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1.
biorxiv; 2023.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2023.08.14.553245

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 patients present higher risk for myocardial infarction (MI), acute coronary syndrome, and stroke for up to 1 year after SARS-CoV-2 infection. While the systemic inflammatory response to SARS-CoV-2 infection likely contributes to this increased cardiovascular risk, whether SARS-CoV-2 directly infects the coronary vasculature and attendant atherosclerotic plaques to locally promote inflammation remains unknown. Here, we report that SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA (vRNA) is detectable and replicates in coronary atherosclerotic lesions taken at autopsy from patients with severe COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 localizes to plaque macrophages and shows a stronger tropism for arterial lesions compared to corresponding perivascular fat, correlating with the degree of macrophage infiltration. In vitro infection of human primary macrophages highlights that SARS-CoV-2 entry is increased in cholesterol-loaded macrophages (foam cells) and is dependent, in part, on neuropilin-1 (NRP-1). Furthermore, although viral replication is abortive, SARS-CoV-2 induces a robust inflammatory response that includes interleukins IL-6 and IL-1{beta}, key cytokines known to trigger ischemic cardiovascular events. SARS-CoV-2 infection of human atherosclerotic vascular explants recapitulates the immune response seen in cultured macrophages, including proatherogenic cytokine secretion. Collectively, our data establish that SARS-CoV-2 infects macrophages in coronary atherosclerotic lesions, resulting in plaque inflammation that may promote acute CV complications and long-term risk for CV events


Subject(s)
Stroke , Acute Coronary Syndrome , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Myocardial Infarction , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Atherosclerosis , Inflammation
2.
medrxiv; 2023.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2023.07.05.23292278

ABSTRACT

Background: COronaVIrus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been observed to be associated with a hypercoagulable state. Intracardiac thrombosis is a serious complication but has seldom been evaluated in COVID-19 patients. We assessed the incidence, associated factors, and outcomes of COVID-19 patients with intracardiac thrombosis. Methods: COVID-19 inpatients during 2020 were retrospectively identified from the national inpatient sample (NIS) database, and data retrieved regarding clinical characteristics, intracardiac thrombosis, and adverse outcomes. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify the clinical factors associated with intracardiac thrombosis and in-hospital mortality and morbidities. Results: A total of 1,683,785 COVID-19 inpatients were identified in 2020 from NIS, with a mean age of 63.8 {+/-} 1.6 years, and 32.2% females. Intracardiac thrombosis was present in 0.001% (1,830) patients. Overall, in-hospital outcomes include all-cause mortality 13.2% (222,695/1,683,785), cardiovascular mortality 3.5%, cardiac arrest 2.6%, acute coronary syndrome (ACS) 4.4%, heart failure 16.1%, stroke 1.3% and acute kidney injury (AKI) 28.3%. The main factors associated with intracardiac thrombosis were a history of congestive heart failure and coagulopathy. Intracardiac thrombosis was independently associated with a higher risk of in-hospital all-cause mortality (OR: 3.32, 95% CI: 2.42-4.54, p<0.001), cardiovascular mortality (OR: 2.95, 95% CI: 1.96-4.44, p<0.001), cardiac arrest (OR: 2.04, 95% CI: 1.22-3.43, p=0.006), ACS (OR: 1.62, 95% CI: 1.17-2.22, p=0.003), stroke (OR: 3.10, 95% CI: 2.11-4.56, p<0.001), and AKI (OR: 2.13 95% CI: 1.68-2.69, p<0.001), but not incident heart failure (p=0.27). Conclusion: Although intracardiac thrombosis is rare in COVID-19 inpatients, its presence was independently associated with higher risks of in-hospital mortality and most morbidities. Prompt investigations and treatments for intracardiac thrombosis are warranted when there is a high index of suspicion and a confirmed diagnosis respectively.


Subject(s)
Stroke , Acute Coronary Syndrome , COVID-19 , Heart Failure , Heart Arrest , Acute Kidney Injury , Thrombosis , Blood Coagulation Disorders
3.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 23(1): 267, 2023 05 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234819

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Kounis syndrome is a rare clinical condition characterized by the occurrence of an acute coronary event induced by an acute allergic episode. The ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has contributed to an increase in the incidence of allergic reactions to a certain extent, thereby increasing the incidence of Kounis syndrome. Timely diagnosis and effective management of this disease are important in clinical practice. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a 43-year-old woman who developed generalized pruritus, breathlessness, paroxysmal precordial crushing pain, and dyspnea after receiving the third dose of the COVID-19 vaccine. After anti-allergic treatment and therapy for acute myocardial ischemia, her symptoms resolved with improvement in cardiac function and resolution of ST-segment changes. The prognosis was satisfactory, and the final diagnosis was type I Kounis syndrome. CONCLUSION: This patient with type I Kounis syndrome rapidly developed acute coronary syndrome (ACS) after an acute allergic reaction to the COVID-19 vaccine. ​Timely diagnosis of acute allergic reaction and ACS, and targeted treatment based on the relevant guidelines are the key to successful treatment of the syndrome.​.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , COVID-19 , Hypersensitivity , Kounis Syndrome , Humans , Female , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , China , Chest Pain , Dyspnea , Rare Diseases
4.
PLoS One ; 18(6): e0286700, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241362

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Worldwide, the COVID-19 pandemic has been associated with an overall drop in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) hospitalizations. Additionally, there is a well-known association between ACS and socioeconomic status. This study aims to assess the COVID-19 effect on ACS admissions in France during the first national lockdown and investigate the factors associated with its spatial heterogeneity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study, we used the French hospital discharge database (PMSI) to estimate ACS admission rates in all public and private hospitals in 2019 and 2020. A negative binomial regression explored the nationwide change in ACS admissions during lockdown compared with 2019. A multivariate analysis explored the factors associated with the ACS admission incidence rate ratio (IRR, 2020 incidence rate/2019 incidence rate) variation at the county level. RESULTS: We found a significant but geographically heterogeneous nationwide reduction in ACS admissions during lockdown (IRR 0·70 [0·64-0·76]). After adjustment for cumulative COVID-19 admissions and the ageing index, a higher share of people on short-term working arrangements during lockdown at the county level was associated with a lower IRR, while a higher share of individuals with a high school degree and a higher density of acute care beds were associated with a higher ratio. CONCLUSIONS: During the first national lockdown, there was an overall decrease in ACS admissions. Local provision of inpatient care and socioeconomic determinants linked to occupation were independently associated with the variation in hospitalizations.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Acute Coronary Syndrome/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control , Hospitalization , Socioeconomic Factors , France/epidemiology
5.
Eur Heart J ; 43(39): 3947-3956, 2022 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319780

ABSTRACT

AIMS: In a retrospective analysis of dal-Outcomes, the effect of dalcetrapib on cardiovascular events was influenced by an adenylate cyclase type 9 (ADCY9) gene polymorphism. The dal-GenE study was conducted to test this pharmacogenetic hypothesis. METHODS AND RESULTS: dal-GenE was a double-blind trial in patients with an acute coronary syndrome within 1-3 months and the AA genotype at variant rs1967309 in the ADCY9 gene. A total of 6147 patients were randomly assigned to receive dalcetrapib 600 mg or placebo daily. The primary endpoint was the time from randomization to first occurrence of cardiovascular death, resuscitated cardiac arrest, non-fatal myocardial infarction, or non-fatal stroke. After a median follow-up of 39.9 months, the primary endpoint occurred in 292 (9.5%) of 3071 patients in the dalcetrapib group and 327 (10.6%) of 3076 patients in the placebo group [hazard ratio 0.88; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.75-1.03; P = 0.12]. The hazard ratios for the components of the primary endpoint were 0.79 (95% CI 0.65-0.96) for myocardial infarction, 0.92 (95% CI 0.64-1.33) for stroke, 1.21 (95% CI 0.91-1.60) for death from cardiovascular causes, and 2.33 (95% CI 0.60-9.02) for resuscitated cardiac arrest. In a pre-specified on-treatment sensitivity analysis, the primary endpoint event rate was 7.8% (236/3015) in the dalcetrapib group and 9.3% (282/3031) in the placebo group (hazard ratio 0.83; 95% CI 0.70-0.98). CONCLUSION: Dalcetrapib did not significantly reduce the risk of occurrence of the primary endpoint of ischaemic cardiovascular events at end of study. A new trial would be needed to test the pharmacogenetic hypothesis that dalcetrapib improves the prognosis of patients with the AA genotype. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Trial registration dal-GenE ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02525939.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , Anticholesteremic Agents , Heart Arrest , Myocardial Infarction , Stroke , Acute Coronary Syndrome/drug therapy , Acute Coronary Syndrome/genetics , Adenylyl Cyclases/genetics , Adenylyl Cyclases/therapeutic use , Amides , Anticholesteremic Agents/therapeutic use , Double-Blind Method , Esters , Humans , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Myocardial Infarction/genetics , Pharmacogenetics , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/drug therapy , Sulfhydryl Compounds
6.
Kardiologiia ; 62(9): 37-43, 2022 Sep 30.
Article in Russian, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2307193

ABSTRACT

Aim      To compare long-term outcomes of x-ray endovascular (percutaneous coronary intervention, PCI, and lower limb angioplasty with stent placement, LLA; group 1) and combination treatments (PCI and open LLA surgery; group 2) in patients with chronic lower limb ischemia (CLLI) associated with ischemic heart disease (IHD).Material and methods  This retrospective study has been conducted in the Vishnevsky National Medical Research Center of Surgery since 2019. The study includes 92 patients with stage 2B CLLI associated with IHD who were managed from January 1, 2017 through December 31, 2020. Long-term outcomes were evaluated in 76 (82.6 %) patients. The endpoint was severe cardiovascular complications (CVC), including death, myocardial infarction, and acute cerebrovascular disease (ACVD).Results In group 1 during the long-term period, 1 (2.7%) fatal outcome due to pneumonia was observed. In group 2, 4 (10 %) patients died: 1 (2.5 %) patient due to ACVD, 1 (2.5 %) patient due to progression of oncological process, and 2 2 (5 %) patients due to COVID-19. Also, 2 (5.5 %) and 1 (2.5 %) cases of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) were observed in groups 1 and 2, respectively (p=0.61).Conclusion      In the x-ray endovascular (group1) and the combination (group 2) intervention groups, lethal outcomes due to myocardial infarction were absent. This fact confirms the importance of PCI in patients with CLLI for prevention of possible ACS in the long-term. Both therapeutic tactics in managing CLLI patients with IHD demonstrated high safety and clinical efficacy during the hospital and long-term periods and can be extensively used in routine clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , COVID-19 , Myocardial Infarction , Myocardial Ischemia , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Humans , Lower Extremity , Myocardial Ischemia/complications , Myocardial Ischemia/diagnosis , Myocardial Ischemia/therapy , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
7.
Arch Cardiovasc Dis ; 116(5): 240-248, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295253

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The first wave of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic significantly changed behaviour in terms of access to healthcare. AIM: To assess the effects of the pandemic and initial lockdown on the incidence of acute coronary syndrome and its long-term prognosis. METHODS: Patients admitted for acute coronary syndrome from 17 March to 6 July 2020 and from 17 March to 6 July 2019 were included. The number of admissions for acute coronary syndrome, acute complication rates and 2-year rates of survival free from major adverse cardiovascular events or death from any cause were compared according to the period of hospitalization. RESULTS: In total, 289 patients were included. We observed a 30±3% drop in acute coronary syndrome admissions during the first lockdown, which did not recover in the 2months after it was lifted. At 2years, there were no significant differences in the combined endpoint of major adverse cardiovascular events or death from any cause between the different periods (P=0.34). Being hospitalized during lockdown was not predictive of adverse events during follow-up (hazard ratio 0.87, 95% confidence interval 0.45-1.66; P=0.67). CONCLUSIONS: We did not observe an increased risk of major cardiovascular events or death at 2years from initial hospitalization for patients hospitalized during the first lockdown, adopted in March 2020 in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, potentially as a result of the lack of power of the study.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Acute Coronary Syndrome/diagnosis , Acute Coronary Syndrome/epidemiology , Acute Coronary Syndrome/therapy , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control , Prognosis
10.
Eur Heart J ; 43(41): 4378-4388, 2022 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295117

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To evaluate whether a strategy of double-dose influenza vaccination during hospitalization for an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) compared with standard-dose outpatient vaccination (as recommended by current guidelines) would further reduce the risk of major cardiopulmonary events. METHODS AND RESULTS: Vaccination against Influenza to Prevent cardiovascular events after Acute Coronary Syndromes (VIP-ACS) was a pragmatic, randomized, multicentre, active-comparator, open-label trial with blinded outcome adjudication comparing two strategies of influenza vaccination following an ACS: double-dose quadrivalent inactivated vaccine before hospital discharge vs. standard-dose quadrivalent inactivated vaccine administered in the outpatient setting 30 days after randomization. The primary outcome was a hierarchical composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, stroke, unstable angina, hospitalization for heart failure, urgent coronary revascularization, and hospitalization for respiratory causes, analysed by the win ratio method. Patients were followed for 12 months. During two influenza seasons, 1801 participants were included at 25 centres in Brazil. The primary outcome was not different between groups, with 12.7% wins in-hospital double-dose vaccine group and 12.3% wins in the standard-dose vaccine group {win ratio: 1.02 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.79-1.32], P = 0.84}. Results were consistent for the key secondary outcome, a hierarchical composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction and stroke [win ratio: 0.94 (95% CI: 0.66-1.33), P = 0.72]. Time-to-first event analysis for the primary outcome showed results similar to those of the main analysis [hazard ratio 0.97 (95% CI: 0.75-1.24), P = 0.79]. Adverse events were infrequent and did not differ between groups. CONCLUSION: Among patients hospitalized with an ACS, double-dose influenza vaccination before discharge did not reduce cardiopulmonary outcomes compared with standard-dose vaccination in the outpatient setting. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT04001504.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , Influenza, Human , Myocardial Infarction , Stroke , Humans , Acute Coronary Syndrome/therapy , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Myocardial Infarction/prevention & control , Vaccination , Stroke/prevention & control , Vaccines, Inactivated , Treatment Outcome
11.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 150: w20448, 2020 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2274241

ABSTRACT

AIM: To assess the impact of the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic on acute coronary syndromes and on the delay from symptom onset to first medical contact among patients presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), as well as to investigate whether there were patient-related reasons related to COVID-19 for delaying first medical contact. METHODS AND RESULTS: All patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) at the Geneva University Hospitals for acute coronary syndromes (ACS) during the first COVID-19 wave were compared with a control group consisting of all ACS patients who underwent PCI during the same period in 2019 and those treated in the period immediately preceding the pandemic. The primary outcome measure was the difference in the delay from symptom onset to first medical contact in the setting of STEMI between the COVID-19 period and the control period. Secondary outcome measures were the difference in ACS incidence and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on patients’ decisions to call the emergency services, assessed using a questionnaire. Delay from symptom onset to first medical contact was longer among patients suffering from STEMI in the COVID-19 period compared with the control period (112 min vs 60 min, p = 0.049). The incidence rate of ACS was lower during the COVID-19 period (incidence rate ratio 0.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.449–0.905). ACS patients delayed their call to the emergency services mainly because of fear of contracting or spreading COVID-19 following hospital admission, as well as of adding burden to the healthcare system. CONCLUSION: We observed prolonged delays from symptom onset to first medical contact and a decline in overall ACS incidence during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, with a higher threshold to call for help among ACS patients.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Acute Coronary Syndrome/surgery , Aged , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/epidemiology , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , Pandemics , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Troponin/blood
12.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 5120, 2023 03 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2279338

ABSTRACT

The global coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is associated with reduced rate of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, there were a few data showing how emergency medical system (EMS) and management strategies for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) changed during the pandemic. We sought to clarify changes on characteristics, treatments, and in-hospital mortality of patients with ACS transported via EMS between pre- and post-pandemic. We examined consecutive 656 patients with ACS admitted to Sapporo City ACS Network Hospitals between June 2018 and November 2021. The patients were divided into pre- and post-pandemic groups. The number of ACS hospitalizations declined significantly during the pandemic (proportional reduction 66%, coefficient -0.34, 95% CI -0.50 to -0.18, p < 0.001). The median time from an EMS call to hospital was significantly longer in post-pandemic group than in pre-pandemic group (32 [26-39] vs. 29 [25-36] min, p = 0.008). There were no significant differences in the proportion of patients with ACS receiving PCI, and in-hospital mortality between the groups. The COVID-19 pandemic had a significant impact on EMS and management in patients with ACS. Although a significant decline was observed in ACS hospitalizations, the proportion of patients with ACS receiving emergency PCI remained during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , COVID-19 , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Humans , Acute Coronary Syndrome/epidemiology , Acute Coronary Syndrome/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Pandemics , Hospitalization , Treatment Outcome
13.
Heart Fail Clin ; 19(2): 185-196, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2266653

ABSTRACT

The novel SARS-CoV-2 has directly and indirectly impacted patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic correlated with an abrupt decline in hospitalizations with ACS and increased out-of-hospital deaths. Worse outcomes in ACS patients with concomitant COVID-19 have been reported, and acute myocardial injury secondary to SARS-CoV-2 infection is recognized. A rapid adaptation of existing ACS pathways has been required such that overburdened health care systems may manage both a novel contagion and existing illness. As SARS-CoV-2 is now endemic, future research is required to better define the complex interplay of COVID-19 infection and cardiovascular disease.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Acute Coronary Syndrome/complications , Acute Coronary Syndrome/epidemiology , Pandemics , Hospitalization
14.
Immun Inflamm Dis ; 11(3): e798, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2249259

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It has been shown that SARS-CoV-2 infection-induced inflammatory and oxidative stress and associated endothelial dysfunction may lead to the development of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Therefore, this review aimed to ascertain the link between severe SARS-CoV-2 infection and ACS. ACS is a spectrum of acute myocardial ischemia due to a sudden decrease in coronary blood flow, ranging from unstable angina to myocardial infarction (MI). Primary or type 1 MI (T1MI) is mainly caused by coronary plaque rupture and/or erosion with subsequent occlusive thrombosis. Secondary or type 2 MI (T2MI) is due to cardiac and systemic disorders without acute coronary atherothrombotic disruption. Acute SARS-CoV-2 infection is linked with the development of nonobstructive coronary disorders such as coronary vasospasm, dilated cardiomyopathy, myocardial fibrosis, and myocarditis. Furthermore, SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with systemic inflammation that might affect coronary atherosclerotic plaque stability through augmentation of cardiac preload and afterload. Nevertheless, major coronary vessels with atherosclerotic plaques develop minor inflammation during COVID-19 since coronary arteries are not initially and primarily targeted by SARS-CoV-2 due to low expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 in coronary vessels. In conclusion, SARS-CoV-2 infection through hypercytokinemia, direct cardiomyocyte injury, and dysregulation of the renin-angiotensin system may aggravate underlying ACS or cause new-onset T2MI. As well, arrhythmias induced by anti-COVID-19 medications could worsen underlying ACS.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , COVID-19 , Myocardial Infarction , Plaque, Atherosclerotic , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Acute Coronary Syndrome/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Inflammation , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/complications
15.
Med Sci Monit ; 29: e939020, 2023 Mar 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2271314

ABSTRACT

Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, also known as stress-induced cardiomyopathy, is a reversible syndrome commonly found among patients presenting for acute coronary syndromes, especially women. With the COVID-19 pandemic, the incidence of takotsubo cardiomyopathy was dramatically increased. However, this clinical cardiac entity remains underdiagnosed, largely due to the interplay with acute coronary syndrome. The pathophysiology of takotsubo cardiomyopathy is miscellaneous, including coronary vasospasm, microcirculatory dysfunction, catecholamine surge, and sympathetic overdrive. Diagnosing takotsubo cardiomyopathy requires a high index of clinical suspicion and multimodality tests. To date, there are no guidelines for the management of takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Thus, available data are derived from case series, retrospective analyses, and experts' opinions. Heart failure medicines were investigated in takotsubo cardiomyopathy patients. Evidence supports the benefits of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptors blockers use on mortality and recurrence rates, while results from use of beta-blockers are controversial. In complicated cases, inotropes are preferred over vasopressors, except in the presence of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, in which medical therapy is limited to fluids administration and beta-blockers. Use of oral vitamin K antagonist can benefit patients at high thrombo-embolic risk for up to 3 months. Mechanical supports are reserved for refractory hemodynamically unstable cases. This review aims to provide an update on the epidemiology, diagnosis, and outcomes of takotsubo cardiomyopathy, and an extended discussion on the management of complicated and non-complicated cases.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , COVID-19 , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy , Humans , Female , Microcirculation , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19 Testing
17.
Curr Probl Cardiol ; 48(4): 101575, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2238532

ABSTRACT

During the pandemic, health care resources were primarily focused on treating COVID-19 infections and its related complications, with various Clinical units were converted to COVID-19 units, This study aims to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the clinical course of patients who had developed acute coronary syndrome (ACS) including ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). In this large nationwide observational study utilizing National Inpatient Sample 2019 and 2020.The primary outcomes of our study were in-hospital mortality, length of stay (LOS), total hospital charges and time from admission to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Using the National Inpatient Sample 2020 database we found 32,355,827 hospitalizations in 2020 and 521,484 of which had a primary diagnosis of STEMI that met our criteria. Patients with COVID-19 infection were similar in mean age, more likely to be men, were treated in the same hospital settings as those without COVID-19 and had higher rates of diabetes with chronic complications. These patients had a similar prevalence of traditional coronary artery disease risk factors including hypertension, peripheral vascular disease and obesity. There was higher inpatient mortality (adjusted odds ratios 3.10; 95% CI, 2.40-4.02; P < 0.01) and LOS (95% CI 1.07-2.25; P < 0.01) in STEMI patient with concurrent COVID-19 infection. The average time from admission to PCI was significantly higher among unstable angina (UA) and None ST-segment elevated myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) in patients with a secondary diagnosis of COVID-19 infection compared to patients without: 0.45 days (95% CI: .155-758; P < 0.01). The COVID-19 pandemic had a significant impact on the treatment of patients with ACS, resulting in increased inpatient mortality, higher costs, and longer lengths of stay. During the pandemic, for patients with UA and NSTEMI the time from admission to PCI was significantly longer in patients with a secondary diagnosis of COVID-19 compared to patients without. When comparing ACS outcomes between pre-pandemic to pandemic periods (2019 versus 2020), the 2020 data showed higher mortality, higher hospital costs, and a decrease in LOS. Finally, the time from admission to PCI was longer for UA and NSTEMI in 2020 but not for patients with STEMI.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , COVID-19 , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Male , Humans , Female , Acute Coronary Syndrome/epidemiology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Pandemics , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Angina, Unstable/therapy , Treatment Outcome , Observational Studies as Topic
19.
Pan Afr Med J ; 42: 254, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2227135

ABSTRACT

Introduction: coronary artery disease (CAD) is a significant cardiovascular disease (CVD) that affects people worldwide. This study aimed to determine the main occluded coronary arteries in patients with myocardial infarction in Najran, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Methods: a retrospective cross-sectional study conducted between March 2020 and March 2021 and involving 661 myocardial infarction patients recruited from two hospitals (King Khalid Hospital and Prince Sultan Centre for Healthcare in Najran) used sampling for enrolled patients. Patients over the age of 15 years, current residents of KSA, and diagnosed with coronary artery occlusion based on at least one identifiable coronary lesion on a coronary angiography were considered eligible. We created generalized linear mixed models to investigate patients´ clinical and coronary angiographic features and identify statistically relevant components. Results: there were 661 CAD cases in this study: 548 (82.9%) males and 113 (17.1%) females, with a mean and standard deviation (SD) age of 4.03 ± 1.370 years. Ages of the 661 participants ranged from 15 to 85, who had been diagnosed with myocardial infarction were evaluated. It was found that most of the patients were in the 55-64 age range. The majority of cases (366 (55.4%) had ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), 187 (28.3%) had non-ST-segment elevation (NSTEMI), 101 (15.3%) had acute coronary syndrome-non-ST-segment elevation (ACS-NSTEMI), and 7 (1.1%) had acute coronary syndrome-ST-segment elevation (ACS-STEMI). Conclusion: the left anterior descending artery (LAD) is the commonest lesion found in both ST-segment elevation and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , Coronary Artery Disease , Coronary Occlusion , Myocardial Infarction , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Male , Female , Humans , Adolescent , Child, Preschool , Retrospective Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Coronary Occlusion/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Occlusion/pathology , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Coronary Angiography , Electrocardiography
20.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 59(1)2022 Dec 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2227497

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) is essential in the treatment of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of antiplatelet medication in our practice and to investigate the factors that influence it. Materials and Methods: A prospective cohort observational study was conducted, in which 193 patients with ACS were enrolled. The patients were stented in the catheterization laboratory between May 2019 and October 2020, before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, and were receiving DAPT. Their platelet functions were tested using a Multiplate Analyzer. In addition to this, clinical data, demographics, laboratory tests, and cardiovascular risk factors were also analyzed. Results: 43.46% of the patients treated with aspirin were found to be resistant to it. This phenomenon was more common in men (48.17% vs. 31.48%, p = 0.036), and it was associated with being under the age of 50 (OR: 2.08; 95% CI: 1.11-3.90) and weighing over 70 kg (OR: 3.00; 95% CI: 1.21-7.40). Most of the patients treated with clopidogrel were in the optimal treatment window, while about half of the patients treated with ticagrelor had an exaggerated pharmacological response. Among the laboratory parameters, leukocytosis and platelet count were found to be determinants of platelet reactivity for both the aspirin and ticagrelor treatments. Conclusions: Many patients treated with antiplatelet agents are outside of the treatment window. The results obtained showed that low doses of gastro-resistant aspirin tablets are ineffective, and their efficacy can be influenced by various clinical and laboratory factors. Patients receiving ticagrelor have significantly reduced platelet reactivity, influenced only by certain laboratory indicators. The pandemic significantly influenced the results of the platelet aggregation tests only in patients treated with clopidogrel.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , COVID-19 , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Male , Humans , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Clopidogrel/therapeutic use , Ticagrelor/therapeutic use , Ticagrelor/pharmacology , Pandemics , Ticlopidine/therapeutic use , Ticlopidine/pharmacology , Prospective Studies , Acute Coronary Syndrome/drug therapy , Platelet Aggregation , Adenosine/adverse effects , Drug Therapy, Combination , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
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