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1.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 747732, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598924

ABSTRACT

Objective: To evaluate the association between overweight and obesity on the clinical course and outcomes in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Design: Retrospective, observational cohort study. Methods: We performed a multicenter, retrospective, observational cohort study of hospitalized COVID-19 patients to evaluate the associations between overweight and obesity on the clinical course and outcomes. Results: Out of 1634 hospitalized COVID-19 patients, 473 (28.9%) had normal weight, 669 (40.9%) were overweight, and 492 (30.1%) were obese. Patients who were overweight or had obesity were younger, and there were more women in the obese group. Normal-weight patients more often had pre-existing conditions such as malignancy, or were organ recipients. During admission, patients who were overweight or had obesity had an increased probability of acute respiratory distress syndrome [OR 1.70 (1.26-2.30) and 1.40 (1.01-1.96)], respectively and acute kidney failure [OR 2.29 (1.28-3.76) and 1.92 (1.06-3.48)], respectively. Length of hospital stay was similar between groups. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 27.7%, and multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that overweight and obesity were not associated with increased mortality compared to normal-weight patients. Conclusion: In this study, overweight and obesity were associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute kidney injury, but not with in-hospital mortality nor length of hospital stay.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Obesity/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications , Aged , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24439, 2021 12 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585782

ABSTRACT

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is frequently associated with COVID-19 and it is considered an indicator of disease severity. This study aimed to develop a prognostic score for predicting in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients with AKI (AKI-COV score). This was a cross-sectional multicentre prospective cohort study in the Latin America AKI COVID-19 Registry. A total of 870 COVID-19 patients with AKI defined according to the KDIGO were included between 1 May 2020 and 31 December 2020. We evaluated four categories of predictor variables that were available at the time of the diagnosis of AKI: (1) demographic data; (2) comorbidities and conditions at admission; (3) laboratory exams within 24 h; and (4) characteristics and causes of AKI. We used a machine learning approach to fit models in the training set using tenfold cross-validation and validated the accuracy using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC). The coefficients of the best model (Elastic Net) were used to build the predictive AKI-COV score. The AKI-COV score had an AUC-ROC of 0.823 (95% CI 0.761-0.885) in the validation cohort. The use of the AKI-COV score may assist healthcare workers in identifying hospitalized COVID-19 patients with AKI that may require more intensive monitoring and can be used for resource allocation.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Hospital Mortality , Machine Learning , Aged , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , ROC Curve , Registries , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19675, 2021 10 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450292

ABSTRACT

Kidney function is affected in COVID-19, while kidney itself modulates the immune response. Here, hypothesize if COVID-19 urine biomarkers level can assess immune activation vs. clinical trajectory. Considering the kidney's critical role in modulating the immune response, we sought to analyze activation markers in patients with pre-existing dysfunction. This was a cross-sectional study of 68 patients. Blood and urine were collected within 48 h of hospital admission (H1), followed by 96 h (H2), seven days (H3), and up to 25 days (H4) from admission. Serum level ferritin, procalcitonin, IL-6 assessed immune activation overall, while the response to viral burden was gauged with serum level of spike protein and αspike IgM and IgG. 39 markers correlated highly between urine and blood. Age and race, and to a lesser extend gender, differentiated several urine markers. The burden of pre-existing conditions correlated with urine DCN, CAIX and PTN, but inversely with IL-5 or MCP-4. Higher urinary IL-12 and lower CAIX, CCL23, IL-15, IL-18, MCP-1, MCP-3, MUC-16, PD-L1, TNFRS12A, and TNFRS21 signified non-survivors. APACHE correlated with urine TNFRS12, PGF, CAIX, DCN, CXCL6, and EGF. Admission urine LAG-3 and IL-2 predicted death. Pre-existing kidney disease had a unique pattern of urinary inflammatory markers. Acute kidney injury was associated, and to a certain degree, predicted by IFNg, TWEAK, MMP7, and MUC-16. Remdesavir had a more profound effect on the urine biomarkers than steroids. Urinary biomarkers correlated with clinical status, kidney function, markers of the immune system activation, and probability of demise in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Biomarkers/urine , COVID-19/immunology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/pathology , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Adult , Aged , Antigens, CD/urine , Biomarkers/blood , CA-125 Antigen/urine , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Chemokines, CC/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Interleukin-12/urine , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Membrane Proteins/urine , Middle Aged , Procalcitonin/blood , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/blood
4.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 87(5): 1167-1172, 2021 08 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1409771

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data on clinical characteristics and outcomes of people living with HIV (PLWH) hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who develop acute kidney injury (AKI) are limited. SETTING: Large tertiary health care system in the Bronx, NY. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of 83 PLWH and 4151 patients without HIV hospitalized with COVID-19 from March 10, 2020, to May 11, 2020. We compared the clinical characteristics and outcomes associated with AKI by HIV serostatus and evaluated HIV-related factors for AKI among PLWH. AKI was defined and staged using Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes criteria. RESULTS: The incidence of AKI in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 did not differ significantly by HIV serostatus (54.2% in PLWH vs 49.5% in patients without HIV, P = 0.6). Despite a higher incidence of stage 3 AKI (28.9% vs 17.1% P = 0.05) in PLWH compared with those without HIV, there was no significant difference in the need for renal replacement therapy (22.2% vs 13.4% P = 0.12), renal recovery (76.9% vs 82.5% P = 0.61), or dependence on renal replacement therapy (7.7% vs 3.8% P = 0.27). CD4 T-cell count, HIV-1 RNA viral suppression, and antiretroviral therapy use were not associated with AKI. AKI was associated with increased need for invasive ventilation and in-hospital death, but HIV was not an independent risk factor of in-hospital death after AKI [adjusted hazard ratio 1.01 (95% CI: 0.59 to 1.72), P = 0.98]. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-related factors were not associated with increased risk of AKI in PLWH hospitalized with COVID-19. PLWH hospitalized with COVID-19 had more stage 3 AKI, but outcomes after AKI were similar to those without HIV.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , COVID-19/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Aged , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 146(15): 988-993, 2021 Aug.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338567

ABSTRACT

One in five hospitalized patients suffers acute kidney injury (AKI). Depending on its severity, AKI is associated with an up to 15-fold increased risk of mortality and constitutes a major risk factor for subsequent cardiovascular events and for the development of chronic kidney disease. This concise review summarizes recently published studies, focusing on 1.) automated AKI detection using electronic health records-based AKI alert systems, 2.) renal replacement therapy and its optimal timing and anticoagulation regimen, and 3.) coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) associated AKI.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , COVID-19/complications , Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted/trends , Renal Replacement Therapy/trends , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Humans , Random Allocation , Risk Factors
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15205, 2021 07 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1327216

ABSTRACT

Renal injury is common in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to determine the relationship of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and acute kidney injury (AKI) with the characteristics, progression, and prognosis of COVID-19 in-patients. We retrospectively reviewed 1851 COVID-19 patients admitted to 3 hospitals in Wuhan, China. Clinical, laboratory, radiological, treatment, complication, and outcome data were analyzed. Patients were stratified according to levels of eGFR (≥ 90 vs. 60-89 vs. < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2). The risk of reaching the composite endpoint-intensive care unit admission, invasive ventilation, or death-was compared. On admission, 25.5% patients had renal impairment (eGFR < 90 mL/min/1.73 m2), but only 2.6% patients had chronic kidney disease (CKD). The overall in-hospital AKI incidence was 6.7%. Severe illness and comorbidities (hypertension, diabetes, CKD, and cardiovascular/cerebrovascular diseases) were more common among patients with low eGFR (< 90 mL/min/1.73 m2). Despite the more frequent use of intensive oxygen therapy, continuous blood purification, and glucocorticoid treatment, the prognosis of these patients was unsatisfactory, with the incidence of the composite endpoint (15.4% vs. 19.6% vs. 54.5%; P = 0.000) and complications (AKI, respiratory failure, cardiac injury, coagulation disorders, sepsis, etc.) increasing with decreasing eGFR. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that patients with eGFR < 90 mL/min/1.73 m2 or AKI had significantly escalated risks of reaching the composite endpoint. Multivariate regression analysis showed that renal insufficiency (eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2) on admission and in-hospital AKI independently predicted poor prognosis among COVID-19 in-patients. And renal impairment on admission was a greater predictor of poor prognosis in non-elderly patients than that in elderly patients. Early and continuous renal-function monitoring and early AKI diagnosis are necessary to predict and prevent the progression of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/complications , COVID-19/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , China/epidemiology , Disease Management , Female , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
7.
Pharmacol Res ; 161: 105107, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318943

ABSTRACT

Currently, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is spreading rapidly around the world. This study aimed to investigate whether the presence of acute kidney injury (AKI) might increase the risk of severe infection and fatality in COVID-19 patients. We searched the PubMed, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, MedRxiv and COVID-19 academic research communication platforms for studies reporting severe infection rates and case-fatality rates in COVID-19 patients with and without AKI up to June 20, 2020. The main outcomes were the comparisons of the severe infection rates and fatality rates in COVID-19 patients with and without AKI and the estimation of the odds ratio (OR) and its 95 % confidence interval (CI) for severe infection and mortality. Statistical analyses were performed with R statistical software. A total of 40 studies involving 24,527 patients with COVID-19 were included in our meta-analysis. The incidence of AKI was 10 % (95 % CI 8%-13 %) in COVID-19 patients. The patients had higher severe infection and fatality rates (55.6 % vs. 17.7 % and 63.1 % vs. 12.9 %, respectively, all P < 0.01) with COVID-19. AKI was a predictor of fatality (OR = 14.63, 95 % CI: 9.94-21.51, P < 0.00001) and severe infection (OR = 8.11, 95 % CI: 5.01-13.13, P < 0.00001) in patients with COVID-19. Higher levels of serum creatinine (Scr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were associated with a significant increase in fatality [Scr: mean difference (MD): 20.19 µmol/L, 95 % CI: 14.96-25.42, P < 0.001; BUN: MD: 4.07 mmol/L, 95 % CI: 3.33-4.81, P < 0.001] and severe infection (Scr: MD: 7.78 µmol/L, 95 % CI: 4.43-11.14, P < 0.00001, BUN: MD: 2.12 mmol/L, 95 % CI: 1.74-2.50, P < 0.00001) in COVID-19 patients. In conclusion, AKI is associated with severe infection and higher fatality rates in patients with COVID-19. Clinicians should pay more attention to the monitoring and treatment of COVID-19 patients with AKI.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Humans
8.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 78(4): 607-610, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301195

ABSTRACT

We report a case of minimal change disease (MCD) with severe acute kidney injury (AKI) following the first injection of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) vaccine from Oxford-AstraZeneca against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A 71-year-old man with a history of dyslipidemia and a baseline serum creatinine of 0.7mg/dL presented with nephrotic syndrome, AKI, and severe hypertension 13 days after receiving the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine. Refractory hyperkalemia and hypervolemia with oligoanuria prompted initiation of hemodialysis. His serum albumin was 2.6g/dL and his urinary protein-creatinine ratio was 2,321mg/mmol. Given a high suspicion for rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis, empirical glucocorticoid treatment was initiated (3 methylprednisolone pulses followed by high-dose prednisone). A kidney biopsy showed MCD and acute tubular injury. Kidney function and proteinuria subsequently improved, and hemodialysis was discontinued 38 days after the start of therapy. This case describes de novo MCD after the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine. It adds to the few published case reports of MCD after the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine. Further reports and studies will be needed to elucidate whether MCD is truly associated with COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Nephrosis, Lipoid/chemically induced , Nephrosis, Lipoid/diagnosis , Severity of Illness Index , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Aged , Humans , Male , Nephrosis, Lipoid/complications
10.
Int J Infect Dis ; 106: 281-288, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279602

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The spatiotemporal trend of renal involvement in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients is still unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to reveal the dynamics of renal involvement superimposed COVID-19 according to time and space. METHODS: COVID-19 patients reporting renal involvement were included in this study. The following information was collected from relevant articles: first author, patient demographics, patient enrollment period, location, definition of acute kidney injury (AKI), prevalence of AKI, and use of renal replacement therapy (RRT). RESULTS: A total of 17 134 patients were finally included. The overall prevalence of AKI in COVID-19 patients was 19%, with 7% of them undergoing RRT. The overall risk of AKI in patients enrolled before March 1, 2020 (9%) was significantly lower than that after March 1, 2020 (36%) (P < 0.00001). Moreover, the overall risk of AKI outside Asia (35%) was significantly higher than that in Asia (10%) (P < 0.00001). Additionally, similar to patients requiring RRT, AKI patients were more likely to become seriously ill or even to die (P < 0.00001). CONCLUSIONS: This study found that renal involvement superimposed COVID-19, a comorbidity portending a poor prognosis, has become an increasingly serious problem over time and is more common outside Asia. Thus, more attention should be paid to the management of this specific group of patients.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/complications , COVID-19/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Adult , Comorbidity , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Renal Replacement Therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
11.
BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 224, 2021 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1277921

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) has been declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organisation. Severe disease typically presents with respiratory failure but Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) and a hypercoagulable state can also occur. Early reports suggest that thrombosis may be linked with AKI. We studied the development of AKI and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 taking chronic anticoagulation therapy. METHODS: Electronic records were reviewed for all adult patients admitted to Manchester University Foundation Trust Hospitals between March 10 and April 302,020 with a diagnosis of COVID-19. Patients with end-stage kidney disease were excluded. AKI was classified as per KDIGO criteria. RESULTS: Of the 1032 patients with COVID-19 studied,164 (15.9%) were taking anticoagulant therapy prior to admission. There were similar rates of AKI between those on anticoagulants and those not anticoagulated (23.8% versus 19.7%) with no difference in the severity of AKI or requirement of renal replacement therapy between groups (1.2% versus 3.5%). Risk factors for AKI included hypertension, pre-existing renal disease and male sex. There was a higher mortality in those taking anticoagulant therapy (40.2% versus 30%). Patients taking anticoagulants were less likely to be admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (8.5% versus 17.4%) and to receive mechanical ventilation (42.9% versus 78.1%). CONCLUSION: Patients on chronic anticoagulant therapy did not have a reduced incidence or severity of AKI suggesting that AKI is unlikely to be thrombotic in nature. Therapeutic anticoagulation is currently still under investigation in randomised controlled studies to determine whether it has a potential role in COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Thrombophilia , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/prevention & control , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Preexisting Condition Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombophilia/diagnosis , Thrombophilia/prevention & control , Thrombophilia/virology , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/etiology , United Kingdom/epidemiology
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11134, 2021 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246397

ABSTRACT

Risk factors associated with severity and mortality attributable to COVID-19 have been reported in different cohorts, highlighting the occurrence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in 25% of them. Among other, SARS-CoV-2 targets renal tubular cells and can cause acute renal damage. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the usefulness of urinary parameters in predicting intensive care unit (ICU) admission, mortality and development of AKI in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Retrospective observational study, in a tertiary care hospital, between March 1st and April 19th, 2020. We recruited adult patients admitted consecutively and positive for SARS-CoV-2. Urinary and serum biomarkers were correlated with clinical outcomes (AKI, ICU admission, hospital discharge and in-hospital mortality) and evaluated using a logistic regression model and ROC curves. A total of 199 COVID-19 hospitalized patients were included. In AKI, the logistic regression model with a highest area under the curve (AUC) was reached by the combination of urine blood and previous chronic kidney disease, with an AUC of 0.676 (95%CI 0.512-0.840; p = 0.023); urine specific weight, sodium and albumin in serum, with an AUC of 0.837 (95% CI 0.766-0.909; p < 0.001) for ICU admission; and age, urine blood and lactate dehydrogenase levels in serum, with an AUC of 0.923 (95%CI 0.866-0.979; p < 0.001) for mortality prediction. For hospitalized patients with COVID-19, renal involvement and early alterations of urinary and serum parameters are useful as prognostic factors of AKI, the need for ICU admission and death.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Acute Kidney Injury/urine , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/urine , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/physiopathology , Adult , Aged , Area Under Curve , Biomarkers/urine , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Critical Care , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Observational Studies as Topic , Prognosis , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Urine/chemistry
13.
Crit Care Clin ; 37(4): 835-849, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244496

ABSTRACT

Acute kidney injury (AKI) complicates approximately a third of all acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) cases, and the combination of the two drastically worsens prognosis. Recent advances in ARDS supportive care have led to improved outcomes; however, much less is known on how to prevent and support patients with AKI and ARDS together. Understanding the dynamic relationship between the kidneys and lungs is crucial for the practicing intensivist to prevent injury. This article summarizes key concepts for the critical care physician managing a patient with ARDS complicated by AKI. Also provided is a discussion of AKI in the COVID-19 era.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Critical Care , Humans , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Brain ; 144(9): 2696-2708, 2021 10 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1185655

ABSTRACT

Many patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection develop neurological signs and symptoms; although, to date, little evidence exists that primary infection of the brain is a significant contributing factor. We present the clinical, neuropathological and molecular findings of 41 consecutive patients with SARS-CoV-2 infections who died and underwent autopsy in our medical centre. The mean age was 74 years (38-97 years), 27 patients (66%) were male and 34 (83%) were of Hispanic/Latinx ethnicity. Twenty-four patients (59%) were admitted to the intensive care unit. Hospital-associated complications were common, including eight patients (20%) with deep vein thrombosis/pulmonary embolism, seven (17%) with acute kidney injury requiring dialysis and 10 (24%) with positive blood cultures during admission. Eight (20%) patients died within 24 h of hospital admission, while 11 (27%) died more than 4 weeks after hospital admission. Neuropathological examination of 20-30 areas from each brain revealed hypoxic/ischaemic changes in all brains, both global and focal; large and small infarcts, many of which appeared haemorrhagic; and microglial activation with microglial nodules accompanied by neuronophagia, most prominently in the brainstem. We observed sparse T lymphocyte accumulation in either perivascular regions or in the brain parenchyma. Many brains contained atherosclerosis of large arteries and arteriolosclerosis, although none showed evidence of vasculitis. Eighteen patients (44%) exhibited pathologies of neurodegenerative diseases, which was not unexpected given the age range of our patients. We examined multiple fresh frozen and fixed tissues from 28 brains for the presence of viral RNA and protein, using quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR, RNAscope® and immunocytochemistry with primers, probes and antibodies directed against the spike and nucleocapsid regions. The PCR analysis revealed low to very low, but detectable, viral RNA levels in the majority of brains, although they were far lower than those in the nasal epithelia. RNAscope® and immunocytochemistry failed to detect viral RNA or protein in brains. Our findings indicate that the levels of detectable virus in coronavirus disease 2019 brains are very low and do not correlate with the histopathological alterations. These findings suggest that microglial activation, microglial nodules and neuronophagia, observed in the majority of brains, do not result from direct viral infection of brain parenchyma, but more likely from systemic inflammation, perhaps with synergistic contribution from hypoxia/ischaemia. Further studies are needed to define whether these pathologies, if present in patients who survive coronavirus disease 2019, might contribute to chronic neurological problems.


Subject(s)
Brain Infarction/pathology , Brain/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/pathology , Intracranial Hemorrhages/pathology , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/physiopathology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bacteremia/complications , Brain/metabolism , Brain Infarction/complications , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Female , Humans , Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain/complications , Inflammation , Intensive Care Units , Intracranial Hemorrhages/complications , Male , Microglia/pathology , Middle Aged , Neurons/pathology , Phagocytosis , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/physiopathology , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Renal Dialysis , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Survival Rate , T-Lymphocytes/pathology , Venous Thrombosis/complications , Venous Thrombosis/physiopathology
16.
Tuberk Toraks ; 68(4): 407-418, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154731

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) started in December 2019 and has affected millions of lives worldwide, while many aspects of the illness are still unknown. Current data show that many hospitalized COVID-19 patients suffer from kidney damage, in the form of proteinuria, hematuria or acute kidney injury (AKI). AKI is especially prevalent among severe and critically ill COVID-19 patients and is a predictor of mortality. The pathophysiology of AKI in COVID-19 is unclear. Early reports of histopathologic examination from autopsied kidney tissue show SARS-CoV-2 viral particles in renal tubular cells and podocytes, suggesting direct viral infection, as well as findings of acute tubular necrosis, while rhabdomyolysis-associated AKI and glomerulopathies may also occur. As of today, only remdesivir has been authorized to treat COVID-19. Ongoing research investigates potential of anti-viral and anti-inflammatory agents along with safety and efficacy of commonly prescribed drugs such as renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockers. This review discusses the prevalence of AKI and its association with outcome, while highlighting possible mechanisms of AKI and suggesting organ protective measures to prevent the development of kidney damage.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , COVID-19/complications , Global Health , Humans , Prevalence
17.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(4)2021 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154448

ABSTRACT

Background: Establishing the diagnosis of COVID-19 and Pneumocystisjirovecii pulmonary coinfection is difficult due to clinical and radiological similarities that exist between the two disorders. For the moment, fungal coinfections are underestimated in COVID-19 patients. Case presentation: We report the case of a 52-year-old male patient, who presented to the emergency department for severe dyspnea and died 17 h later. The RT-PCR test performed at his admission was negative for SARS-CoV-2. Retesting of lung fragments collected during autopsy revealed a positive result for SARS-CoV-2. Histopathological examination showed preexisting lesions, due to comorbidities, as well as recent lesions: massive lung thromboses, alveolar exudate rich in foam cells, suprapleural and intra-alveolar Pneumocystisjirovecii cystic forms, and bilateral adrenal hemorrhage. Conclusion: COVID-19 and P.jirovecii coinfection should be considered, particularly in critically ill patients, and we recommend the systematic search for P. jirovecii in respiratory samples.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Lung/pathology , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis/pathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/pathology , Thrombosis/pathology , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Acute-On-Chronic Liver Failure/complications , Adrenal Gland Diseases/complications , Adrenal Gland Diseases/pathology , Autopsy , COVID-19/complications , Coinfection/pathology , Exudates and Transudates , Fatal Outcome , Fibrosis , Foam Cells/pathology , Hemorrhage/complications , Hemorrhage/pathology , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Liver Diseases, Alcoholic/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Ischemia/complications , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis/complications , Pulmonary Artery/pathology , Pulmonary Veins/pathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/etiology
18.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(3): e211095, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125117

ABSTRACT

Importance: Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs in up to half of patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The longitudinal effects of COVID-19-associated AKI on kidney function remain unknown. Objective: To compare the rate of change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) after hospital discharge between patients with and without COVID-19 who experienced in-hospital AKI. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective cohort study was conducted at 5 hospitals in Connecticut and Rhode Island from March 10 to August 31, 2020. Patients who were tested for COVID-19 and developed AKI were screened, and those who survived past discharge, did not require dialysis within 3 days of discharge, and had at least 1 outpatient creatinine level measurement following discharge were included. Exposures: Diagnosis of COVID-19. Main Outcomes and Measures: Mixed-effects models were used to assess the association between COVID-19-associated AKI and eGFR slope after discharge. The secondary outcome was the time to AKI recovery for the subgroup of patients whose kidney function had not returned to the baseline level by discharge. Results: A total of 182 patients with COVID-19-associated AKI and 1430 patients with AKI not associated with COVID-19 were included. The population included 813 women (50.4%); median age was 69.7 years (interquartile range, 58.9-78.9 years). Patients with COVID-19-associated AKI were more likely to be Black (73 [40.1%] vs 225 [15.7%]) or Hispanic (40 [22%] vs 126 [8.8%]) and had fewer comorbidities than those without COVID-19 but similar rates of preexisting chronic kidney disease and hypertension. Patients with COVID-19-associated AKI had a greater decrease in eGFR in the unadjusted model (-11.3; 95% CI, -22.1 to -0.4 mL/min/1.73 m2/y; P = .04) and after adjusting for baseline comorbidities (-12.4; 95% CI, -23.7 to -1.2 mL/min/1.73 m2/y; P = .03). In the fully adjusted model controlling for comorbidities, peak creatinine level, and in-hospital dialysis requirement, the eGFR slope difference persisted (-14.0; 95% CI, -25.1 to -2.9 mL/min/1.73 m2/y; P = .01). In the subgroup of patients who had not achieved AKI recovery by discharge (n = 319), COVID-19-associated AKI was associated with decreased kidney recovery during outpatient follow-up (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.35-0.92). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of US patients who experienced in-hospital AKI, COVID-19-associated AKI was associated with a greater rate of eGFR decrease after discharge compared with AKI in patients without COVID-19, independent of underlying comorbidities or AKI severity. This eGFR trajectory may reinforce the importance of monitoring kidney function after AKI and studying interventions to limit kidney disease after COVID-19-associated AKI.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Creatinine/metabolism , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , African Americans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Kidney Function Tests , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge , Proportional Hazards Models , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
19.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(4): 2114-2122, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1116635

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence and risk factors for acute cardiac injury (ACI) and acute kidney injury (AKI), and then investigate their effect on severity and mortality in patients with COVID-19. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 1249 patients with COVID-19 were included in this retrospective study. Predictors of ACI and AKI were investigated. Multivariable-logistic regression models were used to determine the association of ACI (or AKI) with severity and mortality. RESULTS: Median age of patients was 36 years and 61.9% were male. ACI and AKI were observed in 53 (4.2%) and 91 (7.3%) of patients, respectively. Patients with age > 60 years, chronic heart disease, decreased lymphocyte and increased CRP, PCT, and ESR on hospital admission, and Lopinavir/Ritonavir use showed higher odds of ACI. Patients with age > 60 years, male, obesity, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, decreased lymphocyte and increased CRP, PCT, and ESR on hospital admission showed higher odds of AKI. Increased Hs-cTnI (> 300 ng/L), Pro-BNP (> 2500 pg/ml) and decreased e-GFR (< 60 ml/min) revealed higher adjusted mortality. CONCLUSIONS: ACI and AKI were not common in COVID-19 patients in Shanghai, China. However, patients with ACI/AKI had higher severity-rate and mortality-rate when compared to those without ACI/AKI.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , COVID-19/mortality , Heart Diseases/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Aged , COVID-19/complications , China/epidemiology , Female , Heart Diseases/complications , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
20.
Int J Infect Dis ; 104: 426-432, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1071445

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The lack of effective treatments for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has mandated the repurposing of several drugs, including antiretrovirals and remdesivir (RDV). These compounds may induce acute kidney injury and are not recommended in patients with poor renal function, such as kidney transplant (KTx) recipients. METHODS: The records of 42 KTx recipients with COVID-19 were reviewed. Some of them were receiving antiretrovirals (n = 10) or RDV (n = 8) as part of COVID-19 management. Most patients were male (71%) and their median age was 52 years. The median glomerular filtration rate in these patients was 56 ml/min. Regarding disease severity, 36% had mild disease, 19% had moderate disease, 31% had severe disease, and 12% had critical disease. Subgroups, i.e., patients receiving antiretrovirals, RDV, or no antivirals, were comparable in terms of patient age, comorbidities, and immunosuppression. RESULTS: Seven patients (16.6%) died during hospitalization. Acute kidney injury was found in 24% of KTx recipients at admission. Upon discharge, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) increased in 32% and decreased in 39% of the KTx recipients compared with the admission rate. The decrease was more prevalent in the RDV group (80%) compared with KTx recipients without any antiviral treatment (29%) (p < 0.05). Most patients (62%) returned to baseline eGFR values within 1 month of discharge. The proportion was similar between the patients receiving antiviral treatment and those not receiving this treatment. CONCLUSIONS: KTx recipients run a high risk of COVID-19-related renal impairment. Antivirals appear to be safe for use without major risks for kidney injury.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Kidney Transplantation , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Adult , Aged , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
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