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1.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e057305, 2022 04 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962246

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To review, inventory and compare available diagnostic tools and investigate which tool has the best performance for prehospital risk assessment in patients suspected of non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS). METHODS: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Medline and Embase were searched up till 1 April 2021. Prospective studies with patients, suspected of NSTE-ACS, presenting in the primary care setting or by emergency medical services (EMS) were included. The most important exclusion criteria were studies including only patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction and studies before 1995, the pretroponin era. The primary end point was the final hospital discharge diagnosis of NSTE-ACS or major adverse cardiac events (MACE) within 6 weeks. Risk of bias was evaluated by the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies Criteria. MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURES: Sensitivity, specificity and likelihood ratio of findings for risk stratification in patients suspected of NSTE-ACS. RESULTS: In total, 15 prospective studies were included; these studies reflected in total 26 083 patients. No specific variables related to symptoms, physical examination or risk factors were useful in risk stratification for NSTE-ACS diagnosis. The most useful electrocardiographic finding was ST-segment depression (LR+3.85 (95% CI 2.58 to 5.76)). Point-of-care troponin was found to be a strong predictor for NSTE-ACS in primary care (LR+14.16 (95% CI 4.28 to 46.90) and EMS setting (LR+6.16 (95% CI 5.02 to 7.57)). Combined risk scores were the best for risk assessment in an NSTE-ACS. From the combined risk scores that can be used immediately in a prehospital setting, the PreHEART score, a validated combined risk score for prehospital use, derived from the HEART score (History, ECG, Age, Risk factors, Troponin), was most useful for risk stratification in patients with NSTE-ACS (LR+8.19 (95% CI 5.47 to 12.26)) and for identifying patients without ACS (LR-0.05 (95% CI 0.02 to 0.15)). DISCUSSION: Important study limitations were verification bias and heterogeneity between studies. In the prehospital setting, several diagnostic tools have been reported which could improve risk stratification, triage and early treatment in patients suspected for NSTE-ACS. On-site assessment of troponin and combined risk scores derived from the HEART score are strong predictors. These results support further studies to investigate the impact of these new tools on logistics and clinical outcome. FUNDING: This study is funded by ZonMw, the Dutch Organisation for Health Research and Development. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: This meta-analysis was published for registration in PROSPERO prior to starting (CRD York, CRD42021254122).


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , Emergency Medical Services , Acute Coronary Syndrome/diagnosis , Acute Coronary Syndrome/therapy , Electrocardiography/methods , Emergency Medical Services/methods , Humans , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment/methods
2.
Cardiol Clin ; 40(3): 309-320, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1944426

ABSTRACT

The novel SARS-CoV-2 has directly and indirectly impacted patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic correlated with an abrupt decline in hospitalizations with ACS and increased out-of-hospital deaths. Worse outcomes in ACS patients with concomitant COVID-19 have been reported, and acute myocardial injury secondary to SARS-CoV-2 infection is recognized. A rapid adaptation of existing ACS pathways has been required such that overburdened health care systems may manage both a novel contagion and existing illness. As SARS-CoV-2 is now endemic, future research is required to better define the complex interplay of COVID-19 infection and cardiovascular disease.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , COVID-19 , Acute Coronary Syndrome/complications , Acute Coronary Syndrome/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Hospitalization , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Coron Artery Dis ; 33(6): 465-472, 2022 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931944

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 pandemic continues to threaten human health as novel mutant variants emerge and disease severity ranges from asymptomatic to fatal. Thus, studies are needed to identify the patients with ICU need as well as those who have subsequent mortality. Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) risk score is a validated score in acute coronary syndrome. We aimed to evaluate if GRACE score can indicate adverse outcomes and major ischemic events in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. METHODS: All hospitalized patients due to COVID-19 at our institution between March 2020 and September 2020 were included in this retrospective study. Patients were grouped according to GRACE risk scores: low risk 0-108 points, intermediate risk 109-140 and high risk ≥141. RESULTS: A total of 787 patients were enrolled; 434 patients formed group 1. One-hundred forty-one patients in group 2 and 212 patients formed group 3. We found that inhospital mortality, length of hospital stay, ICU and advanced ventilatory support need were associated with increasing GRACE risk score. In addition, major ischemic events were more frequently observed in higher risk groups and strong positive correlations between GRACE risk score and pro-BNP, procalcitonin and moderate positive correlation with D-dimer, CRP, NLR was found. Regression analysis showed that only GRACE risk score was an independent risk factor associated with inhospital mortality, major ischemic events, advanced ventilatory support and ICU need. CONCLUSION: The GRACE risk score is easy to apply on hospital admission and useful for classifying those in medium-high-intensity care units and to raise the assignments of sources.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , Prognosis , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
4.
Curr Atheroscler Rep ; 24(7): 563-570, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906513

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: COVID-19 is now a global pandemic and the illness affects multiple organ systems, including the cardiovascular system. Long-term cardiovascular consequences of COVID-19 are not yet fully characterized. This review seeks to consolidate available data on long-term cardiovascular complications of COVID-19 infection. RECENT FINDINGS: Acute cardiovascular complications of COVID-19 infection include myocarditis, pericarditis, acute coronary syndrome, heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular dysfunction, and arrhythmia. Long-term follow-up shows increased incidence of arrhythmia, heart failure, acute coronary syndrome, right ventricular dysfunction, myocardial fibrosis, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. There is increased mortality in COVID-19 patients after hospital discharge, and initial myocardial injury is associated with increased mortality. Emerging data demonstrates increased incidence of cardiovascular illness and structural changes in recovered COVID-19 patients. Future research will be important in understanding the clinical significance of these structural abnormalities, and to determine the effect of vaccines on preventing long-term cardiovascular complications.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , COVID-19 , Heart Failure , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , COVID-19/complications , Heart , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
5.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 22(1): 242, 2022 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865278

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 outbreak represents a significant challenge to international health. Several studies have reported a substantial decrease in the number of patients attending emergency departments with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and there has been a concomitant rise in early mortality or complications during the COVID-19 pandemic. A modified management system that emphasizes nearby treatment, safety, and protection, alongside a closer and more effective multiple discipline collaborative team was developed by our Chest Pain Center at an early stage of the pandemic. It was therefore necessary to evaluate whether the newly adopted management strategies improved the clinical outcomes of ACS patients in the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Patients admitted to our Chest Pain Center from January 25th to April 30th, 2020 based on electronic data in the hospitals ACS registry, were included in the COVID-19 group. Patients admitted during the same period (25 January to 30 April) in 2019 were included in the pre-COVID-19 group. The characteristics and clinical outcomes of the ACS patients in the COVID-19 period group were compared with those of the ACS patients in the pre-COVID-19 group. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify the risk factors associated with clinical outcomes. RESULTS: The number of patients presenting to the Chest Pain Center was reduced by 45% (p = 0.01) in the COVID-19 group, a total of 223 ACS patients were included in the analysis. There was a longer average delay from the onset of symptom to first medical contact (FMC) (1176.9 min vs. 625.2 min, p = 0.001) in the COVID-19 period group compared to the pre-COVID-19 group. Moreover, immediate percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) (80.1% vs. 92.3%, p = 0.008) was performed less frequently on ACS patients in the COVID-19 group compared to the pre-COVID-19 group. However, more ACS patients received thrombolytic therapy (5.8% vs. 0.6%, p = 0.0052) in the COVID-19 group than observed in the pre-COVID-19 group. Interestingly, clinical outcome did not worsen in the COVID-19 group when cardiogenic shock, sustained ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation or use of mechanical circulatory support (MCS) were compared against the pre-COVID-19 group (13.5% vs. 11.6%, p = 0.55). Only age was independently associated with composite clinical outcomes (HR = 1.3; 95% CI 1.12-1.50, p = 0.003). CONCLUSION: This retrospective study showed that the adverse outcomes were not different during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to historical control data, suggesting that newly adopted management strategies might provide optimal care for ACS patients. Larger sample sizes and longer follow-up periods on this issue are needed in the future.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , COVID-19 , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Acute Coronary Syndrome/diagnosis , Acute Coronary Syndrome/epidemiology , Acute Coronary Syndrome/therapy , Chest Pain/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies
7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(4): e228873, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1825757

ABSTRACT

Importance: Influenza infection is associated with increased cardiovascular hospitalization and mortality. Our prior systematic review and meta-analysis hypothesized that influenza vaccination was associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular events. Objective: To evaluate, via an updated meta-analysis, if seasonal influenza vaccination is associated with a lower risk of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events and assess whether the newest cardiovascular outcome trial results are consistent with prior findings. Data Sources: A previously published meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and a large 2021 cardiovascular outcome trial. Study Selection: Studies with RCTs published between 2000 and 2021 that randomized participants to either influenza vaccine or placebo/control. Eligible participants were inpatients and outpatients recruited for international multicenter RCTs and randomized to receive either influenza vaccine or placebo/control. Data Extraction and Synthesis: PRISMA guidelines were followed in the extraction of study details, and risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration tool. Trial quality was evaluated using Cochrane criteria. Data were analyzed January 2020 and December 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: Random-effects Mantel-Haenszel risk ratios (RRs) and 95% CIs were derived for a composite of major adverse cardiovascular events and cardiovascular mortality within 12 months of follow-up. Where available, analyses were stratified by patients with and without recent acute coronary syndrome (ACS) within 1 year of randomization. Results: Six published RCTs comprising a total of 9001 patients were included (mean age, 65.5 years; 42.5% women; 52.3% with a cardiac history). Overall, influenza vaccine was associated with a lower risk of composite cardiovascular events (3.6% vs 5.4%; RR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.53-0.83; P < .001). A treatment interaction was detected between patients with recent ACS (RR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.41-0.75) and without recent ACS (RR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.68-1.47) (P for interaction = .02). For cardiovascular mortality, a treatment interaction was also detected between patients with recent ACS (RR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.23-0.85) and without recent ACS (RR, 1.45; 95% CI, 0.84-2.50) (P for interaction = .006), while 1.7% of vaccine recipients died of cardiovascular causes compared with 2.5% of placebo or control recipients (RR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.42-1.30; P = .29). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, receipt of influenza vaccination was associated with a 34% lower risk of major adverse cardiovascular events, and individuals with recent ACS had a 45% lower risk. Given influenza poses a threat to population health during the COVID-19 pandemic, it is integral to counsel high-risk patients on the cardiovascular benefits of influenza vaccination.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Acute Coronary Syndrome/drug therapy , Aged , Female , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Male , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Vaccination
8.
Int Heart J ; 63(2): 388-392, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1822305

ABSTRACT

CoronaVac is an inactivated coronavirus disease (COVID-19) vaccine that was granted an emergency authorization by the World Health Organization in June 2021. We present the two cases of patients presenting with chest pain, abnormal electrocardiography, and elevated troponin consistent with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction within 24 hours after receiving the CoronaVac COVID-19 vaccine.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Acute Coronary Syndrome/diagnosis , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Indian Heart J ; 74(3): 170-177, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1814493

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has been associated with pre-existing cardiac conditions as well as cardiovascular complications. The incidence rates of cardiac complications, age, and gender differences in this population are unknown. OBJECTIVES: We wanted to study the incidence of cardiac complications and mortality in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Data from the TriNetX COVID-19 global research network platform was used to identify COVID-19 patients. We compared patients with and without cardiac complications in patients with COVID-19 and obtained survival data. RESULTS: The final cohort was composed of 81,844 patients with COVID-19. Cardiac complications occurred in 9.3% of patients as follows: acute coronary syndromes in 1.3%, heart failure in 4.4%, atrial fibrillation in 4.5%, sinus bradycardia 1.9%, ventricular tachycardia in 0.5% and complete heart block in 0.01%. Mortality was significantly higher in patients with the cardiac complications mentioned (20%) than in those without them (2.9%) (odds ratio 7.2, 95% CI, 6.7-7.7; p < 0.0001). Older males seem to have higher incidence of cardiac complications and mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with COVID-19 who have cardiac complications have a higher risk of mortality when compared to those without cardiac complications.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , Atrial Fibrillation , COVID-19 , Heart Failure , Acute Coronary Syndrome/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Male
11.
Lancet ; 399(10332): 1347-1358, 2022 04 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768602

ABSTRACT

Although substantial progress has been made in the diagnosis and treatment of acute coronary syndromes, cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death globally, with nearly half of these deaths due to ischaemic heart disease. The broadening availability of high-sensitivity troponin assays has allowed for rapid rule-out algorithms in patients with suspected non-ST-segment elevated myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). Dual antiplatelet therapy is recommended for 12 months following an acute coronary syndrome in most patients, and additional secondary prevention measures including intensive lipid-lowering therapy (LDL-C <1·4 mmol/L), neurohormonal agents, and lifestyle modification, are crucial. The scientific evidence for diagnosis and management of acute coronary syndromes continues to evolve rapidly, including adapting to the COVID-19 pandemic, which has impacted all aspects of care. This Seminar provides a clinically relevant overview of the pathobiology, diagnosis, and management of acute coronary syndromes, and describes key scientific advances.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , COVID-19 , Acute Coronary Syndrome/diagnosis , Acute Coronary Syndrome/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Secondary Prevention , Troponin
13.
Am J Cardiol ; 170: 105-111, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708135

ABSTRACT

Adverse events, including cardiac involvement, after vaccination for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have been reported. We sought to evaluate trends of hospital encounters for vaccine recipients before and after vaccination. We analyzed patients who received the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine in the MedStar Health system (11 hospitals in Washington, District of Columbia and Maryland) from December 2020 through August 2021. We then compared hospital encounters (emergency department visits) of patients 60 days before a vaccine dose and 30 days after a vaccine dose, along with encounters related to the SARS-CoV-2 infection itself. The cohort included 5,217 patients who were vaccinated against COVID-19. Our analysis revealed a total of 6,751 emergency department visits, and we divided this total into 3 cohorts: fully vaccinated (n = 1,779), in vaccination window (n = 1,420), and before vaccination (n = 3,552). We found no significant association between vaccination and rate of presentation for acute coronary syndrome, pericarditis, myocarditis, heart failure, conduction abnormality, or noncardiac conditions. Further, encounters for complications related to SARS-CoV-2 infection decreased significantly from those before vaccination (5.4%) to those in vaccination window (4.2%) to those who were fully vaccinated (1.6%). These findings were consistent when all vaccinated encounters were combined into 1 cohort (fully vaccinated + in vaccination window). In conclusion, our analysis suggests that there is no significant association of COVID-19 vaccination with the rate of hospital encounters for cardiac disease, including acute coronary syndrome, pericarditis, myocarditis, congestive heart failure, and conduction abnormality. Further, administration of the vaccine resulted in a significant decrease in hospital encounters for SARS-CoV-2 infections and associated complications.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , COVID-19 , Heart Failure , Myocarditis , Pericarditis , Acute Coronary Syndrome/etiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Heart Failure/etiology , Hospitals , Humans , Myocarditis/etiology , Pericarditis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects
15.
Heart Lung Circ ; 31(6): 787-794, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1676741

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Countries who suffered large COVID-19 outbreaks reported a decrease in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) presentations and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The impact of the pandemic in countries like Australia, with relatively small outbreaks yet significant social restrictions, is relatively unknown. There is also limited and conflicting data regarding the impact on clinical outcomes, symptom-to-door time (STDT) and door-to-balloon time (DTBT). METHODS: Consecutive ACS patients treated with PCI were prospectively recruited from a tertiary hospital network in Melbourne, Australia. The pre-pandemic period (11 March 2019-10 March 2020) was compared to the pandemic period (11 March 2020-10 May 2020) using an interrupted time series analysis with a primary endpoint of number PCI-treated ACS per day. Secondary endpoints included STDT, DTBT, total mortality and major adverse cardiac events (MACE). RESULTS: A total 984 ACS patients (14.8% during the pandemic period) received PCI. Mean number of PCI-treated ACS per day did not differ between the two periods (2.3 vs 2.4, p=0.61) with no difference in STDT [+51.3 mins, 95% confidence interval (CI) -52.4 to 154.9, p=0.33], 30-day mortality (5% vs 5.3%, p=0.86) or MACE (5.2% vs 6.1%, p=0.68). DTBT was significantly longer during the pandemic versus the pre-pandemic period (+18.1 mins, 95% CI 1.6-34.5, p=0.03) and improved with time (slope estimate: -0.76, 95% CI -1.62 to 0.10). CONCLUSIONS: Despite significant social restrictions imposed in Melbourne, numbers of ACS treated with PCI and 30-day outcomes were similar to pre-pandemic times. DTBT was significantly longer during the COVID-19 pandemic period, likely reflecting infection control measures, which reassuringly improved with time.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , COVID-19 , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Acute Coronary Syndrome/epidemiology , Acute Coronary Syndrome/surgery , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Treatment Outcome
16.
Eur J Intern Med ; 96: 34-41, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1670444

ABSTRACT

Colchicine is an old, inexpensive, and relatively safe anti-inflammatory drug traditionally used in gout and over the last 50 years in familial Mediterranean fever. A search of all high-hierarchy studies (randomized controlled trials [RCTs], systematic reviews and meta-analysis of RCTs) over the last 20 years revealed myriad other evidence-based applications. Colchicine seems efficacious in the treatment of acute pericarditis and prevention of recurrences and in the prevention of postcardiac injury syndrome and atrial fibrillation following cardiac surgery or percutaneous interventions. In patients already fully treated with statins and antiplatelet agents following acute coronary syndromes or stable coronary disease, adding low-dose colchicine achieved secondary prevention of major cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death) with pooled risk reduction 0.75. Colchicine may also be useful in Behcet's syndrome and most recently, in improving outcomes of COVID-19 infection. Colchicine in the low doses used in most trials (≤ 1 mg/d) was generally safe and well-tolerated, excepting diarrhea (approximately 10%) which sometimes led to drug discontinuation. Further RCTs are required to confirm these results, and will likely lead to expanding indications for low-dose colchicine. Increasing numbers of patients will be treated with colchicine in the near future, with improved health outcomes, as long as basic caveats are heeded.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , COVID-19 , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Colchicine/therapeutic use , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
17.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263607, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1666781

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A reduction in overall acute coronary syndrome (ACS) cases, increases in the severity of ACS presentation, and increased rates of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) have been reported from multiple countries during the COVID-19 pandemic. The attributed factors include COVID-19 infection, fear of COVID-19 and resultant avoidance of health care facilities, and restrictions on mobility. Pakistan, a country with a high burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and challenges related to health care access, will be expected to demonstrate these same findings. Therefore, we compared ACS hospitalization, ACS severity, and patients who have already died (dead on arrival, or DOA) due to presumed OHCA at a tertiary cardiac hospital during pre-pandemic and intra-pandemic periods in Pakistan. METHODS: Standardized data elements were extracted from the charts of patients with ACS, and telephonic verbal autopsies (VA) using a validated tool were conducted for patients who were arrived DOA. As a comparison, cases during the same months prior to the COVID-19 were analyzed for respective waves. Events were counted, and proportions and frequencies are reported for each time period. RESULTS: A total of 4,480 ACS cases were reviewed; 1,216 cases during March-July 2019, 804 cases in the same months of 2020 (33.8% decrease); 1,304 cases in August 2019-January 2020 and 1,157 in the corresponding months of 2020 and 2021 (11.2% decrease). There was no observed change in the baseline characteristics of patients with ACS or their symptom-to-door time, and in-hospital mortality was unchanged across all time periods. There were 218 DOA cases in pre-pandemic months and 360 cases during the pandemic. The pre-pandemic rate of DOA was 12/1000 emergency patients (95% CI 10-13) compared to 22/1000 (95% CI 22-27) during the pandemic (30/1000in the 1st wave and 17/1000 during 2nd wave). On VA, CVD was found to be the major cause of death during both time periods. CONCLUSION: At a cardiac hospital in Pakistan, the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a reduction in ACS hospitalization and an increased DOA rate.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Death , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Urban , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Pakistan/epidemiology
18.
Rev Esp Geriatr Gerontol ; 57(2): 63-70, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1665422

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The geriatric population is especially vulnerable to coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and its potential complications. We sought to analyze the incidence of cardiological complications in an elderly population hospitalized for COVID-19. METHODS: A prospective observational longitudinal that included patients ≥75 years of age with diagnosis of COVID-19 admitted to the Geriatric Department from March to May 2020. Epidemiological, geriatric, clinical and laboratory test variables were collected. Cardiovascular events, including de novo atrial fibrillation (AF), acute coronary syndrome (ACS), congestive heart failure (CHF), pulmonary embolism and in-hospital death, were documented. A follow-up was carried out at 12 months through a telephone interview as well as using electronic medical records, collecting cardiac events and mortality. RESULTS: 305 patients were included; 190 (62.3%) were female, with median age of 87 years (interquartile range (82-91)). More than half of the patients had a history of cardiac disease, with AF being the most common and affecting 85 (27.9%) patients. During hospitalization, 112 (36.7%) patients died. Eighty-nine (29.2%) patients presented cardiac complications. Acute heart failure was the most prevalent (46; 15.1%), followed by new-onset AF (20; 6.5%), pulmonary embolism (17; 5.6%), and ACS (5; 1.6%). Patients with cardiac complications had a longer hospital stay (p<0.001). During follow-up, 29 (15.1%) died, and 40 (20.8%) patients had a cardiovascular event being CHF the most prevalent complication (16.7%). CONCLUSION: The incidence of cardiovascular complications in geriatric patients is high and is associated with a longer hospital stay. CHF was the most frequent event, followed by AF.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , Atrial Fibrillation , COVID-19 , Heart Failure , Pulmonary Embolism , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Heart Failure/etiology , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Male
19.
Indian Heart J ; 74(2): 131-134, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1664977

ABSTRACT

Thrombo-embolic complications after Corona virus disease-19 (COVID-19) vaccination have been previously reported. We aimed to study the coronary thrombo-embolic complications (CTE) after COVID-19 vaccination in a single centre during the initial 3 months of vaccination drive in India. All patients admitted to our hospital between 1st March 2021 and 31st May 2021 with Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) were included. Of the 89 patients [Age 55 (47-64)y, 13f] with ACS and angiographic evidence of coronary thrombus, 37 (42%) had prior vaccination history. The timing from last vaccination dose to index event was <1, 1-2, 2-4 and >4 weeks in 9(24%), 4(11%), 15(41%) and 9 (24%) respectively. ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/AZD1222 (Covishield) was the most used vaccine- 28 (76%), while 9 (24%) had BBV152 (Covaxin). Baseline characteristics were similar in both vaccinated (VG) and non-vaccinated group (NVG), except for symptom to door time [8.5 (5.75-14) vs 14.5 (7.25-24) hrs, p = 0.003]. Thrombocytopenia was not noted in any of the VG patients, while 2 (3.8%) of NVG patient had thrombocytopenia (p = 0.51). The pre- Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) flow was significantly lower [1 (0-3) vs2 (1-3), p = 0.03) and thrombus grade were significantly higher [4 (2.5-5) vs 2 (1-3), p = 0.0005] in VG. The in-hospital (2.7% vs 1.9%, p = 1.0) and 30-day mortality were also similar (5.4% vs 5.8%, p = 1.0). This is the first report of CTE after COVID-19 vaccination during the first 3 months of vaccination drive in India. We need further reports to identify the incidence of this rare but serious adverse events following COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , COVID-19 , Embolism , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Acute Coronary Syndrome/diagnosis , Acute Coronary Syndrome/epidemiology , Acute Coronary Syndrome/etiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Embolism/etiology , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects
20.
J Emerg Med ; 62(4): 443-454, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654729

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a lack of knowledge about the real incidence of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in patients with COVID-19, their clinical characteristics, and their prognoses. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the incidence, clinical characteristics, risk factors, and outcomes of ACS in patients with COVID-19 in the emergency department. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all COVID-19 patients diagnosed with ACS in 62 Spanish emergency departments between March and April 2020 (the first wave of COVID-19). We formed 2 control groups: COVID-19 patients without ACS (control A) and non-COVID-19 patients with ACS (control B). Unadjusted comparisons between cases and control subjects were performed regarding 58 characteristics and outcomes. RESULTS: We identified 110 patients with ACS in 74,814 patients with COVID-19 attending the ED (1.48% [95% confidence interval {CI} 1.21-1.78%]). This incidence was lower than that observed in non-COVID-19 patients (3.64% [95% CI 3.54-3.74%]; odds ratio [OR] 0.40 [95% CI 0.33-0.49]). The clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 associated with a higher risk of presenting ACS were: previous coronary artery disease, age ≥60 years, hypertension, chest pain, raised troponin, and hypoxemia. The need for hospitalization and admission to intensive care and in-hospital mortality were higher in cases than in control group A (adjusted OR [aOR] 6.36 [95% CI 1.84-22.1], aOR 4.63 [95% CI 1.88-11.4], and aOR 2.46 [95% CI 1.15-5.25]). When comparing cases with control group B, the aOR of admission to intensive care was 0.41 (95% CI 0.21-0.80), while the aOR for in-hospital mortality was 5.94 (95% CI 2.84-12.4). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of ACS in patients with COVID-19 attending the emergency department was low, around 1.48%, but could be increased in some circumstances. Patients with COVID-19 with ACS had a worse prognosis than control subjects with higher in-hospital mortality.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , COVID-19 , Acute Coronary Syndrome/complications , Acute Coronary Syndrome/diagnosis , Acute Coronary Syndrome/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Incidence , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
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