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1.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 4936571, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394269

ABSTRACT

Acute coronary syndromes (ACS) are frequently reported in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and may impact patient clinical course and mortality. Although the underlying pathogenesis remains unclear, several potential mechanisms have been hypothesized, including oxygen supply/demand imbalance, direct viral cellular damage, systemic inflammatory response with cytokine-mediated injury, microvascular thrombosis, and endothelial dysfunction. The severe hypoxic state, combined with other conditions frequently reported in COVID-19, namely sepsis, tachyarrhythmias, anemia, hypotension, and shock, can induce a myocardial damage due to the mismatch between oxygen supply and demand and results in type 2 myocardial infarction (MI). In addition, COVID-19 promotes atherosclerotic plaque instability and thrombus formation and may precipitate type 1 MI. Patients with severe disease often show decrease in platelets count, higher levels of d-dimer, ultralarge von Willebrand factor multimers, tissue factor, and prolongation of prothrombin time, which reflects a prothrombotic state. An endothelial dysfunction has been described as a consequence of the direct viral effects and of the hyperinflammatory environment. The expression of tissue factor, von Willebrand factor, thromboxane, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 promotes the prothrombotic status. In addition, endothelial cells generate superoxide anions, with enhanced local oxidative stress, and endothelin-1, which affects the vasodilator/vasoconstrictor balance and platelet aggregation. The optimal management of COVID-19 patients is a challenge both for logistic and clinical reasons. A deeper understanding of ACS pathophysiology may yield novel research insights and therapeutic perspectives in higher cardiovascular risk subjects with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome/physiopathology , Acute Coronary Syndrome/virology , COVID-19/complications , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
2.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(20): 2466-2476, 2021 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226298

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Published data suggest worse outcomes in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients and concurrent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Mechanisms remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to report the demographics, angiographic findings, and in-hospital outcomes of COVID-19 ACS patients and compare these with pre-COVID-19 cohorts. METHODS: From March 1, 2020 to July 31, 2020, data from 55 international centers were entered into a prospective, COVID-ACS Registry. Patients were COVID-19 positive (or had a high index of clinical suspicion) and underwent invasive coronary angiography for suspected ACS. Outcomes were in-hospital major cardiovascular events (all-cause mortality, re-myocardial infarction, heart failure, stroke, unplanned revascularization, or stent thrombosis). Results were compared with national pre-COVID-19 databases (MINAP [Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project] 2019 and BCIS [British Cardiovascular Intervention Society] 2018 to 2019). RESULTS: In 144 ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and 121 non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) patients, symptom-to-admission times were significantly prolonged (COVID-STEMI vs. BCIS: median 339.0 min vs. 173.0 min; p < 0.001; COVID NSTE-ACS vs. MINAP: 417.0 min vs. 295.0 min; p = 0.012). Mortality in COVID-ACS patients was significantly higher than BCIS/MINAP control subjects in both subgroups (COVID-STEMI: 22.9% vs. 5.7%; p < 0.001; COVID NSTE-ACS: 6.6% vs. 1.2%; p < 0.001), which remained following multivariate propensity analysis adjusting for comorbidities (STEMI subgroup odds ratio: 3.33 [95% confidence interval: 2.04 to 5.42]). Cardiogenic shock occurred in 20.1% of COVID-STEMI patients versus 8.7% of BCIS patients (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In this multicenter international registry, COVID-19-positive ACS patients presented later and had increased in-hospital mortality compared with a pre-COVID-19 ACS population. Excessive rates of and mortality from cardiogenic shock were major contributors to the worse outcomes in COVID-19 positive STEMI patients.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome/virology , COVID-19/complications , Registries , Acute Coronary Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Acute Coronary Syndrome/mortality , Aged , Coronary Angiography , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(1): e24151, 2021 Jan 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1072466

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is still developing worldwide. The prognosis of the disease will become worse and mortality will be even higher when it is combined with cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, COVID-19 is highly infectious and requires strict isolation measures. For acute coronary syndromes (ACS), a common cardiovascular disease, infection may aggravate the occurrence and development of ACS, making the management of more difficult. It will be an enormous challenge for clinical practice to deal with ACS in this setting of COVID-19.Aim to reduce the mortality of ACS patients during the epidemic of COVID-19 by standardizing procedures as much as possible.Pubmed and other relevant databases were searched to retrieve articles on COVID-19 and articles on ACS management strategies during previous influenza epidemics. The data was described and synthesized to summarize the diagnosis and management strategy of ACS, the preparation of catheter laboratory, and the protection of the medical staff in the context of COVID-19. Ethical approval is not required in this study, because it is a review with no recourse to patient identifiable information.Standardized diagnosis and treatment advice can help reduce the mortality of COVID-19 patients with ACS. In the absence of contraindications, the third generation of thrombolytic drugs should be the first choice for thrombolytic treatment in the isolation ward. For patients who have to receive PCI, this article provides detailed protective measures to avoid nosocomial infection.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome/therapy , Acute Coronary Syndrome/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Infection Control/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Acute Coronary Syndrome/mortality , COVID-19/transmission , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Eur Heart J ; 41(19): 1839-1851, 2020 05 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-260376

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic poses an unprecedented challenge to healthcare worldwide. The infection can be life threatening and require intensive care treatment. The transmission of the disease poses a risk to both patients and healthcare workers. The number of patients requiring hospital admission and intensive care may overwhelm health systems and negatively affect standard care for patients presenting with conditions needing emergency interventions. This position statements aims to assist cardiologists in the invasive management of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. To that end, we assembled a panel of interventional cardiologists and acute cardiac care specialists appointed by the European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions (EAPCI) and from the Acute Cardiovascular Care Association (ACVC) and included the experience from the first and worst affected areas in Europe. Modified diagnostic and treatment algorithms are proposed to adapt evidence-based protocols for this unprecedented challenge. Various clinical scenarios, as well as management algorithms for patients with a diagnosed or suspected COVID-19 infection, presenting with ST- and non-ST-segment elevation ACS are described. In addition, we address the need for re-organization of ACS networks, with redistribution of hub and spoke hospitals, as well as for in-hospital reorganization of emergency rooms and cardiac units, with examples coming from multiple European countries. Furthermore, we provide a guidance to reorganization of catheterization laboratories and, importantly, measures for protection of healthcare providers involved with invasive procedures.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome/therapy , Cardiology/standards , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Acute Coronary Syndrome/virology , COVID-19 , Cardiology/methods , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/standards , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/virology
5.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(3): e2172, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-777664

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 causes the clinical syndrome of coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) which has become a global pandemic resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. While the virus primarily affects the respiratory system, it also causes a wide variety of complex cardiac manifestations such as acute myopericarditis, acute coronary syndrome, congested heart failure, cardiogenic shock and cardiac arrhythmias. There are numerous proposed mechanisms of cardiac injury, including direct cellular injury, pro-inflammatory cytokine storm, myocardial oxygen-demand mismatch, and systemic inflammation causing multi-organ failure. Additionally, medications commonly used to treat COVID-19 patients have various cardiovascular side effects. We aim to provide a succinct review about the pathophysiology and cardiac manifestations of COVID-19, as well as treatment considerations and the various adaptations made to the current healthcare structure as a result of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome/therapy , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Heart Failure/therapy , Pandemics , Pericarditis/therapy , Shock, Cardiogenic/therapy , Acute Coronary Syndrome/epidemiology , Acute Coronary Syndrome/pathology , Acute Coronary Syndrome/virology , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/pathology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/virology , Biomarkers/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cardiac Catheterization/methods , Comorbidity , Disease Management , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Glucocorticoids/adverse effects , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Heart Failure/pathology , Heart Failure/virology , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunologic Factors/administration & dosage , Immunologic Factors/adverse effects , Pericarditis/epidemiology , Pericarditis/pathology , Pericarditis/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Shock, Cardiogenic/epidemiology , Shock, Cardiogenic/pathology , Shock, Cardiogenic/virology , Texas/epidemiology
7.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 50(3): 543-547, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-591507

ABSTRACT

A high incidence of thrombotic events, particularly deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, has been clearly documented in COVID-19 patients. In addition, small series of patients with coronary, cerebrovascular and peripheral arterial thrombotic events have also been reported, but their true incidence and consequences are not well described, and constitute the objective of this study. From February 1st to April 21st, 2020, 2115 COVID-19 patients were treated at Hospital Universitario Fundación Alcorcón (Madrid, Spain), and 1419 were eventually admitted. Patient characteristics and outcomes were collected by reviewing their electronic medical records. Fourteen patients had a systemic arterial thrombotic event, which represents a 1% incidence in relation to the total number of hospitalized patients. Three patients suffered an acute coronary syndrome, two with persistent ST-segment elevation, one of whom was treated invasively, and one with transient ST-segment elevation. Eight patients had a cerebrovascular event. Six suffered an acute ischemic stroke and two a transient ischemic attack, 50% of them had a Rankin score ≥ 3 at discharge. Three additional patients had a limb thrombotic event, all of them infrapopliteal, and were managed conservatively. All three cases developed necrosis of the toes, two of them with bilateral involvement. The hospitalization death rate of patients with an arterial event was 28.6%. Although COVID-19 may favor the occurrence of thrombotic events, the destabilization and thrombosis of arterial atherosclerotic plaques do not seem to be a frequent mechanism which warrants the need for specific systematic preventive measures.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Peripheral Arterial Disease/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Acute Coronary Syndrome/diagnosis , Acute Coronary Syndrome/virology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Peripheral Arterial Disease/diagnosis , Peripheral Arterial Disease/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/virology , Thrombosis/diagnosis , Thrombosis/virology
8.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 97(2): 195-198, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-254291

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To report our initial experience of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)/acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients undergoing standard of care invasive management. BACKGROUND: The rapid diffusion of the SARS-CoV-2 together with the need for isolation for infected patients might be responsible for a suboptimal treatment for SARS-CoV-2 ACS patients. Recently, the group of Sichuan published a protocol for COVID/ACS infected patients that see the thrombolysis as the gold standard of care. METHODS: We enrolled 31 consecutive patients affected by SARS-COV-2 admitted to our emergencies room for suspected ACS. RESULTS: All patients underwent urgent coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) when required except two patients with severe hypoxemia and unstable hemodynamic condition that were conservatively treated. Twenty-one cases presented diffuse ST-segment depression while in the remaining cases anterior and inferior ST-elevation was present in four and six cases, respectively. PCI was performed in all cases expect two that were diagnosed as suspected myocarditis because of the absence of severe coronary disease and three with apical ballooning at ventriculography diagnostic for Tako-Tsubo syndromes. Two patients conservatively treated died. The remaining patients undergoing PCI survived except one that required endotracheal intubation (ETI) and died at Day 6. ETI was required in five more patients while in the remaining cases CPAP was used for respiratory support. CONCLUSIONS: Urgent PCI for ACS is often required in SARS-CoV-2 patients improving the prognosis in all but the most advanced patients. Complete patient history and examination, routine ECG monitoring, echocardiography, and careful evaluation of changes in cardiac enzymes should be part of the regular assessment procedures also in dedicated COVID positive units.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome/therapy , COVID-19/complications , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospitalization , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Acute Coronary Syndrome/diagnosis , Acute Coronary Syndrome/virology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Coronary Angiography , Electrocardiography , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Survival Rate , Treatment Outcome
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