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1.
Lancet ; 399(10332): 1347-1358, 2022 Apr 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768602

ABSTRACT

Although substantial progress has been made in the diagnosis and treatment of acute coronary syndromes, cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death globally, with nearly half of these deaths due to ischaemic heart disease. The broadening availability of high-sensitivity troponin assays has allowed for rapid rule-out algorithms in patients with suspected non-ST-segment elevated myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). Dual antiplatelet therapy is recommended for 12 months following an acute coronary syndrome in most patients, and additional secondary prevention measures including intensive lipid-lowering therapy (LDL-C <1·4 mmol/L), neurohormonal agents, and lifestyle modification, are crucial. The scientific evidence for diagnosis and management of acute coronary syndromes continues to evolve rapidly, including adapting to the COVID-19 pandemic, which has impacted all aspects of care. This Seminar provides a clinically relevant overview of the pathobiology, diagnosis, and management of acute coronary syndromes, and describes key scientific advances.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , COVID-19 , Acute Coronary Syndrome/diagnosis , Acute Coronary Syndrome/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Secondary Prevention , Troponin
3.
Glob Heart ; 16(1): 86, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1590889

ABSTRACT

Aims: To identify the changes in cardiovascular disease presentation, emergency room triage and inpatient diagnostic and therapeutic pathways. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi. We collected data for patients presenting to the emergency department with cardiovascular symptoms between March-July 2019 (pre-COVID period) and March-July 2020 (COVID period). The comparison was made to quantify the differences in demographics, clinical characteristics, admission, diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, and in-hospital mortality between the two periods. Results: Of 2976 patients presenting with cardiac complaints to the emergency department (ED), 2041(69%) patients presented during the pre-COVID period, and 935 (31%) patients presented during the COVID period. There was significant reduction in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) (8% [95% CI 4-11], p < 0.001) and heart failure (↓6% [95% CI 3-8], p < 0.001). A striking surge was noted in Type II Myocardial injury (↑18% [95% CI 20-15], p < 0.001) during the pandemic. There was reduction in cardiovascular admissions (coronary care unit p < 0.01, coronary step-down unit p = 0.03), cardiovascular imaging (p < 0.001), and procedures (percutaneous coronary intervention p = 0.04 and coronary angiography p = 0.02). No significant difference was noted in mortality (4.7% vs. 3.7%). The percentage of patients presenting from rural areas declined significantly during the COVID period (18% vs. 14%, p = 0.01). In the subgroup analysis of sex, we noticed a falling trend of intervention performed in females during the COVID period (8.2% male vs. 3.3 % female). Conclusions: This study shows a significant decline in patients presenting with Type I myocardial infarction (MI) and a decrease in cardiovascular imaging and procedures during the COVID period. There was a significant increase noted in Type II MI.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , COVID-19 , Cardiology , Cardiovascular Diseases , Acute Coronary Syndrome/diagnosis , Acute Coronary Syndrome/epidemiology , Acute Coronary Syndrome/therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Humans , Inpatients , Male , Pakistan/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers , Triage
7.
Clin Nurs Res ; 31(3): 364-375, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367651

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of prehospital delay is high among older adults with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The current study aimed to examine the associated factors of prehospital delay among patients with ACS during the COVID-19 pandemic. This cross-sectional study was conducted on a convenience sample of 300 older adults with ACS admitted to the emergency department in Jordan. Data were collected from June 1 to September 1, 2020. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to explore the predictors of prehospital delay. Being widowed, educational level, pain intensity, the gradual onset of ACS symptoms, symptoms lasting for more than 30 minutes, patients' feeling anxious about their ACS symptoms, patients' perceiving their symptoms to be particularly dangerous, history of myocardial infarction (MI), and mode of transportation were associated with the time taken before seeking emergency care. Significant predictors of time to seek help were chief complaint of chest pain or palpitations, abrupt onset of symptoms, the associated symptom of vertigo, and a higher number of chronic illnesses; they explained about 17.9% of the variance in the time to seek care. The average time to seek care among patients with ACS during the COVID-19 pandemic was found to be longer than the average time reported by studies conducted prior the pandemic. Improved understanding of the associations between prehospital delay is crucial for optimal ACS patient outcomes under the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , COVID-19 , Acute Coronary Syndrome/diagnosis , Acute Coronary Syndrome/epidemiology , Acute Coronary Syndrome/therapy , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospitals , Humans , Length of Stay , Pandemics
9.
Curr Cardiol Rep ; 23(6): 69, 2021 05 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219006

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To identify and address the challenges associated with the care of ACS patients during the coronavirus 2019 pandemic. RECENT FINDINGS: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a considerable global impact with over 2.0 million deaths worldwide so far. There has been considerable evidence suggesting that COVID-19 increases the risk of acute coronary syndromes (ACS). We propose characterizing ACS patients into 3 distinct categories to better assist in appropriate triage and management: critically ill patients, non-critically ill ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients, and non-critically ill non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI)/unstable angina (UA) patients. We thoroughly review treatments strategies, management considerations, and current consensus statements for the care of COVID-19 patients with ACS. As we continue to gain more experience with management of COVID-19 in ACS patients and as health-care workers and patients continue to get vaccinated, we must continue to adapt our strategies to treat this high-risk group of patients.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , COVID-19 , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction , Acute Coronary Syndrome/epidemiology , Acute Coronary Syndrome/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Yearb Med Inform ; 30(1): 272-279, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196877

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Mobile phone-based interventions in cardiovascular disease are growing in popularity. A randomised control trial (RCT) for a novel smartphone app-based model of care, named TeleClinical Care - Cardiac (TCC-Cardiac), commenced in February 2019, targeted at patients being discharged after care for an acute coronary syndrome or episode of decompensated heart failure. The app was paired to a digital sphygmomanometer, weighing scale and a wearable fitness band, all loaned to the patient, and allowed clinicians to respond to abnormal readings. The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic necessitated several modifications to the trial in order to protect participants from potential exposure to infection. The use of TCC-Cardiac during the pandemic inspired the development of a similar model of care (TCC-COVID), targeted at patients being managed at home with a diagnosis of COVID-19. METHODS: Recruitment for the TCC-Cardiac trial was terminated shortly after the World Health Organization announced COVID-19 as a global pandemic. Telephone follow-up was commenced, in order to protect patients from unnecessary exposure to hospital staff and patients. Equipment was returned or collected by a 'no-contact' method. The TCC-COVID app and model of care had similar functionality to the original TCC-Cardiac app. Participants were enrolled exclusively by remote methods. Oxygen saturation and pulse rate were measured by a pulse oximeter, and symptomatology measured by questionnaire. Measurement results were manually entered into the app and transmitted to an online server for medical staff to review. RESULTS: A total of 164 patients were involved in the TCC-Cardiac trial, with 102 patients involved after the onset of the pandemic. There were no hospitalisations due to COVID-19 in this cohort. The study was successfully completed, with only three participants lost to follow-up. During the pandemic, 5 of 49 (10%) of patients in the intervention arm were readmitted compared to 12 of 53 (23%) in the control arm. Also, in this period, 28 of 29 (97%) of all clinically significant alerts received by the monitoring team were managed successfully in the outpatient setting, avoiding hospitalisation. Patients found the user experience largely positive, with the average rating for the app being 4.56 out of 5. 26 patients have currently been enrolled for TCC-COVID. Recruitment is ongoing. All patients have been safely and effectively monitored, with no major adverse clinical events or technical malfunctions. Patient satisfaction has been high. CONCLUSION: The TCC-Cardiac RCT was successfully completed despite the challenges posed by COVID-19. Use of the app had an added benefit during the pandemic as participants could be monitored safely from home. The model of care inspired the development of an app with similar functionality designed for use with patients diagnosed with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome/therapy , COVID-19 , Fitness Trackers , Heart Failure/therapy , Mobile Applications , Monitoring, Physiologic/instrumentation , Telemedicine , Aged , Humans , Male , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods , Pilot Projects , Smartphone
11.
Int Heart J ; 62(2): 274-281, 2021 Mar 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1136336

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic severely disrupted cardiovascular care during the spring of 2020 in Europe. Our study analyzed the clinical profile, COVID-19 impact, and 30-day prognosis of invasively managed patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) compared to a historical cohort.All invasively managed ACS patients from March 1st to April 30th, 2020 were compared to a cohort from the same timeframe of 2019 (n = 316). COVID-19 confirmed cases were defined by a positive SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test (CoV+). The primary outcome was all-cause 30-day mortality and multivariable predictors of this outcome.A 40.4% reduction in ACS patients was noted (198 cases in 2019 to 118 in 2020), and 11% of 2020 ACS patients were CoV+. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. There were significantly more in-hospital patients with ACS (15.3% versus 6.1%, P = 0.007), and fewer patients were found to have a culprit lesion (58.5% versus 74.2%, P = 0.004) in 2020 compared to 2019. Thirty-day mortality in 2020 (7%) was not different from that in 2019 (4.2%), P = 0.294, but it was significantly higher in CoV+ patients (23.1%) compared to that in negative SARS-CoV-2 PCR test (CoV-) patients (5%), P = 0.047, in the 2020 group. In the multivariate analysis, CoV+ was an independent mortality predictor (OR = 9.8, 95% CI = 1.48-64.78), along with the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (OR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.86-0.97), P = 0.0006.This study found increased 30-day mortality of invasively managed CoV+ ACS patients compared to that of CoV- patients during the 2020 COVID-19 spring outbreak. In the multivariable analysis, a SARS-CoV-2 positive test was independently associated with 30-day mortality. Further investigations of the underlying physiopathological relations between COVID-19 and ACS are warranted.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome/mortality , Acute Coronary Syndrome/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Acute Coronary Syndrome/diagnosis , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Revascularization , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Prognosis , Spain , Stroke Volume , Survival Rate
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(1): e24151, 2021 Jan 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1072466

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is still developing worldwide. The prognosis of the disease will become worse and mortality will be even higher when it is combined with cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, COVID-19 is highly infectious and requires strict isolation measures. For acute coronary syndromes (ACS), a common cardiovascular disease, infection may aggravate the occurrence and development of ACS, making the management of more difficult. It will be an enormous challenge for clinical practice to deal with ACS in this setting of COVID-19.Aim to reduce the mortality of ACS patients during the epidemic of COVID-19 by standardizing procedures as much as possible.Pubmed and other relevant databases were searched to retrieve articles on COVID-19 and articles on ACS management strategies during previous influenza epidemics. The data was described and synthesized to summarize the diagnosis and management strategy of ACS, the preparation of catheter laboratory, and the protection of the medical staff in the context of COVID-19. Ethical approval is not required in this study, because it is a review with no recourse to patient identifiable information.Standardized diagnosis and treatment advice can help reduce the mortality of COVID-19 patients with ACS. In the absence of contraindications, the third generation of thrombolytic drugs should be the first choice for thrombolytic treatment in the isolation ward. For patients who have to receive PCI, this article provides detailed protective measures to avoid nosocomial infection.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome/therapy , Acute Coronary Syndrome/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Infection Control/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Acute Coronary Syndrome/mortality , COVID-19/transmission , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
14.
QJM ; 114(9): 642-647, 2021 Nov 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1041021

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has challenged the health system organization requiring a fast reorganization of diagnostic/therapeutic pathways for patients affected by time-dependent diseases such as acute coronary syndromes (ACS). AIM: To describe ACS hospitalizations, management, and complication rate before and after the COVID-19 pandemic was declared. DESIGN: Ecological retrospective study. Methods: We analyzed aggregated epidemiological data of all patients > 18 years old admitted for ACS in twenty-nine hub cardiac centers from 17 Countries across 4 continents, from December 1st, 2019 to April 15th, 2020. Data from December 2018 to April 2019 were used as historical period. RESULTS: A significant overall trend for reduction in the weekly number of ACS hospitalizations was observed (20.2%; 95% confidence interval CI [1.6, 35.4] P = 0.04). The incidence rate reached a 54% reduction during the second week of April (incidence rate ratio: 0.46, 95% CI [0.36, 0.58]) and was also significant when compared to the same months in 2019 (March and April, respectively IRR: 0.56, 95%CI [0.48, 0.67]; IRR: 0.43, 95%CI [0.32, 0.58] p < 0.001). A significant increase in door-to-balloon, door-to-needle, and total ischemic time (p <0.04 for all) in STEMI patents were reported during pandemic period. Finally, the proportion of patients with mechanical complications was higher (1.98% vs. 0.98%; P = 0.006) whereas GRACE risk score was not different. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm that COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a significant decrease in ACS hospitalizations rate, an increase in total ischemic time and a higher rate of mechanical complications on a international scale.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , COVID-19 , Acute Coronary Syndrome/epidemiology , Acute Coronary Syndrome/therapy , Adolescent , Hospitalization , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Eur Heart J ; 41(19): 1839-1851, 2020 05 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-260376

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic poses an unprecedented challenge to healthcare worldwide. The infection can be life threatening and require intensive care treatment. The transmission of the disease poses a risk to both patients and healthcare workers. The number of patients requiring hospital admission and intensive care may overwhelm health systems and negatively affect standard care for patients presenting with conditions needing emergency interventions. This position statements aims to assist cardiologists in the invasive management of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. To that end, we assembled a panel of interventional cardiologists and acute cardiac care specialists appointed by the European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions (EAPCI) and from the Acute Cardiovascular Care Association (ACVC) and included the experience from the first and worst affected areas in Europe. Modified diagnostic and treatment algorithms are proposed to adapt evidence-based protocols for this unprecedented challenge. Various clinical scenarios, as well as management algorithms for patients with a diagnosed or suspected COVID-19 infection, presenting with ST- and non-ST-segment elevation ACS are described. In addition, we address the need for re-organization of ACS networks, with redistribution of hub and spoke hospitals, as well as for in-hospital reorganization of emergency rooms and cardiac units, with examples coming from multiple European countries. Furthermore, we provide a guidance to reorganization of catheterization laboratories and, importantly, measures for protection of healthcare providers involved with invasive procedures.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome/therapy , Cardiology/standards , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Acute Coronary Syndrome/virology , COVID-19 , Cardiology/methods , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/standards , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/virology
18.
Public Health ; 191: 17-19, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-978390

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: After coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, striking decreases in the number of hospital admissions for acute coronary syndromes (ACSs) and rises in rates of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) have been noted. STUDY DESIGN: This is an analysis of prospectively collected data from a cardiology department in a single, large volume hospital of the National Health System of the Metropolitan area of Athens. METHODS: We investigated the numbers of OHCA and hospital admissions for ACS during a 1-year period and made comparisons between the pre-COVID-19 and the COVID-19 outbreak periods. RESULTS: One hundred and eighty five patients were admitted during the total period of observation with the diagnosis of ACS. The mean monthly number of admissions for ACS for the pre-COVID-19 era was significantly higher than that for the post-COVID-19 era (20.1 ± 7.8 vs 8.8 ± 6.5 admissions, Ρ = 0.024). The cases of OHCA which were transferred to our emergency room department by emergency medical services during the same period were nominally lower in the prepandemic compared with the postpandemic era (1.9 ± 1.7 vs 4.0 ± 4.6, P = 0.28). CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides hints on the potential unintended consequences of the pandemic in countries characterized by fewer COVID-19 cases and fatalities but prompt measures of social contact restrictions and lockdown.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome/therapy , COVID-19 , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , Aged , Emergency Medical Services , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Greece/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Public Policy , Quarantine
19.
Ther Adv Cardiovasc Dis ; 14: 1753944720977732, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-961278

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To determine whether the number of patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes has reduced during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Numbers of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) activations, ST elevation myocardial infarctions (STEMIs) and non-ST elevation myocardial infarctions (NSTEMIs) in a large tertiary Greater London centre and a large district general hospital, both of which have on-site heart attack centres, were collected. We compared the number of PPCI activations, STEMI, NSTEMIs and all MIs prior to the COVID-19 era (January to third week of February 2020), after the start of some COVID-19 restrictions taking place (fourth week of February 2020) and after formal instruction by the United Kingdom Government that all citizens were to observe strict social distancing measures (20 March 2020). We further obtained data for the corresponding weekly figures from 2019. RESULTS: The average weekly figure of all myocardial infarction in 2020, prior to the COVID-19 social distancing restrictions/awareness in the UK (beginning of January to third week of February), did not differ when compared with corresponding weeks in 2019 (23.3 ± 5.4 in 2019 versus 21.13 ± 3.5, p = 0.411).With increased media reporting and associated public awareness of the threat of COVID-19 (last week of February), there was a significant reduction in all myocardial infarction (27.1 ± 4.7 in 2019 versus 15.9 ± 3.6 in 2020, p < 0.001). Following official governmental instruction that mandated strict social distancing and the 'stay at home' campaign, the weekly figures of STEMI (15 ± 3.5 in 2019 versus 10 ± 4.4 in 2020, p = 0.013), NSTEMI (13 ± 2.6 in 2019 versus 4.7 ± 2.3 in 2020, p = 0.038) and all myocardial infarction (28 ± 6.1 in 2019 versus 14.7 ± 5.7 in 2020, p = 0.008) have remained significantly reduced. CONCLUSION: We have observed an unexpected major decline in presentations (and treatment) of the entire spectrum of acute coronary syndromes following the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic and nationwide public-health measures that have promoted the importance of strict social distancing and self-quarantine.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Acute Coronary Syndrome/diagnosis , Acute Coronary Syndrome/therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Humans , London/epidemiology , Male , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/trends , Retrospective Studies , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Time Factors
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