Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 988
Filter
1.
Br J Surg ; 109(7): 588-594, 2022 06 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2188279

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mild appendicitis may resolve spontaneously. The use of CT may lead to an overdiagnosis of uncomplicated appendicitis. The aims of this study were to examine whether early imaging results in more patients being diagnosed with acute appendicitis than initial observation, and to study the safety and feasibility of score-based observation compared with imaging in patients with equivocal signs of appendicitis. METHODS: Patients with suspected appendicitis with symptoms for fewer than 24 h and an Adult Appendicitis Score of 11-15 were eligible for this trial. After exclusions, patients were randomized openly into two equal-sized groups: imaging and observation. Patients in the imaging group had ultrasound imaging followed by CT when necessary, whereas those in the observation group were reassessed after 6-8 h with repeated scoring and managed accordingly. The primary outcome was the number of patients requiring treatment for acute appendicitis within 30 days. RESULTS: Ninety-three patients were randomized to imaging and 92 to observation; after exclusions, 93 and 88 patients respectively were analysed. In the imaging group, more patients underwent treatment for acute appendicitis than in the observation group: 72 versus 57 per cent (difference 15 (95 per cent c.i. 1 to 29) per cent). This suggests that patients with spontaneously resolving appendicitis were not diagnosed or treated in the observation group. Some 55 per cent of patients in the observation group did not need diagnostic imaging within 30 days after randomization. There was no difference in the number of patients diagnosed with complicated appendicitis (4 versus 2 per cent) or negative appendicectomies (1 versus 1 per cent) in the imaging and observation groups. CONCLUSION: Score-based observation of patients with early equivocal appendicitis results in fewer patients requiring treatment for appendicitis. Registration number: NCT02742402 (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov).


Subject(s)
Appendicitis , Acute Disease , Adult , Appendectomy/methods , Appendicitis/diagnostic imaging , Appendicitis/surgery , Humans , Ultrasonography
2.
authorea preprints; 2023.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-AUTHOREA PREPRINTS | ID: ppzbmed-10.22541.au.167519164.46902663.v1

ABSTRACT

Objective: This study aims to explore the prevalence of anosmia and dysgeusia and their impact on COVID-19 patients. Design: This is a cross-sectional study. Patients diagnosed with COVID-19 between 1st October 2020 and 30th June 2021 were randomly selected from a national COVID-19 registry. The Anosmia Reporting Tool and a brief version of the questionnaire on olfactory disorders were used to measure the outcomes via telephone interviews. Data were analyzed using SPSS 27 statistics software. Results: A total of 405 COVID-19 adults were included in this study, 220 (54.3%) were males and 185 (45.8%) were females. The mean±SD age of participants was 38.2 ± 11.3 years. Alterations in the sense of smell and taste were reported by 206 (50.9%), and 195 (48.1%) of the patients respectively. Sex and nationality of participants were significantly associated with anosmia and dysgeusia (p<0.001) and (p-value=0.001) respectively. Among patients who experienced anosmia and dysgeusia, alterations in eating habits (64.2%), impact on mental wellbeing (38.9%), concerns that the alterations were permanent (35.4%), and physical implications and difficulty performing activities of daily living (34% ) were reported. Conclusion: Anosmia and dysgeusia are prevalent symptoms of COVID-19 disease, especially among females. Neuropsychological implications of COVID-19 in the acute infection phase and prognosis of anosmia and dysgeusia in COVID-19 are areas for further exploration.


Subject(s)
Acute Disease , Dysgeusia , COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders
3.
medrxiv; 2023.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2023.01.18.23284742

ABSTRACT

The incidence of long COVID is substantial, even in people who did not require hospitalization for acute COVID-19. The pathobiological mechanisms of long COVID and the role of early viral kinetics in its development are largely unknown. Seventy-three non-hospitalized adult participants were enrolled within approximately 48 hours of their first positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test, and mid-turbinate nasal and saliva samples were collected up to 9 times within the first 45 days after enrollment. Samples were assayed for SARS-CoV-2 using RT-PCR and additional test results were abstracted from the clinical record. Each participant indicated the presence and severity of 49 long COVID symptoms at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months post-COVID-19 diagnosis. Time from acute COVID-19 illness onset to SARS-CoV-2 RNA clearance greater or less than 28 days was tested for association with the presence or absence of each of 49 long COVID symptoms at 90 or more days from acute COVID-19 symptom onset. Brain fog and muscle pain at 90 or more days after acute COVID-19 onset were negatively associated with viral RNA clearance within 28 days of acute COVID-19 onset with adjustment for age, sex, BMI over 25, and COVID vaccination status prior to COVID-19 (brain fog: aRR 0.46, 95% CI 0.22 - 0.95; muscle pain: aRR 0.28, 95% CI 0.08 - 0.94). This work indicates that at least two long COVID symptoms, brain fog and muscle pain, at 90 or more days from acute COVID-19 onset are specifically associated with longer time to clearance of SARS-CoV-2 RNA from the upper respiratory tract.


Subject(s)
Acute Disease , Myalgia , COVID-19
4.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 206(7): 917, 2022 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2153231
5.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(11)2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2152938

ABSTRACT

A male patient presented with a sudden visual decline in the right eye (OD). Fundus revealed bilateral vasculitis; OD also showed an occluded inferior retinal vein and a wedge-shaped retinal opacification of the inferior macula and nasal retina. Fluorescein angiography revealed occlusive retinal vasculitis, while optical coherence tomography showed paracentral acute middle maculopathy (PAMM) in the OD. A thorough systemic evaluation revealed hyperhomocysteinemia and a positive Mantoux test. A diagnosis of PAMM with occlusive retinal vasculitis in presumed intraocular tuberculosis and hyperhomocysteinemia was made. Retinal vasculitis improved with oral corticosteroid, intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor and laser photocoagulation. However, the patient declined antitubercular therapy despite recommendations. This unique report indicates that PAMM may complicate tubercular retinal vasculitis, especially in the presence of systemic hypercoagulable states.


Subject(s)
Hyperhomocysteinemia , Macular Degeneration , Retinal Diseases , Retinal Vasculitis , Tuberculosis , Male , Humans , Retinal Vasculitis/diagnosis , Retinal Vasculitis/drug therapy , Retinal Vasculitis/etiology , Hyperhomocysteinemia/complications , Hyperhomocysteinemia/diagnosis , Acute Disease , Retinal Diseases/etiology , Fluorescein Angiography/methods , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Macular Degeneration/complications , Tuberculosis/complications , Retinal Vessels
8.
J Thromb Haemost ; 20(11): 2457-2464, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2137109

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary embolism response teams (PERTs) have emerged as a multidisciplinary, multispecialty team of experts in the care of highly complex symptomatic acute pulmonary embolism (PE), with a centralized unique activation process, providing rapid multimodality assessment and risk stratification, formulating the best individualized diagnostic and therapeutic approach, streamlining the care in challenging clinical case scenarios (e.g., intermediate-high risk and high-risk PE), and facilitating the implementation of the recommended therapeutic strategies on time. PERTs are currently changing how complex acute PE cases are approached. The structure, organization, and function of a given PERT may vary from hospital to hospital, depending on local expertise, specific resources, and infrastructure for a given academic hospital center. Current emerging data demonstrate the value of PERTs in improving time to PE diagnosis; shorter time to initiation of anticoagulation reducing hospital length of stay; increasing use of advanced therapies without an increase in bleeding; and in some reports, decreasing mortality. Importantly, PERTs are positively impacting outcomes by changing the paradigm of care for acute PE through global adoption by the health-care community.


Subject(s)
Pulmonary Embolism , Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Hemorrhage , Acute Disease , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use
9.
Otol Neurotol ; 43(7): e760-e766, 2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2135717

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study the changes in acute otitis media (AOM) pediatric emergency department (PED) visits and pediatric admission before and during the first coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) year. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case review. SETTING: Secondary care center. PATIENTS: Children younger than 18 years with all-cause and AOM-related PED visits and pediatric admissions for 3 years (March 1, 2018-January 28, 2021) were identified. Children were categorized according to age (0-2, 2-6, and 6-18 yr) and their date of presentation: pre-COVID-19 (yearly average of visits/admissions during the 2 prepandemic years: March 1, 2018-February 28, 2019 and March 1, 2019-February 29, 2020) or COVID-19 year (visits/admissions between March 1, 2020-February 28, 2021). INTERVENTION: Pre- and post-COVID-19 emergence, alternating lockdowns, kindergarten and school closures, and increased hygiene measures. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Post- versus pre-COVID-19 AOM PED visit and pediatric admission incidence rate ratios (IRRs), using a generalized estimating equation model with a negative binomial regression calculation, while controlling for monthly fluctuations. RESULTS: Annual AOM visits/admissions during the pre-COVID-19 and COVID-19 years were 517 and 192 and 256 and 94, respectively (p < 0.05 for both). For children aged 0 to 2 years, AOM visits/admissions significantly decreased during the first COVID-19 year, compared with the pre-COVID years (ß = -1.11 [IRR, 0.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.26-0.42; p < 0.005] and ß = -1.12 [IRR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.25-0.42; p < 0.005]). Relatively to all-cause of children aged 0 to 2 years, AOM visits/admissions decreased during the first COVID-19 year versus the pre-COVID-19 years (ß = -2.14 [IRR, 0.12; 95% CI, 0.08-0.17; p < 0.005] and ß = -1.36 [IRR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.23-0.29; p < 0.005]) and had monthly fluctuations coinciding with the lockdown/relaxation measures. For children aged 2 to 6 years, the reduction in AOM admissions was significant (ß = -1.70, IRR, 0.18; 95% CI, 0.09-0.37; p < 0.005). No significant differences were observed for children aged 6 to 18 years because of the small sample size. CONCLUSION: Pediatric AOM burden substantially decreased during the first COVID-19 year.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Otitis Media , Acute Disease , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Otitis Media/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
11.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 11(1): 112, 2022 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139421

ABSTRACT

By 26 August 2022, the number of cases of acute hepatitis of unknown etiology (AHUA) has drastically increased to 1115 distributed in 35 countries that fulfill the World Health Organization definition. Several hypotheses on the cause of AHUA have been proposed and are being investigated around the world. In the recent United Kingdom (UK) report, human adenovirus (HAdV) with adeno-associated virus (AAV) co-infection is the leading hypothesis. However, there is still limited evidence in establishing the causal relationship between AHUA and any potential aetiology. The leading aetiology continues to be HAdV infection. It is reported that HAdV genomics is not unusual among the population in the UK, especially among AUHA cases. Expanding the surveillance of HAdV and AAV in the population and the environment in the countries with AUHA cases is suggested to be the primary action. Metagenomics should be used in detecting other infectious pathogens on a larger scale, to supplement the detection of viruses in the blood, stool, and liver specimens from AUHA cases. It is useful to develop a consensus-specific case definition of AHUA to better understand the characteristics of these cases globally based on all the collected cases.


Subject(s)
Adenovirus Infections, Human , Adenoviruses, Human , Hepatitis , Child , Humans , Adenovirus Infections, Human/epidemiology , Acute Disease , Feces
12.
Am J Med Sci ; 361(5): 646-649, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2129825

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus, or COVID-19, is responsible for the current global pandemic and has resulted in the death of over 400,000 in the United States. Rates of venous thromboembolism have been noted to be much higher in those infected with COVID-19. Here we report a case-series of COVID-19 patients with diverse presentations of pulmonary embolism (PE). We also briefly describe the pathophysiology and mechanisms for pulmonary embolism in COVID-19. These cases indicate a need to maintain a high index of suspicion for PE in patients with COVID-19, as well as the need to consider occult COVID-19 infection in patients with PE in the right clinical circumstance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Acute Disease , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/physiopathology , United States/epidemiology
14.
medrxiv; 2022.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2022.12.18.22283646

ABSTRACT

Background An increasing number of studies have described new and persistent symptoms and conditions as potential post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC). However, it remains unclear whether certain symptoms or conditions occur more frequently among persons with SARS-CoV-2 infection compared with those never infected with SARS-CoV-2. We compared the occurrence of specific COVID-associated symptoms and conditions as potential PASC 31 to 150 days following a SARS-CoV-2 test among adults ([≥]20 years) and children (<20 years) with positive and negative test results documented in the electronic health records (EHRs) of institutions participating in PCORnet, the National Patient-Centered Clinical Research Network. Methods and Findings This study included 3,091,580 adults (316,249 SARS-CoV-2 positive; 2,775,331 negative) and 675,643 children (62,131 positive; 613,512 negative) who had a SARS-CoV-2 laboratory test (nucleic acid amplification or rapid antigen) during March 1, 2020-May 31, 2021 documented in their EHR. We identified hospitalization status in the day prior through the 16 days following the SARS-CoV-2 test as a proxy for the severity of COVID-19. We used logistic regression to calculate the odds of receiving a diagnostic code for each symptom outcome and Cox proportional hazard models to calculate the risk of being newly diagnosed with each condition outcome, comparing those with a SARS-CoV-2 positive test to those with a negative test. After adjustment for baseline covariates, hospitalized adults and children with a positive test had increased odds of being diagnosed with [≥]1 symptom (adults: adjusted odds ratio[aOR], 1.17[95% CI, 1.11-1.23]; children: aOR, 1.18[95% CI, 1.08-1.28]) and shortness of breath (adults: aOR, 1.50[95% CI, 1.38-1.63]; children: aOR, 1.40[95% CI, 1.15-1.70]) 31-150 days following a SARS-CoV-2 test compared with hospitalized individuals with a negative test. Hospitalized adults with a positive test also had increased odds of being diagnosed with [≥]3 symptoms (aOR, 1.16[95% CI, 1.08 - 1.26]) and fatigue (aOR, 1.12[95% CI, 1.05 - 1.18]) compared with those testing negative. The risks of being newly diagnosed with type 1 or type 2 diabetes (aHR, 1.25[95% CI, 1.17-1.33]), hematologic disorders (aHR, 1.19[95% CI, 1.11-1.28]), and respiratory disease (aHR, 1.44[95% CI, 1.30-1.60]) were higher among hospitalized adults with a positive test compared with those with a negative test. Non-hospitalized adults with a positive SARS-CoV-2 test had higher odds of being diagnosed with fatigue (aOR, 1.11[95% CI, 1.05-1.16]) and shortness of breath (aOR, 1.22[95% CI, 1.15-1.29]), and had an increased risk (aHR, 1.12[95% CI, 1.02-1.23]) of being newly diagnosed with hematologic disorders (i.e., venous thromboembolism and pulmonary embolism) 31-150 days following SARS-CoV-2 test compared with those testing negative. The risk of being newly diagnosed with certain conditions, such as mental health conditions and neurological disorders, was lower among patients with a positive viral test relative to those with a negative viral test. Conclusions Patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection were at higher risk of being diagnosed with certain symptoms and conditions, particularly fatigue, respiratory symptoms, and hematological abnormalities, after acute infection. The risk was highest among adults hospitalized after SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Pulmonary Embolism , Hematologic Diseases , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Dyspnea , Acute Disease , Fatigue , Venous Thromboembolism
15.
authorea preprints; 2022.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-AUTHOREA PREPRINTS | ID: ppzbmed-10.22541.au.167112015.57392278.v1

ABSTRACT

Various neurological symptoms have been reported as the side effect of COVID-19 vaccines. Vaccine-associated acute Cerebellitis is very uncommon. Here, we report a 45-year-old female with acute onset cerebellitis, beginning 10 days after administration of Sinopharm vaccine. Her CSF COVID-19 PCR was found to be positive, with no pulmonary symptoms.


Subject(s)
Acute Disease , COVID-19
16.
medrxiv; 2022.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2022.12.15.22283488

ABSTRACT

Background: Whether ivermectin, with a maximum targeted dose of 600 mcg/kg, shortens symptom duration or prevents hospitalization among outpatients with mild to moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains unknown. Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of ivermectin, dosed at 600 mcg/kg, daily for 6 days compared with placebo for the treatment of early mild to moderate COVID-19. Methods: ACTIV-6, an ongoing, decentralized, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, platform trial, was designed to evaluate repurposed therapies in outpatients with mild to moderate COVID-19. A total of 1206 participants age >=30 years with confirmed COVID-19, experiencing >=2 symptoms of acute infection for <=7 days, were enrolled from February 16, 2022, through July 22, 2022, with follow-up data through November 10, 2022, at 93 sites in the US. Participants were randomized to ivermectin, with a maximum targeted dose of 600 mcg/kg (n=602), daily vs. placebo daily (n=604) for 6 days. The primary outcome was time to sustained recovery, defined as at least 3 consecutive days without symptoms. The 7 secondary outcomes included a composite of hospitalization, death, or urgent/emergent care utilization by day 28. Results: Among 1206 randomized participants who received study medication or placebo, median (interquartile range) age was 48 (38-58) years; 713 (59%) were women; and 1008 (84%) reported 2 or more SARS-CoV-2 vaccine doses. Median time to recovery was 11 (11-12) days in the ivermectin group and 11 (11-12) days in the placebo group. The hazard ratio (HR) (95% credible interval [CrI], posterior probability of benefit) for improvement in time to recovery was 1.02 (0.92-1.13; P[HR>1]=0.68). In those receiving ivermectin, 34 (5.7%) were hospitalized, died, or had urgent or emergency care visits compared with 36 (6.0%) receiving placebo (HR 1.0, 0.6-1.5; P[HR<1]=0.53). In the ivermectin group, 1 participant died and 4 were hospitalized (0.8%); 2 participants (0.3%) were hospitalized in the placebo group and there were no deaths. Adverse events were uncommon in both groups. Conclusions: Among outpatients with mild to moderate COVID-19, treatment with ivermectin, with a maximum targeted dose of 600 mcg/kg daily for 6 days, compared with placebo did not improve time to recovery. These findings do not support the use of ivermectin in patients with mild to moderate COVID-19. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04885530 .


Subject(s)
Acute Disease , Death , COVID-19
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(45): e31385, 2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115791

ABSTRACT

At its onset, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic brought significant challenges to healthcare systems, changing the focus of medical care on acute illness. Disruptions in medical service provision have impacted the field of viral hepatitis, with screening programs paused throughout much of 2020 and 2021. We performed a retrospective study on consecutive outpatients with COVID-19 during the second and third wave of COVID-19 in Romania, from November 2020 to April 2021, aiming to characterize the prevalence of undiagnosed hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among patients presenting with acute illness. Overall, 522 patients had available records during the study timespan. Their mean ±â€…standard deviation age was 51 ±â€…13 years; 274 (52.5%) were male. We identified 16 (3.1%) cases of active HBV infection; only six of these patients were aware of their HBV status, and 3 of the newly diagnosed cases were identified as candidates for HBV treatment. A total of 96 patients (18.4%) had serological markers suggestive for prior HBV vaccination. A large proportion of patients (n = 120, 23.0%) had positive HBV core antibodies; among these, 90 (17.2%) had cleared a previous HBV infection (being positive for HBV surface antibodies and HBV core antibodies). We identified the following parameters that were significantly more frequent in patients with a history of HBV infection: older age (P < .001), hypoalbuminemia (P = .015), thrombocytopenia (P < .001), thrombocytopenia followed by thrombocytosis (P = .041), increased blood urea nitrogen (P < .001) and increased creatinine (P = .011). In conclusion, the COVID-19 pandemic has taught us essential lessons about the importance of maintaining access to screening programs and of ensuring active monitoring of patients with chronic infections such as hepatitis B, even during a medical crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis B , Thrombocytopenia , Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Female , Hepatitis B virus , Retrospective Studies , Prevalence , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Acute Disease , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis B/prevention & control , Hepatitis B Antibodies , Thrombocytopenia/epidemiology
18.
BMC Surg ; 22(1): 393, 2022 Nov 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115670

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic profoundly impacted delivery of health care. South Western Sydney Local Health District (SWSLHD) experienced some of the highest cases, admissions and deaths during the Delta and Omicron waves in New South Wales. This study aims to determine the impact of the pandemic on emergency surgery services for adults presenting with acute appendicitis. METHODS: A retrospective review of patient records was performed of adults presenting with acute appendicitis between 1st March 2021 and 31st March 2022, which was compared to a pre-COVID control period of the same dates in 2019-2020. Patients managed operatively or conservatively were included. RESULTS: 1556 patients were included in the operative arm; 723 and 833 respectively in the study and control groups, which were comparable at baseline. 1.66% were COVID positive. During the pandemic, patients were significantly more likely to be investigated with computered tomography (CT) scan (p ≤ 0.001), present with complicated appendicitis (p = 0.03), and require caecectomy (p = 0.005). They had higher American Society of Anaesthesiology (ASA) scores (p = 0.001) and significantly lower negative appendectomy rates (p = 0.001). Fifty-two patients were included in the conservative arm; 29 and 23 respectively in the pandemic and control groups. Patients were comparable at baseline. There were two COVID positive patients. During the pandemic, there was a significant reduction in complications (p = 0.033), readmissions (0.044) and interval appendicectomy (p = 0.0044). CONCLUSION: We identified higher rates of complicated appendicitis, caecectomies and greater reliance on CT imaging preoperatively during the pandemic in SWSLHD.


Subject(s)
Appendicitis , COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , United States , Appendicitis/complications , Appendicitis/surgery , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Appendectomy/methods , Acute Disease
19.
Vnitr Lek ; 68(7): 432-437, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2114471

ABSTRACT

Glomerulonephritides associated with infections constitute an important group of diseases. Their occurrence is shifting from children and young people to elderly people. The rates of acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis, a condition with a good prognosis, are decreasing, and the rates of glomerulonephritides associated with various bacterial, viral, or parasitic infections, often with a poor prognosis, are increasing. Renal biopsy plays an important role in the diagnostic process. Manifestations of glomerulonephritis can be the initial sign of an occult infection. When evaluating renal biopsy specimens, certain signs may suggest this option, but it cannot be relied on completely. The search for an active infection is warranted in every patient with newly diagnosed glomerulonephritis. Hepatitis B and C serology is always performed, with other investigations depending on individual risk factors, clinical manifestations, and laboratory and histological findings. Failure to follow this rule may have serious consequences, in part because immunosuppressive therapy for glomerulonephritis can worsen the underlying infection and also because the progressive nature of parainfective glomerulonephritis cannot be reversed without eliminating the causative infection. Distinguishing between parainfective and autoimmune glomerulonephritis can be difficult, as there are no major differences in clinical manifestations, laboratory, and sometimes even histological findings. In the setting of the Czech Republic, important diseases include, in particular, staphylococcus infection-associated glomerulonephritis (SAGN) and, in general, infective endocarditis-associated glomerulonephritis, shunt nephritis, and other cases associated with foreign-material infection, such as catheters or electrodes. Among viral diseases, glomerulonephritides associated with the hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and the SARS CoV-2 virus are of major significance. The treatment of parainfectious glomerulonephritides involves elimination of the causative infection; only in rare cases, a combination of anti-infective treatment and mild immunosuppression can be indicated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Endocarditis, Bacterial , Glomerulonephritis , Child , Humans , Aged , Adolescent , Glomerulonephritis/complications , Glomerulonephritis/diagnosis , Hepatitis B virus , Acute Disease
20.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18934, 2022 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2113253

ABSTRACT

Body mass index (BMI) distribution and its impact on cardiovascular disease (CVD) vary between Asian and western populations. The study aimed to reveal time-related trends in the prevalence of obesity and underweight and safe ranges of BMI in Japanese patients with CVD. We analyzed 5,020,464 records from the national Japanese Registry of All Cardiac and Vascular Diseases-Diagnosis Procedure Combination dataset over time (2012-2019) and evaluated BMI trends and the impact on in-hospital mortality for six acute CVDs: acute heart failure (AHF), acute myocardial infarction (AMI), acute aortic dissection (AAD), ischemic stroke (IS), intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Patients were categorized into five groups using the WHO Asian-BMI criteria: underweight (< 18.5 kg/m2), normal (18.5-22.9 kg/m2), overweight at risk (23.0-24.9 kg/m2), obese I (25.0-29.9 kg/m2), and obese II (≥ 30.0 kg/m2). Age was significantly and inversely related to high BMI for all diseases (P < 0.001). The proportion of BMI categories significantly altered over time; annual BMI trends showed a significant and gradual increase, except AAD. In adjusted mixed models, underweight was significantly associated with a high risk of in-hospital mortality in all CVD patients (AHF, OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.35-1.48, P < 0.001; AMI, OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.20-1.35, P < 0.001; AAD, OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.16-1.32, P < 0.001; IS, OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.41-1.50, P < 0.001; ICH, OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.13-1.22, P < 0.001; SAH, OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.10-1.26, P < 0.001). Moreover, obese I and II groups were significantly associated with a higher incidence of in-hospital mortality, except AHF and IS. Age was associated with in-hospital mortality for all BMI categories in six CVD patients. BMI increased annually in patients with six types of CVDs. Although underweight BMI was associated with high mortality rates, the impact of obesity on in-hospital mortality differs among CVD types.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Heart Failure , Myocardial Infarction , Humans , Body Mass Index , Thinness/complications , Thinness/epidemiology , Thinness/diagnosis , Hospital Mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Japan/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/diagnosis , Acute Disease , Heart Failure/epidemiology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL