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Int J Infect Dis ; 106: 128-133, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279596


OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to assess COVID-19 impact on the morbidity and mortality of vasooclusive crisis (VOC) in sickle cell anaemia (SCA) patients. METHODS: A prospective cohort study of 100 SCA patients; 50 with COVID-19 (COVID group) and 50 without (non-COVID group). All patients signed written informed consent. RESULTS: The COVID group had a significantly higher VOC episode median per year; 3 (IQR,1-6) vs 2 (IQR,2-12) (P < 0.05). The need for hospitalisation was similar in both groups. The non-COVID group had more history of culture-proven infection (P = 0.05). The COVID-group had more osteonecrosis (P < 0.05), splenic sequestration, splenomegaly and hepatic crisis (P = 0.05, 0.006, 0.02; respectively) and significantly higher (P < 0.05) symptoms of fever, cough, fatigue, abdominal pain and anosmia. Mean haemoglobin, lymphocyte subset, platelets, and reticulocytes were reduced in both groups, while lactate dehydrogenase and ferritin levels were significantly elevated. In the COVID group, the rise in white blood cell count, reticulocyte percentage, platelets and ferritin was subdued (P < 0.05). Two patients in the COVID group and 3 in the non-COVID group died; there was no statistically significant difference in mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Although COVID-19 may have triggered the onset of VOC, it did not significantly influence VOC-related morbidity or mortality in this SCA cohort.

Acute Chest Syndrome/blood , Acute Chest Syndrome/epidemiology , Anemia, Sickle Cell/blood , Anemia, Sickle Cell/epidemiology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Acute Chest Syndrome/mortality , Adult , Anemia, Sickle Cell/mortality , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Ferritins/blood , Hospitalization , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Platelet Count , Prospective Studies , Reticulocytes
Curr Pain Headache Rep ; 25(3): 19, 2021 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1100995


PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review provides an updated discussion on the clinical presentation, diagnosis and radiographic features, mechanisms, associations and epidemiology, treatment, and prognosis of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). Headache is common in PRES, though headache associated with PRES was not identified as a separate entity in the 2018 International Classification of Headache Disorders. Here, we review the relevant literature and suggest criteria for consideration of its inclusion. RECENT FINDINGS: COVID-19 has been identified as a potential risk factor for PRES, with a prevalence of 1-4% in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection undergoing neuroimaging, thus making a discussion of its identification and treatment particularly timely given the ongoing global pandemic at the time of this writing. PRES is a neuro-clinical syndrome with specific imaging findings. The clinical manifestations of PRES include headache, seizures, encephalopathy, visual disturbances, and focal neurologic deficits. Associations with PRES include renal failure, preeclampsia and eclampsia, autoimmune conditions, and immunosuppression. PRES is theorized to be a syndrome of disordered autoregulation and endothelial dysfunction resulting in preferential hyperperfusion of the posterior circulation. Treatment typically focuses on treating the underlying cause and removal of the offending agents.

Endothelium/physiopathology , Headache/physiopathology , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/physiopathology , Seizures/physiopathology , Vision Disorders/physiopathology , Acute Chest Syndrome/epidemiology , Aminolevulinic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Anemia, Sickle Cell/epidemiology , Autoimmune Diseases/epidemiology , Blood-Brain Barrier/metabolism , Brain Edema/diagnostic imaging , Brain Edema/physiopathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cerebrovascular Circulation/physiology , Cytokines/metabolism , Eclampsia/epidemiology , Female , Homeostasis/physiology , Humans , Hypertension/physiopathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/epidemiology , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/therapy , Pre-Eclampsia/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Prognosis , Renal Insufficiency/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vasospasm, Intracranial/physiopathology
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 67(8): e28358, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-826880


BACKGROUND: Data are limited on the burden of influenza and seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) in children with sickle cell disease (SCD). METHODS: We used a prospectively collected clinical registry of SCD patients 6 months to 21 years of age to determine the influenza cases per 100 patient-years, vaccination rates, and a test-negative case-control study design to estimate influenza VE against medically attended laboratory-confirmed influenza infection. Influenza-positive cases were randomly matched to test-negative controls on age and influenza season in 1:1 ratio. We used adjusted logistic regression models to compare odds ratio (OR) of vaccination in cases to controls. We calculated VE as [100% × (1 - adjusted OR)] and computed 95% confidence intervals (CIs) around the estimate. RESULTS: There were 1037 children with SCD who were tested for influenza, 307 children (29.6%) had at least one influenza infection (338 infections, incidence rate 3.7 per 100 person-years; 95% CI, 3.4-4.1) and 56.2% of those tested received annual influenza vaccine. Overall VE pooled over five seasons was 22.3% (95% CI, -7.3% to 43.7%). Adjusted VE estimates ranged from 39.7% (95% CI, -70.1% to 78.6%) in 2015/2016 to -5.9% (95% CI, -88.4% to 40.4%) in the 2016/17 seasons. Influenza VE varied by age and was highest in children 1-5 years of age (66.6%; 95% CI, 30.3-84.0). Adjusted VE against acute chest syndrome during influenza infection was 39.4% (95% CI, -113.0 to 82.8%). CONCLUSIONS: Influenza VE in patients with SCD varies by season and age. Multicenter prospective studies are needed to better establish and monitor influenza VE among children with SCD.

Acute Chest Syndrome/epidemiology , Cost of Illness , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Influenza, Human , Vaccination , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Influenza Vaccines/adverse effects , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Male , Prospective Studies