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2.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(20): 2466-2476, 2021 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226298

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Published data suggest worse outcomes in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients and concurrent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Mechanisms remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to report the demographics, angiographic findings, and in-hospital outcomes of COVID-19 ACS patients and compare these with pre-COVID-19 cohorts. METHODS: From March 1, 2020 to July 31, 2020, data from 55 international centers were entered into a prospective, COVID-ACS Registry. Patients were COVID-19 positive (or had a high index of clinical suspicion) and underwent invasive coronary angiography for suspected ACS. Outcomes were in-hospital major cardiovascular events (all-cause mortality, re-myocardial infarction, heart failure, stroke, unplanned revascularization, or stent thrombosis). Results were compared with national pre-COVID-19 databases (MINAP [Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project] 2019 and BCIS [British Cardiovascular Intervention Society] 2018 to 2019). RESULTS: In 144 ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and 121 non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) patients, symptom-to-admission times were significantly prolonged (COVID-STEMI vs. BCIS: median 339.0 min vs. 173.0 min; p < 0.001; COVID NSTE-ACS vs. MINAP: 417.0 min vs. 295.0 min; p = 0.012). Mortality in COVID-ACS patients was significantly higher than BCIS/MINAP control subjects in both subgroups (COVID-STEMI: 22.9% vs. 5.7%; p < 0.001; COVID NSTE-ACS: 6.6% vs. 1.2%; p < 0.001), which remained following multivariate propensity analysis adjusting for comorbidities (STEMI subgroup odds ratio: 3.33 [95% confidence interval: 2.04 to 5.42]). Cardiogenic shock occurred in 20.1% of COVID-STEMI patients versus 8.7% of BCIS patients (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In this multicenter international registry, COVID-19-positive ACS patients presented later and had increased in-hospital mortality compared with a pre-COVID-19 ACS population. Excessive rates of and mortality from cardiogenic shock were major contributors to the worse outcomes in COVID-19 positive STEMI patients.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome/virology , COVID-19/complications , Registries , Acute Coronary Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Acute Coronary Syndrome/mortality , Aged , Coronary Angiography , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
3.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther ; 26(5): 399-414, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216874

ABSTRACT

In the era of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, acute cardiac injury (ACI), as reflected by elevated cardiac troponin above the 99th percentile, has been observed in 8%-62% of patients with COVID-19 infection with highest incidence and mortality recorded in patients with severe infection. Apart from the clinically and electrocardiographically discernible causes of ACI, such as acute myocardial infarction (MI), other cardiac causes need to be considered such as myocarditis, Takotsubo syndrome, and direct injury from COVID-19, together with noncardiac conditions, such as pulmonary embolism, critical illness, and sepsis. Acute coronary syndromes (ACS) with normal or near-normal coronary arteries (ACS-NNOCA) appear to have a higher prevalence in both COVID-19 positive and negative patients in the pandemic compared to the pre-pandemic era. Echocardiography, coronary angiography, chest computed tomography and/or cardiac magnetic resonance imaging may render a correct diagnosis, obviating the need for endomyocardial biopsy. Importantly, a significant delay has been recorded in patients with ACS seeking advice for their symptoms, while their routine care has been sharply disrupted with fewer urgent coronary angiographies and/or primary percutaneous coronary interventions performed in the case of ST-elevation MI (STEMI) with an inappropriate shift toward thrombolysis, all contributing to a higher complication rate in these patients. Thus, new challenges have emerged in rendering a diagnosis and delivering treatment in patients with ACI/ACS in the pandemic era. These issues, the various mechanisms involved in the development of ACI/ACS, and relevant current guidelines are herein reviewed.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Acute Coronary Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Acute Coronary Syndrome/mortality , Age Factors , COVID-19/mortality , Cardiac Imaging Techniques , Diagnosis, Differential , Heart Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Myocardial Infarction/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Time-to-Treatment , Troponin I/blood
5.
Int Heart J ; 62(2): 274-281, 2021 Mar 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1136336

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic severely disrupted cardiovascular care during the spring of 2020 in Europe. Our study analyzed the clinical profile, COVID-19 impact, and 30-day prognosis of invasively managed patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) compared to a historical cohort.All invasively managed ACS patients from March 1st to April 30th, 2020 were compared to a cohort from the same timeframe of 2019 (n = 316). COVID-19 confirmed cases were defined by a positive SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test (CoV+). The primary outcome was all-cause 30-day mortality and multivariable predictors of this outcome.A 40.4% reduction in ACS patients was noted (198 cases in 2019 to 118 in 2020), and 11% of 2020 ACS patients were CoV+. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. There were significantly more in-hospital patients with ACS (15.3% versus 6.1%, P = 0.007), and fewer patients were found to have a culprit lesion (58.5% versus 74.2%, P = 0.004) in 2020 compared to 2019. Thirty-day mortality in 2020 (7%) was not different from that in 2019 (4.2%), P = 0.294, but it was significantly higher in CoV+ patients (23.1%) compared to that in negative SARS-CoV-2 PCR test (CoV-) patients (5%), P = 0.047, in the 2020 group. In the multivariate analysis, CoV+ was an independent mortality predictor (OR = 9.8, 95% CI = 1.48-64.78), along with the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (OR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.86-0.97), P = 0.0006.This study found increased 30-day mortality of invasively managed CoV+ ACS patients compared to that of CoV- patients during the 2020 COVID-19 spring outbreak. In the multivariable analysis, a SARS-CoV-2 positive test was independently associated with 30-day mortality. Further investigations of the underlying physiopathological relations between COVID-19 and ACS are warranted.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome/mortality , Acute Coronary Syndrome/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Acute Coronary Syndrome/diagnosis , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Revascularization , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Prognosis , Spain , Stroke Volume , Survival Rate
6.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 34(1): 89-98, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1128394

ABSTRACT

Abstract Acute cardiac injury is associated with higher mortality in patients with the novel coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) and the exact etiology can be challenging to diagnose in the emergency setting during the pandemic. From a pathophysiological perspective, SARS-CoV-2 infection is characterized by an overproduction of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-alpha) that leads to systemic inflammation and consequent increased risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) caused by atheromatous plaque rupture and significant myocardial oxygen supply-demand imbalance. Moreover, SARS-CoV-2 tropism to the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system through the ACE2 receptor induces myocarditis that may rapidly progress to left ventricular dysfunction and hemodynamic instability. Myocardial inflammation with pericardial involvement, i.e. , myopericarditis, can progress to cardiac tamponade and obstructive shock. These cardiovascular complications, which are associated with a worse prognosis and higher mortality, can be associated with clinical manifestations, electrocardiographic changes, and troponin values similar to AMI. Thus, the diagnosis and treatment of patients with acute chest pain and dyspnea admitted to the emergency department is a significant challenge during the COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we provide a review of the literature focusing on a practical approach to acute coronary syndrome patients with confirmed or suspected COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Electrocardiography/methods , Acute Coronary Syndrome/diagnosis , COVID-19/complications , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Troponin/blood , Acute Coronary Syndrome/etiology , Acute Coronary Syndrome/mortality , COVID-19/mortality , Myocardial Infarction/mortality
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(1): e24151, 2021 Jan 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1072466

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is still developing worldwide. The prognosis of the disease will become worse and mortality will be even higher when it is combined with cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, COVID-19 is highly infectious and requires strict isolation measures. For acute coronary syndromes (ACS), a common cardiovascular disease, infection may aggravate the occurrence and development of ACS, making the management of more difficult. It will be an enormous challenge for clinical practice to deal with ACS in this setting of COVID-19.Aim to reduce the mortality of ACS patients during the epidemic of COVID-19 by standardizing procedures as much as possible.Pubmed and other relevant databases were searched to retrieve articles on COVID-19 and articles on ACS management strategies during previous influenza epidemics. The data was described and synthesized to summarize the diagnosis and management strategy of ACS, the preparation of catheter laboratory, and the protection of the medical staff in the context of COVID-19. Ethical approval is not required in this study, because it is a review with no recourse to patient identifiable information.Standardized diagnosis and treatment advice can help reduce the mortality of COVID-19 patients with ACS. In the absence of contraindications, the third generation of thrombolytic drugs should be the first choice for thrombolytic treatment in the isolation ward. For patients who have to receive PCI, this article provides detailed protective measures to avoid nosocomial infection.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome/therapy , Acute Coronary Syndrome/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Infection Control/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Acute Coronary Syndrome/mortality , COVID-19/transmission , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Intern Med ; 290(1): 88-100, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1035336

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with underlying cardiovascular disease and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection are at increased risk of morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to characterize the presenting profile and outcomes of patients hospitalized with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and COVID-19 infection. METHODS: This observational cohort study was conducted using multisource data from all acute NHS hospitals in England. All consecutive patients hospitalized with diagnosis of ACS with or without COVID-19 infection between 1 March and 31 May 2020 were included. The primary outcome was in-hospital and 30-day mortality. RESULTS: A total of 12 958 patients were hospitalized with ACS during the study period, of which 517 (4.0%) were COVID-19-positive and were more likely to present with non-ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction. The COVID-19 ACS group were generally older, Black Asian and Minority ethnicity, more comorbid and had unfavourable presenting clinical characteristics such as elevated cardiac troponin, pulmonary oedema, cardiogenic shock and poor left ventricular systolic function compared with the non-COVID-19 ACS group. They were less likely to receive an invasive coronary angiography (67.7% vs 81.0%), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) (30.2% vs 53.9%) and dual antiplatelet medication (76.3% vs 88.0%). After adjusting for all the baseline differences, patients with COVID-19 ACS had higher in-hospital (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 3.27; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.41-4.42) and 30-day mortality (aOR: 6.53; 95% CI: 5.1-8.36) compared to patients with the non-COVID-19 ACS. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 infection was present in 4% of patients hospitalized with an ACS in England and is associated with lower rates of guideline-recommended treatment and significant mortality hazard.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome/complications , Acute Coronary Syndrome/mortality , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Aged , Electronic Health Records , England/epidemiology , Female , Guideline Adherence , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Am Heart J ; 232: 146-153, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-912005

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Urgent recognition and treatment are needed in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), however this may be difficult during the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic with a national lock-down. We aimed to examine the incidence of ACS after national lock-down. METHODS: The Danish government announced national lock-down on March 11, 2020 and first phase of reopening was announced on April 6. Using Danish nationwide registries, we identified first-time ACS admissions in (1) January 1 to May 7, 2017-2019, and (2) January 1, 2020 to May 6, 2020. Incidence rates of ACS admissions per week for the 2017 to 2019 period and the 2020 period were computed and incidence rate ratios (IRR) were computed using Poisson regression analysis. RESULTS: The number of ACS admissions were 8,204 (34.6% female, median age 68.3 years) and 2,577 (34.0% female, median age 68.5 years) for the 2017 to 2019- and 2020 period, respectively. No significant differences in IRRs were identified for weeks 1 to 9 (January 1 to March 4) for 2020 compared with week 1 to 9 for 2017 to 2019. In 2020, significant lower IRRs were identified for week 10 (March 5 to 11) IRR = 0.71 (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 0.58 to 0.87), week 11 (12 to 18 March) IRR = 0.68 (0.56 to 0.84), and week 14 (April 2 to April 8) IRR = 0.79 (0.65 to 0.97). No significant differences in IRRs were identified for week 15 to 18 (April 9 to May 6). In subgroup analysis, we identified that the main result was driven by male patients, and patients ≥60 years. CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic with an established national lock-down we identified a significant decline around 30% in the incidence of ACS admissions. Along with the reopening of society, ACS admissions were stabilized at levels equal to previous years.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Acute Coronary Syndrome/mortality , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Confidence Intervals , Denmark/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/trends , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Poisson Distribution , Registries/statistics & numerical data , Sex Distribution , Time Factors
10.
Heart ; 107(2): 113-119, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-808650

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the place and causes of acute cardiovascular death during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Retrospective cohort of adult (age ≥18 years) acute cardiovascular deaths (n=5 87 225) in England and Wales, from 1 January 2014 to 30 June 2020. The exposure was the COVID-19 pandemic (from onset of the first COVID-19 death in England, 2 March 2020). The main outcome was acute cardiovascular events directly contributing to death. RESULTS: After 2 March 2020, there were 28 969 acute cardiovascular deaths of which 5.1% related to COVID-19, and an excess acute cardiovascular mortality of 2085 (+8%). Deaths in the community accounted for nearly half of all deaths during this period. Death at home had the greatest excess acute cardiovascular deaths (2279, +35%), followed by deaths at care homes and hospices (1095, +32%) and in hospital (50, +0%). The most frequent cause of acute cardiovascular death during this period was stroke (10 318, 35.6%), followed by acute coronary syndrome (ACS) (7 098, 24.5%), heart failure (6 770, 23.4%), pulmonary embolism (2 689, 9.3%) and cardiac arrest (1 328, 4.6%). The greatest cause of excess cardiovascular death in care homes and hospices was stroke (715, +39%), compared with ACS (768, +41%) at home and cardiogenic shock (55, +15%) in hospital. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in an inflation in acute cardiovascular deaths, nearly half of which occurred in the community and most did not relate to COVID-19 infection suggesting there were delays to seeking help or likely the result of undiagnosed COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , COVID-19 , Cause of Death , Mortality/trends , Stroke , Acute Coronary Syndrome/etiology , Acute Coronary Syndrome/mortality , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Causality , England/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Residence Characteristics/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/mortality
13.
Can J Cardiol ; 36(7): 1152-1155, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-326960

ABSTRACT

The diffusion of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) forced the Italian population to restrictive measures that modified patients' responses to non-SARS-CoV-2 medical conditions. We evaluated all patients with acute coronary syndromes admitted in 3 high-volume hospitals during the first month of SARS-CoV-2 Italian-outbreak and compared them with patients with ACS admitted during the same period 1 year before. Hospitalization for ACS decreased from 162 patients in 2019 to 84 patients in 2020. In 2020, both door-to-balloon and symptoms-to-percutaneous coronary intervention were longer, and admission levels of high-sensitive cardiac troponin I were higher. They had a lower discharged residual left-ventricular function and an increased predicted late cardiovascular mortality based on their Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) scores.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Registries , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Acute Coronary Syndrome/diagnosis , Acute Coronary Syndrome/mortality , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, High-Volume , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/methods , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Statistics, Nonparametric , Survival Rate , Treatment Outcome
14.
Indian Heart J ; 72(2): 128-130, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-115850

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic is creating havoc in the world. It is also spreading in India creating a massive healthcare problem. Few major hospitals were closed down because of the spread among healthcare personnel. Management of several commonly occurring diseases needed modifications to a lesser or greater extent because of this pandemic. Management of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) also requires certain modifications. In this opinion paper an attempt has been made to give an outline of ACS management in this changed scenario.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Infection Control/organization & administration , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Acute Coronary Syndrome/diagnosis , Acute Coronary Syndrome/mortality , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Management , Female , Humans , India , Male , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Patient Care Team/organization & administration , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Risk Assessment , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
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