 2021 to August 31, 2021. It aimed to evaluate the association between severity of infection, serum levels of HbA1c, ferritin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), and D-dimer levels at presentation and outcome. Results: There were altogether 47 eligible cases having a mean age of 48.8 ± 10.9 years with a male:female ratio of 2.6:1; forty-two (89.4%) had pre-existing diabetes, and five (10.6%) had steroid-induced hyperglycemia. The mean HbA1c among diabetics was 9.7 ± 2.1. HbA1c and serum CRP showed an increase over subsequent stages, which was not statistically significant (P = 0.31). IL-6 values for all stages were similar (P = 0.97). Only serum ferritin levels showed a statistically significant increase over stages (P = 0.04). IL-6 was significantly lower (P = 0.03) in patients who survived, whereas CRP levels were significantly lower in patients who had final visual acuity (VA) better than only perception of light (P = 0.03). Conclusion: Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus is a significant association of ROCM. Serum ferritin levels at presentation best correlate with extent of the disease. CRP levels are best to prognosticate cases that will have sufficient VA to carry on activities of daily living, whereas IL-6 levels are best associated with survival.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Eye Diseases , Mucormycosis , Orbital Diseases , Humans , Female , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Tertiary Care Centers , Cross-Sectional Studies , Activities of Daily Living , Glycated Hemoglobin , Interleukin-6 , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , C-Reactive Protein , Ferritins , Orbital Diseases/diagnosis
11.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0282189, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2312346

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vestibular rehabilitation is recognized as the most effective intervention to relieve symptoms of dizziness and imbalance related to vestibular disorders. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the combined effect of gaze stability and balance exercises using telerehabilitation in individuals with vestibular disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This pilot study was a quasi-experimental, single-group design pre- to post-telerehabilitation intervention. Individuals with vestibular disorders between the ages of 25-60 participated in this study (n = 10). Participants underwent four weeks of combined gaze stability and balance exercises using telerehabilitation at their homes. The Arabic version of the Activities-Specific Balance Confidence scale (A-ABC), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), and the Arabic version of the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (A-DHI) were assessed pre- and post-vestibular telerehabilitation. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to examine the magnitude of difference pre- and post-intervention scores of outcome measures. The effect size (r) for the Wilcoxon signed rank was calculated. RESULTS: After four weeks of vestibular telerehabilitation, there was an improvement in BBS and A-DHI outcome measures (p < .001), with moderate effect size for both scales (r = 0.6). However, A-ABC showed no significant improvement among participants. CONCLUSION: This pilot study found that the combined effect of gaze stability and balance exercises using telerehabilitation appear to be effective in improving balance and activities of daily living in individuals with vestibular disorders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telerehabilitation , Vestibular Diseases , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Dizziness , Pilot Projects , Activities of Daily Living , Pandemics , Postural Balance , COVID-19/epidemiology , Vertigo
13.
Phys Ther ; 103(3)2023 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2310571

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Limited staffing and initial transmission concerns have limited rehabilitation services during the COVID-19 pandemic. The purpose of this analysis was to determine the associations between Activity Measure for Post-Acute Care (AM-PAC) mobility categories and allocation of rehabilitation, and in-hospital AM-PAC score change and receipt of rehabilitation services for patients with COVID-19. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of electronic health record data from 1 urban hospital, including adults with a COVID-19 diagnosis, admitted August 2020 to April 2021. Patients were stratified by level of medical care (intensive care unit [ICU] and floor). Therapy allocation (referral for rehabilitation, receipt of rehabilitation, and visit frequency) was the primary outcome; change in AM-PAC score was secondary. AM-PAC Basic Mobility categories (None [21-24], Minimum [18-21], Moderate [10-17], and Maximum [6-9]) were the main predictor variable. Primary analysis included logistic and linear regression, adjusted for covariates. RESULTS: A total of 1397 patients (ICU: n = 360; floor: n = 1037) were included. AM-PAC mobility category was associated with therapy allocation outcomes for floor but not patients in the ICU: the Moderate category had greater adjusted odds of referral (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 10.88; 95% CI = 5.71-21.91), receipt of at least 1 visit (aOR = 3.45; 95% CI = 1.51-8.55), and visit frequency (percentage mean difference) (aOR = 42.14; 95% CI = 12.45-79.67). The secondary outcome of AM-PAC score improvement was highest for patients in the ICU who were given at least 1 rehabilitation therapy visit (aOR = 5.31; 95% CI = 1.90-15.52). CONCLUSION: AM-PAC mobility categories were associated with rehabilitation allocation outcomes for floor patients. AM-PAC score improvement was highest among patients requiring ICU-level care with at least 1 rehabilitation therapy visit. IMPACT: Use of AM-PAC Basic Mobility categories may help improve decisions for rehabilitation therapy allocation among patients who do not require critical care, particularly during times of limited resources.


Subject(s)
Activities of Daily Living , COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics , COVID-19 Testing , Cohort Studies
14.
J Bras Nefrol ; 42(2 suppl 1): 12-14, 2020 Aug 26.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2291145

ABSTRACT

Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease are among those individuals at increased risk for developing more serious forms of Covid-19. This increased risk starts in the pre-dialysis phase of the disease. Providing useful information for these patients, in language that facilitates the understanding of the disease, can help nephrologists and other healthcare professionals to establish a more effective communication with these patients and help minimize contagion and the risks of serious illness in this population.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Education as Topic/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Activities of Daily Living , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Elective Surgical Procedures , Hand Hygiene/methods , Hand Hygiene/standards , Health Facilities , Health Personnel , Humans , Nephrology/standards , Personal Space , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Renal Dialysis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Symptom Assessment
15.
Spinal Cord Ser Cases ; 9(1): 17, 2023 04 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295913

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional telephone interviews. OBJECTIVE: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic placed unprecedented pressure on healthcare systems worldwide. Here, we aimed to investigate the disruptions in management of spasticity and activities of daily living (ADL) in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) during the COVID-19 pandemic. SETTING: Two university hospitals in Istanbul, Turkey. METHODS: Twenty-four individuals with SCI exhibiting moderate and severe spasticity were enroled. All participants underwent ultrasound-guided botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) injections at two centres. A self-rated spasticity survey prepared by the authors was conducted. We questioned whether there was an increase in spasticity and the need for new BoNT-A injections during the societal restrictions of the COVID-19 pandemic. Spasticity severity in the previous week was rated using a numeric rating scale (NRS). ADL disrupted by spasticity were assessed by asking open-ended questions. RESULTS: In total, 75% participants reported a moderate increase in spasticity, 12.5% reported a severe increase, and 12.5% reported no difference. The mean spasticity NRS score was 6 (standard deviation = 2). Further, 87.5% (21) participants reported the need for BoNT-A treatment because of symptom re-emergence. When spasticity-induced deterioration in ADL was assessed, individuals mostly reported difficulties in walking, sitting on a wheelchair, and sleep disturbance due to spasticity. CONCLUSIONS: Most (87.5%) individuals with SCI reported a moderate or severe increase in spasticity during COVID-19 restrictions. Individuals with disabilities are an especially sensitive group and require specialised care during extraordinary circumstances, such as pandemics, hurricanes, or earthquakes. SPONSORSHIP: None.


Subject(s)
Botulinum Toxins, Type A , COVID-19 , Spinal Cord Injuries , Humans , Pandemics , Activities of Daily Living , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/complications , Spinal Cord Injuries/epidemiology , Muscle Spasticity/etiology , Botulinum Toxins, Type A/therapeutic use
16.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 6785, 2023 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2296421

ABSTRACT

Long-term sequelae in hospitalized Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients may result in limited quality of life. The current study aimed to determine health-related quality of life (HRQoL) after COVID-19 hospitalization in non-intensive care unit (ICU) and ICU patients. This is a single-center study at the University Hospital of Wuerzburg, Germany. Patients eligible were hospitalized with COVID-19 between March 2020 and December 2020. Patients were interviewed 3 and 12 months after hospital discharge. Questionnaires included the European Quality of Life 5 Dimensions 5 Level (EQ-5D-5L), patient health questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), the generalized anxiety disorder 7 scale (GAD-7), FACIT fatigue scale, perceived stress scale (PSS-10) and posttraumatic symptom scale 10 (PTSS-10). 85 patients were included in the study. The EQ5D-5L-Index significantly differed between non-ICU (0.78 ± 0.33 and 0.84 ± 0.23) and ICU (0.71 ± 0.27; 0.74 ± 0.2) patients after 3- and 12-months. Of non-ICU 87% and 80% of ICU survivors lived at home without support after 12 months. One-third of ICU and half of the non-ICU patients returned to work. A higher percentage of ICU patients was limited in their activities of daily living compared to non-ICU patients. Depression and fatigue were present in one fifth of the ICU patients. Stress levels remained high with only 24% of non-ICU and 3% of ICU patients (p = 0.0186) having low perceived stress. Posttraumatic symptoms were present in 5% of non-ICU and 10% of ICU patients. HRQoL is limited in COVID-19 ICU patients 3- and 12-months post COVID-19 hospitalization, with significantly less improvement at 12-months compared to non-ICU patients. Mental disorders were common highlighting the complexity of post-COVID-19 symptoms as well as the necessity to educate patients and primary care providers about monitoring mental well-being post COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Humans , Quality of Life , Prospective Studies , Activities of Daily Living , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units , Fatigue
17.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 80(3): 240-247, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2293726

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Neurological and psychiatric manifestations associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection have been reported throughout the scientific literature. However, studies on post-COVID cognitive impairment in people with no previous cognitive complaint are scarce. OBJECTIVE: We aim to investigate the impact of COVID-19 on cognitive functions in adults without cognitive complaints before infection and to study cognitive dysfunction according to disease severity and cognitive risk factors. METHODS: Forty-five post-COVID-19 patients and forty-five controls underwent extensive neuropsychological evaluation, which assessed cognitive domains such as memory, language, attention, executive functions, and visuospatial skills, including psychiatric symptomatology scales. Data were collected on the severity of infection, premorbid medical conditions, and functionality for activities of daily living before and after COVID-19. RESULTS: Significant differences between groups were found in cognitive composites of memory (p=0.016, Cohen's d= 0.73), attention (p<0.001, Cohen's d=1.2), executive functions (p<0.001, Cohen's d=1.4), and language (p=0.002, Cohen's d=0.87). The change from premorbid to post-infection functioning was significantly different between severity groups (WHODAS, p=0.037). Self-reported anxiety was associated with the presence of cognitive dysfunction in COVID-19 subjects (p=0.043). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the presence of cognitive symptoms in post-COVID-19 patients may persist for months after disease remission and argue for the inclusion of cognitive assessment as a protocolized stage of the post-COVID examination. Screening measures may not be sufficient to detect cognitive dysfunction in post-COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Activities of Daily Living , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Cognition , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Cohort Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
18.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 24(5): 702-709.e3, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2299679

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to clarify the association between changes in satisfaction with meaningful activities and the occurrence of depressive symptoms before and during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. DESIGN: A population-based prospective cohort study (Tarumizu Study). SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 231 community-dwelling older adults aged ≥65 years without depressive symptoms at baseline. METHODS: The participants completed baseline (June to December 2018, before the COVID-19 pandemic) and follow-up (September to December 2021, during the COVID-19 pandemic) assessments. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) and defined by a GDS-15 score of ≥5. Participants selected meaningful activities from the 95 activities included in the Aid for Decision-Making in Occupation Choice, and their satisfaction levels were evaluated. Satisfaction with the most meaningful activities was assessed as to whether it was maintained/improved or decreased at follow-up. RESULTS: In the follow-up survey, 31 (14.3%) participants reported the occurrence of depressive symptoms. Compared with before the COVID-19 pandemic, the rates of meaningful activities during the COVID-19 pandemic decreased for interpersonal interaction and social life and increased for leisure, sports, self-care, and domestic life. Logistic regression analysis revealed that changes in satisfaction with meaningful activity were associated with the occurrence of depressive symptoms after adjusting for demographic variables, baseline GDS scores, cognitive and physical status, and instrumental activities of daily living (odds ratio, 2.78; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-6.59, P = .020). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: To avoid decreasing satisfaction with meaningful activities, supporting older adults may be protective against the occurrence of depressive symptoms. Our findings highlight the need for health care professionals to not only encourage older adults to participate in activities for their mental health but also consider whether the activities are meaningful or satisfying for them.


Subject(s)
Depression , Personal Satisfaction , Aged , Humans , Activities of Daily Living/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/diagnosis , East Asian People , Pandemics , Prospective Studies
19.
PLoS One ; 18(4): e0284977, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2297084

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To assess the effect of cognitive function, performance of activities of daily living (ADLs), degree of depression, and fear of infection among geriatric patients hospitalized in internal medicine wards for COVID-19 on the duration of hospitalization and in-hospital mortality. METHODS: This observational survey study was conducted during the second, third, and fourth waves of the COVID-19 pandemic. The study included elderly patients of both sexes, aged ≥ 65 years, hospitalized for COVID-19 in internal medicine wards. The following survey tools were used: AMTS, FCV-19S, Lawton IADL, Katz ADL, and GDS15. The duration of hospitalization and in-hospital mortality were also assessed. RESULTS: A total of 219 patients were included in the study. The results showed that impaired cognitive function in geriatric patients (AMTS) was associated with higher in-hospital mortality among COVID-19 patients. There was no statistical significance between fear of infection (FCV-19S) and risk of death. The impaired ability to perform complex ADLs (Lawton IADL) before the onset of the disease was not associated with higher in-hospital mortality among COVID-19 patients. The diminished ability to perform basic ADLs (Katz ADL) before the onset of the disease was not associated with higher in-hospital mortality in COVID-19. The degree of depression (GDS15) was not associated with higher in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients. Statistically, significantly better survival was observed for patients with normal cognitive function (p = 0.005). No statistically significant differences in survival were observed in relation to the degree of depression or independence in performing ADLs. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis showed a statistically significant effect of age on mortality (p = 0.004, HR 1.07). CONCLUSION: In this study, we observe that cognitive function impairments and the older age of patients treated for COVID-19 in the medical ward increase the in-hospital risk of death.


Subject(s)
Activities of Daily Living , COVID-19 , Male , Aged , Female , Humans , Hospital Mortality , Pandemics , Hospitalization , Cognition , Geriatric Assessment/methods
20.
Lancet Neurol ; 22(5): 395-406, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2296631

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Generalised myasthenia gravis is a chronic, unpredictable, and debilitating rare disease, often accompanied by high treatment burden and with an unmet need for more efficacious and well tolerated treatments. Zilucoplan is a subcutaneous, self-administered macrocyclic peptide complement C5 inhibitor. We aimed to assess safety, efficacy, and tolerability of zilucoplan in patients with acetylcholine receptor autoantibody (AChR)-positive generalised myasthenia gravis. METHODS: RAISE was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial that was done at 75 sites in Europe, Japan, and North America. We enrolled patients (aged 18-74 years) with AChR-positive generalised myasthenia gravis (Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America disease class II-IV), a myasthenia gravis activities of daily living (MG-ADL) score of least 6, and a quantitative myasthenia gravis score of at least 12. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive subcutaneous zilucoplan 0·3 mg/kg once daily by self-injection, or matched placebo, for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was change from baseline to week 12 in MG-ADL score in the modified intention-to-treat population (all randomly assigned patients who received at least one dose of study drug and had at least one post-dosing MG-ADL score). Safety was mainly assessed by the incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) in all patients who had received at least one dose of zilucoplan or placebo. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04115293. An open-label extension study is ongoing (NCT04225871). FINDINGS: Between Sept 17, 2019, and Sept 10, 2021, 239 patients were screened for the study, of whom 174 (73%) were eligible. 86 (49%) patients were randomly assigned to zilucoplan 0·3 mg/kg and 88 (51%) were assigned to placebo. Patients assigned to zilucoplan showed a greater reduction in MG-ADL score from baseline to week 12, compared with those assigned to placebo (least squares mean change -4·39 [95% CI -5·28 to -3·50] vs -2·30 [-3·17 to -1·43]; least squares mean difference -2·09 [-3·24 to -0·95]; p=0·0004). TEAEs occurred in 66 (77%) patients in the zilucoplan group and in 62 (70%) patients in the placebo group. The most common TEAE was injection-site bruising (n=14 [16%] in the zilucoplan group and n=8 [9%] in the placebo group). Incidences of serious TEAEs and serious infections were similar in both groups. One patient died in each group; neither death (COVID-19 [zilucoplan] and cerebral haemorrhage [placebo]) was considered related to the study drug. INTERPRETATION: Zilucoplan treatment showed rapid and clinically meaningful improvements in myasthenia gravis-specific efficacy outcomes, had a favourable safety profile, and was well tolerated, with no major safety findings. Zilucoplan is a new potential treatment option for a broad population of patients with AChR-positive generalised myasthenia gravis. The long-term safety and efficacy of zilucoplan is being assessed in an ongoing open-label extension study. FUNDING: UCB Pharma.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myasthenia Gravis , Humans , Activities of Daily Living , Myasthenia Gravis/drug therapy , Complement C5/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Double-Blind Method , Treatment Outcome
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