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1.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 59(5)2023 May 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245462

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Kidneys are one of the main targets for SARS-CoV-2. Early recognition and precautionary management are essential in COVID-19 patients due to the multiple origins of acute kidney injury and the complexity of chronic kidney disease management. The aims of this research were to investigate the association between COVID-19 infection and renal injury in a regional hospital. Materials and Methods: The data of 601 patients from the Vilnius regional university hospital between 1 January 2020 and 31 March 2021 were collected for this cross-sectional study. Demographic data (gender, age), clinical outcomes (discharge, transfer to another hospital, death), length of stay, diagnoses (chronic kidney disease, acute kidney injury), and laboratory test data (creatinine, urea, C-reactive protein, potassium concentrations) were collected and analyzed statistically. Results: Patients discharged from the hospital were younger (63.18 ± 16.02) than those from the emergency room (75.35 ± 12.41, p < 0.001), transferred to another hospital (72.89 ± 12.06, p = 0.002), or who died (70.87 ± 12.83, p < 0.001). Subsequently, patients who died had lower creatinine levels on the first day than those who survived (185.00 vs. 311.17 µmol/L, p < 0.001), and their hospital stay was longer (Spearman's correlation coefficient = -0.304, p < 0.001). Patients with chronic kidney disease had higher first-day creatinine concentration than patients with acute kidney injury (365.72 ± 311.93 vs. 137.58 ± 93.75, p < 0.001). Patients with acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease complicated by acute kidney injury died 7.81 and 3.66 times (p < 0.001) more often than patients with chronic kidney disease alone. The mortality rate among patients with acute kidney injury was 7.79 (p < 0.001) times higher than among patients without these diseases. Conclusions: COVID-19 patients who developed acute kidney injury and whose chronic kidney disease was complicated by acute kidney injury had a longer hospital stay and were more likely to die.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Humans , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Creatinine , Cross-Sectional Studies , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Kidney , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Hospitals , Retrospective Studies , Hospital Mortality , Risk Factors
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 23(1): 339, 2023 May 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2325067

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Besides impaired respiratory function and immune system, COVID-19 can affect renal function from elevated blood urea nitrogen (BUN) or serum creatinine (sCr) levels to acute kidney injury (AKI) and renal failure. This study aims to investigate the relationship between Cystatin C and other inflammatory factors with the consequences of COVID-19. METHODS: A total of 125 patients with confirmed Covid-19 pneumonia were recruited in this cross-sectional study from March 2021 to May 2022 at Firoozgar educational hospital in Tehran, Iran. Lymphopenia was an absolute lymphocyte count of less than 1.5 × 109/L. AKI was identified as elevated serum Cr concentration or reduced urine output. Pulmonary consequences were evaluated. Mortality was recorded in the hospital one and three months after discharge. The effect of baseline biochemical and inflammatory factors on odds of death was examined. SPSS, version 26, was used for all analyses. P-vale less than 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: The highest amount of co-morbidities was attributed to COPD (31%; n = 39), dyslipidemia and hypertension (27%; n = 34 for each) and diabetes (25%; n = 31). The mean baseline cystatin C level was 1.42 ± 0.93 mg/L, baseline creatinine was 1.38 ± 0.86 mg/L, and baseline NLR was 6.17 ± 4.50. Baseline cystatin C level had a direct and highly significant linear relationship with baseline creatinine level of patients (P < 0.001; r: 0.926). ). The average score of the severity of lung involvement was 31.42 ± 10.80. There is a direct and highly significant linear relationship between baseline cystatin C level and lung involvement severity score (r = 0.890, P < 0.001). Cystatin C has a higher diagnostic power in predicting the severity of lung involvement (B = 3.88 ± 1.74, p = 0.026). The mean baseline cystatin C level in patients with AKI was 2.41 ± 1.43 mg/L and significantly higher than patients without AKI (P > 0.001). 34.4% (n = 43) of patients expired in the hospital, and the mean baseline cystatin C level of this group of patients was 1.58 ± 0.90 mg/L which was significantly higher than other patients (1.35 ± 0.94 mg/L, P = 0.002). CONCLUSION: cystatin C and other inflammatory factors such as ferritin, LDH and CRP can help the physician predict the consequences of COVID-19. Timely diagnosis of these factors can help reduce the complications of COVID-19 and better treat this disease. More studies on the consequences of COVID-19 and knowing the related factors will help treat the disease as well as possible.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Humans , Biomarkers , Cystatin C , Prospective Studies , Creatinine , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/complications , Iran/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis
3.
Scand J Clin Lab Invest ; 83(4): 251-257, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319393

ABSTRACT

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in COVID-19 and is diagnosed using relative serum creatinine increase. Estimated GFR (eGFR) is a more accurate measure of glomerular filtration due to compensation for age and sex. Serum Cystatin-C, less affected by non-renal factors than creatinine, may further improve renal function estimation and add prognostic information. Our aim is to investigate the importance of a calculated eGFR in relation to creatinine as well as the value of Cystatin-C in patients with severe COVID-19. This study is a retrospective cohort study investigating levels and trends of routine laboratory parameters combined with clinical data from 286 consecutive patients with severe COVID-19 from Karolinska University Hospital. AKI developed in 38% of the patients and 15% were treated with hemodialysis. Mortality in the AKI group was 42% compared to 5% in the non-AKI group. At admission, eGFR, but not creatinine, was significantly associated with AKI development, need of intubation and mortality. Moreover, discrepant results between eGFR creatinine (eGFRCR) and eGFR Cystatin-C (eGFRCYS) was common in the ICU patients compared to non-ICU patients and related to outcome. In addition, we found that daily median Cystatin-C levels during the hospital stay were correlated to neutrophil count. eGFRCR was found to be an overall better prognostic marker than creatinine regarding AKI development and prognosis in severe COVID-19. Fulfillment of Shrunken pore syndrome criteria indicated a higher mortality risk. Cystatin-C may be related to neutrophil count, which could be a clue to the discrepant eGFR results.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Humans , Prognosis , Creatinine , Retrospective Studies , Cystatin C , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Hospitals , Biomarkers
4.
J Gen Intern Med ; 38(8): 1911-1919, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2299717

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was associated with severe acute illness including multiple organ failure. Acute kidney injury (AKI) was a common finding, often requiring dialysis support. OBJECTIVE: Define the incidence of new clinically identified chronic kidney disease (CKD) among patients with COVID-19 and no pre-existing kidney disease. DESIGN PARTICIPANTS: The South Carolina (SC) Department of Health and Environmental Control (DHEC) COVID-19 mandatory reporting registry of SC residents testing for COVID-19 between March 2020 and October 2021 was included. DESIGN MAIN MEASURES: The primary outcome was a new incidence of a CKD diagnosis (N18.x) in those without a pre-existing diagnosis of CKD during the follow-up period of March 2020 to January 14, 2022. Patients were stratified by severity of illness (hospitalized or not, intensive care unit needed or not). The new incidence of CKD diagnosis was examined using logistic regression and cox proportional hazards analyses. KEY RESULTS: Among patients with COVID-19 (N = 683,958) without a pre-existing CKD diagnosis, 8322 (1.2 %) were found to have a new diagnosis of CKD. The strongest predictors for subsequent CKD diagnosis were age ≥ 60 years hazard ratio (HR) 31.5 (95% confidence interval [95%CI] 25.5-38.8), and intervening (between COVID-19 and CKD diagnoses) AKI diagnosis HR 20.7 (95%CI 19.7-21.7). The presence of AKI was associated with an HR of 23.6, 95% CI 22.3-25.0, among those not hospitalized, and HR of 6.2, 95% CI 5.7-6.8 among those hospitalized, for subsequent CKD. COVID-19 was not significantly associated with subsequent CKD after accounting for the severity of illness and comorbidities. CONCLUSION: Among SC residents, COVID-19 was not associated with CKD independent from indicators of the severity of illness, especially AKI diagnosis. Kidney-specific follow-up testing may be reserved for those high-risk for CKD development. Further prospective registries should examine the long-term kidney consequences to confirm these findings.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Humans , Middle Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , South Carolina/epidemiology , Incidence , COVID-19 Testing , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Risk Factors , Retrospective Studies
5.
BMJ Open ; 13(4): e071968, 2023 04 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2290802

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Although studies have examined the utility of clinical decision support tools in improving acute kidney injury (AKI) outcomes, no study has evaluated the effect of real-time, personalised AKI recommendations. This study aims to assess the impact of individualised AKI-specific recommendations delivered by trained clinicians and pharmacists immediately after AKI detection in hospitalised patients. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: KAT-AKI is a multicentre randomised investigator-blinded trial being conducted across eight hospitals at two major US hospital systems planning to enrol 4000 patients over 3 years (between 1 November 2021 and 1 November 2024). A real-time electronic AKI alert system informs a dedicated team composed of a physician and pharmacist who independently review the chart in real time, screen for eligibility and provide combined recommendations across the following domains: diagnostics, volume, potassium, acid-base and medications. Recommendations are delivered to the primary team in the alert arm or logged for future analysis in the usual care arm. The planned primary outcome is a composite of AKI progression, dialysis and mortality within 14 days from randomisation. A key secondary outcome is the percentage of recommendations implemented by the primary team within 24 hours from randomisation. The study has enrolled 500 individuals over 8.5 months. Two-thirds were on a medical floor at the time of the alert and 17.8% were in an intensive care unit. Virtually all participants were recommended for at least one diagnostic intervention. More than half (51.6%) had recommendations to discontinue or dose-adjust a medication. The median time from AKI alert to randomisation was 28 (IQR 15.8-51.5) min. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study was approved by the ethics committee of each study site (Yale University and Johns Hopkins institutional review board (IRB) and a central IRB (BRANY, Biomedical Research Alliance of New York). We are committed to open dissemination of the data through clinicaltrials.gov and sharing of data on an open repository as well as publication in a peer-reviewed journal on completion. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04040296.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Renal Dialysis , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Kidney , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Multicenter Studies as Topic
6.
Nephrology (Carlton) ; 28(6): 345-355, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2301152

ABSTRACT

AIM: Urinary liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) has potential utility as an early prognostic biomarker ahead of traditional severity scores in coronavirus disease 2019 and sepsis, however, the mechanism of elevated urinary L-FABP in the disease has not been clearly elucidated. We investigated the background mechanisms of urinary L-FABP excretion through non-clinical animal model focusing on histone, which is one of the aggravating factors in these infectious diseases. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were placed in central intravenous catheters, and these rats were given a continuous intravenous infusion of 0.25 or 0.5 mg/kg/min calf thymus histones for 240 min from caudal vena cava. RESULTS: After the administration of histone, urinary L-FABP and gene expression of an oxidative stress marker in the kidney increased in a histone dose-dependent manner before increased serum creatinine. Upon further investigation, fibrin deposition in the glomerulus was observed and it tended to be remarkable in the high dose administrated groups. The levels of coagulation factor were significantly changed after the administration of histone, and these were significantly correlated with the levels of urinary L-FABP. CONCLUSIONS: Firstly, it was suggested that histone is one of the causative agents for the urinary L-FABP increase at an early stage of the disease with a risk of acute kidney injury. Secondly, urinary L-FABP could be a marker reflecting the changes of coagulation system and microthrombus caused by histone in the early stage of acute kidney injury before becoming severely ill and maybe a guide to early treatment initiation.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Male , Animals , Rats , Histones , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins , Liver
7.
J Nephrol ; 36(5): 1349-1359, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2281334

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) complicates a substantial part of patients with COVID-19. Direct viral penetration of renal cells through the Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 receptor, and indirect damage by the aberrant inflammatory response characteristic of COVID-19 are likely mechanisms. Nevertheless, other common respiratory viruses such as Influenza and Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) are also associated with AKI. METHODS: We retrospectively compared the incidence, risk factors and outcomes of AKI among patients who were admitted to a tertiary hospital because of infection with COVID-19, influenza (A + B) or RSV. RESULTS: We collected data of 2593 patients hospitalized with COVID-19, 2041 patients with influenza and 429 with RSV. Patients affected by RSV were older, had more comorbidities and presented with higher rates of AKI at admission and within 7 days (11.7% vs. 13.3% vs. 18% for COVID-19, influenza and RSV, respectively p = 0.001). Nevertheless, patients hospitalized with COVID-19 had higher mortality (18% with COVID-19 vs. 8.6% and 13.5% for influenza and RSV, respectively P < 0.001) and higher need of mechanical ventilation (12.4% vs. 6.5% vs.8.2% for COVID-19, influenza and RSV, respectively, P = 0.002). High ferritin levels and low oxygen saturation were independent risk factors for severe AKI only in the COVID-19 group. AKI in the first 48 h of admission and in the first 7 days of hospitalization were strong independent risk factors for adverse outcome in all groups. CONCLUSION: Despite many reports of direct kidney injury by SARS-COV-2, AKI was less in patients with COVID-19 compared to influenza and RSV patients. AKI was a prognostic marker for adverse outcome across all viruses.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Orthomyxoviridae , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Humans , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses , Prognosis , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/complications , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Hospitalization , Risk Factors , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology
8.
Crit Care Med ; 51(8): 992-1000, 2023 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2286517

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Patients with COVID-19-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) have a high risk for developing acute kidney injury (AKI) which is associated with an increased risk of death and persistent renal failure. Early prediction of AKI is crucial in order to implement preventive strategies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the predictive performance of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 2 and insulin like growth factor binding protein 7 (TIMP-2) × (IGFBP7) in critically ill patients with COVID-19-associated ARDS. DESIGN: Multicenter, prospective, observational study. SETTING: Twelve centers across Europe and United Kingdom. PATIENTS: Patients with moderate or severe COVID-19-associated ARDS were included and serial measurements of (TIMP-2) × (IGFBP7) were performed. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary endpoint was the development of moderate or severe AKI according to the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes definition. Three hundred patients were available for the primary analysis, and 39 met the primary endpoint. At enrollment, urinary (TIMP-2) × (IGFBP7) had high predictive value for the primary endpoint with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.89 (95% CI, 0.84-0.93). (TIMP-2) × (IGFBP7) was significantly higher in endpoint-positive patients at enrollment and at 12 hours. CONCLUSIONS: Urinary (TIMP-2) × (IGFBP7) predicts the occurrence of AKI in critically ill patients with COVID-19-associated ARDS.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Humans , Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2 , Prospective Studies , Critical Illness , COVID-19/complications , Biomarkers , Cell Cycle Checkpoints , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins
9.
J Korean Med Sci ; 38(12): e89, 2023 Mar 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2258498

ABSTRACT

As the global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to sweep across the globe, reports of kidney involvement in adult patients infected with COVID-19 have been documented, and recently, cases in the pediatric population have also been reported. This report highlights the case of an 11-year-old boy who developed acute kidney injury presenting as gross hematuria, proteinuria, and hypertension immediately after a COVID-19 infection. A renal biopsy allowed us to diagnose the patient with post-COVID-19 infection-associated de novo crescentic immune-mediated glomerulonephritis. Oral prednisolone and cyclophosphamide treatments were initiated after methylprednisolone pulse therapy administration. Currently, the patient is receiving medical treatment for five weeks, and his renal function is gradually recovering. Previous studies have suggested that, although quite rare, a variety of kidney complications can occur after COVID-19 infection or vaccination, and it is recommended to monitor renal function through evaluation. Herein, we report a pediatric case of post-COVID-19 infection-associated de novo crescentic immune-mediated glomerulonephritis consistent with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Glomerulonephritis , Nephritis , Male , Adult , Humans , Child , Glomerulonephritis/etiology , Glomerulonephritis/complications , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Kidney/pathology , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology
10.
Ren Fail ; 45(1): 2178821, 2023 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2256906

ABSTRACT

Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI), which occurs after the use of iodinated contrast media, has become the third leading cause of hospital-acquired acute kidney injury (AKI). It is associated with prolonged hospitalization and increased risks of end-stage renal disease and mortality. The pathogenesis of CI-AKI is unclear and effective treatments are lacking. By comparing different post-nephrectomy times and dehydration times, we constructed a new, short-course CI-AKI model using dehydration for 24 h two weeks after unilateral nephrectomy. We found that the low-osmolality contrast media iohexol caused more severe renal function decline, renal morphological damage, and mitochondrial ultrastructural alterations compared to the iso-osmolality contrast media iodixanol. The shotgun proteomics based on Tandem Mass Tag (TMT) was used to conduct proteomics research on renal tissue in the new CI-AKI model, and 604 distinct proteins were identified, mainly involving complement and coagulation cascade, COVID-19, PPAR signalling pathway, mineral absorption, cholesterol metabolism, ferroptosis, staphylococcus aureus infection, systemic lupus erythematosus, folate biosynthesis, and proximal tubule bicarbonate reclamation. Then, using parallel reaction monitoring (PRM), we validate 16 candidate proteins, of which five were novel candidates (Serpina1, Apoa1, F2, Plg, Hrg) previously unrelated to AKI and associated with an acute response as well as fibrinolysis. The pathway analysis and 16 candidate proteins may help to discover new mechanisms in the pathogenesis of CI-AKI, allowing for early diagnosis and outcome prediction.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Proteomics , Animals , Rats , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Contrast Media/adverse effects , Dehydration/pathology , Kidney
11.
J Am Coll Surg ; 237(1): 79-86, 2023 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2279765

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Stress on the healthcare system requires careful allocation of resources such as renal replacement therapy (RRT). The COVID-19 pandemic generated difficulty securing access to RRT for trauma patients. We sought to develop a renal replacement after trauma (RAT) scoring tool to help identify trauma patients who may require RRT during their hospitalization. STUDY DESIGN: The 2017 to 2020 TQIP database was divided into a derivation (2017 to 2018 data) and validation (2019 to 2020 data) set. A 3-step methodology was used. Adult trauma patients admitted from the emergency department to the operating room or ICU were included. Patients with chronic kidney disease, transfers from another hospital, and emergency department death were excluded. Multiple logistic regression models were created to determine the risk for RRT in trauma patients. The weighted average and relative impact of each independent predictor was used to derive a RAT score, which was validated using area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). RESULTS: From 398,873 patients in the derivation and 409,037 patients in the validation set, 11 independent predictors of RRT were included in the RAT score derived with scores ranging from 0 to 11. The AUROC for the derivation set was 0.85. The rate of RRT increased to 1.1%, 3.3%, and 20% at scores of 6, 8, and 10, respectively. The validation set AUROC was 0.83. CONCLUSIONS: RAT is a novel and validated scoring tool to help predict the need for RRT in trauma patients. With future improvements including baseline renal function and other variables, the RAT tool may help prepare for the allocation of RRT machines/staff during times of limited resources.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , Kidney/physiology , Renal Replacement Therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy
12.
Iran J Kidney Dis ; 1(1): 20-27, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2233332

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Renal disorders have been reported as the underlying cause as well as complications of critical COVID-19 in pediatric patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pattern of kidney involvement, particularly acute kidney injury (AKI), among pediatric patients with COVID-19. METHODS: In this prospective study, hospitalized pediatric patients with a clinical diagnosis of COVID-19 were enrolled. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory findings were collected and analyzed using a mixed method of qualitative and quantitative approaches and descriptive statistics. RESULTS: One hundred and eighty-seven patients, including 120 (64.2%) males and 67 (35.8%) females with COVID-19 with a median age (interquartile range) of 60 (24 to 114) months were enrolled in this study. Most patients (n = 108, 58.1%) had one or two underlying comorbidities, mainly malnutrition (77.4%), neurologic/learning disorders (21.4%), and malignancy (10.2%). According to the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) classification, AKI was detected in 38.5% of patients (stage 1: 55.6%, stage 2: 36.1%, and stage 3: 8.3%) at presentation or during hospitalization. Nine patients (4.8%) required hemodialysis and 16 (8.6%) eventually died. There was no significant association between AKI and admission to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) (P > .05), a multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) (P > .05), comorbidities (P > .05), and mortality rate (P > .05). CONCLUSION: Kidneys are among the major organs affected by COVID-19. Although kidney abnormalities resolve in the majority of pediatric COVID-19 infections, particular attention should be paid to serum creatinine and electrolyte levels in patients affected by COVID-19, particularly children with a history of malnutrition and kidney disorders.  DOI: 10.52547/ijkd.7151.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Male , Female , Child , Humans , Child, Preschool , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Hospital Mortality
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 102(6): e32919, 2023 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2227150

ABSTRACT

The frequency of acute kidney injury (AKI) in COVID-19 patients can be varied and related to worse outcomes in the disease population. AKI is common among hospitalized patients with COVID-19, particularly the ones needing critical care. This study was conducted in order to determine the outcomes of hospitalized patients with prolonged hospital stays who suffered from COVID-19 associated AKI. It was conducted as a multi-centered, retrospective, cohort study, and including all patients who were diagnosed on COVID-19 PCR. End-stage renal disease patients on hemodialysis were excluded. The cohort included 1069 patients, with 68% males, mean age of 56.21 years, and majority within 50 to 75 years age group (60%). Mean disease onset was 14.43 ± 7.44 days and hospital stay was 7.01 ± 5.78 days. About 62% of patients stayed in intensive care and 18% of them were on invasive ventilation. The mortality rate was 27%. Frequency of AKI was 42%, around 14% of them were resolving during hospital stay and other 28% worsened. The mortality rate was significantly higher with AKI (OR: 4.7, P < .001). Alongside AKI, concomitant liver dysfunction was also significantly contributing to mortality (OR: 2.5), apart from ICU stay (OR: 2.9), invasive ventilation (OR: 9.2), and renal replacement therapy (OR: 2.4). Certain laboratory markers were associated with AKI throughout in-hospital stay.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Female , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Length of Stay , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Pakistan/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units , Hospital Mortality , Biomarkers , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Risk Factors
14.
Clin Nephrol ; 99(4): 161-171, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2217363

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent condition in patients hospitalized for COVID-19. There are only a few reports on the use of urinary biomarkers in COVID-19 and no data so far comparing the prognostic use of individual biomarkers in the prediction of adverse outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a prospective mono-centric study on the value of urinary biomarkers in predicting the composite endpoint of a transfer to the intensive care unit, the need for renal replacement therapy, mechanical ventilation, and in-hospital mortality. 41 patients hospitalized for COVID-19 were enrolled in this study. Urine samples were obtained shortly after admission to assess neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), calprotectin, and vascular non-inflammatory molecule-1 (vanin-1). RESULTS: We identified calprotectin as a predictor of a severe course of the disease requiring intensive care treatment (AUC 0.728, p = 0.016). Positive and negative predictive values were 78.6% and 76.9%, respectively, using a cut-off concentration of 127.8 ng/mL. NGAL tended to predict COVID-19-associated AKI without reaching statistical significance (AUC 0.669, p = 0.053). The best parameter in the prediction of in-hospital mortality was NGAL as well (AUC 0.674, p = 0.077). KIM-1 and vanin-1 did not reach significance for any of the investigated endpoints. CONCLUSION: While KIM-1 and vanin-1 did not provide prognostic clinical information in the context of COVID-19, the present study shows that urinary calprotectin is moderately predictive of the need for intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and NGAL may be modestly predictive of AKI in COVID-19. Calprotectin and NGAL show promise as potential helpful adjuncts in the identification of patients at increased risk of poor outcomes or complications in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Ureteral Diseases , Humans , Lipocalin-2 , Prospective Studies , COVID-19/complications , Biomarkers , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Kidney , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex
16.
Cardiovasc Res ; 119(5): 1190-1201, 2023 05 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2188640

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Previous analyses on sex differences in case fatality rates at population-level data had limited adjustment for key patient clinical characteristics thought to be associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes. We aimed to estimate the risk of specific organ dysfunctions and mortality in women and men. METHODS AND RESULTS: This retrospective cross-sectional study included 17 hospitals within 5 European countries participating in the International Survey of Acute Coronavirus Syndromes COVID-19 (NCT05188612). Participants were individuals hospitalized with positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) from March 2020 to February 2022. Risk-adjusted ratios (RRs) of in-hospital mortality, acute respiratory failure (ARF), acute heart failure (AHF), and acute kidney injury (AKI) were calculated for women vs. men. Estimates were evaluated by inverse probability weighting and logistic regression models. The overall care cohort included 4499 patients with COVID-19-associated hospitalizations. Of these, 1524 (33.9%) were admitted to intensive care unit (ICU), and 1117 (24.8%) died during hospitalization. Compared with men, women were less likely to be admitted to ICU [RR: 0.80; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.71-0.91]. In general wards (GWs) and ICU cohorts, the adjusted women-to-men RRs for in-hospital mortality were of 1.13 (95% CI: 0.90-1.42) and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.70-1.05; pinteraction = 0.04). Development of AHF, AKI, and ARF was associated with increased mortality risk (odds ratios: 2.27, 95% CI: 1.73-2.98; 3.85, 95% CI: 3.21-4.63; and 3.95, 95% CI: 3.04-5.14, respectively). The adjusted RRs for AKI and ARF were comparable among women and men regardless of intensity of care. In contrast, female sex was associated with higher odds for AHF in GW, but not in ICU (RRs: 1.25; 95% CI: 0.94-1.67 vs. 0.83; 95% CI: 0.59-1.16, pinteraction = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Women in GW were at increased risk of AHF and in-hospital mortality for COVID-19 compared with men. For patients receiving ICU care, fatal complications including AHF and mortality appeared to be independent of sex. Equitable access to COVID-19 ICU care is needed to minimize the unfavourable outcome of women presenting with COVID-19-related complications.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Humans , Female , Male , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Sex Characteristics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy
17.
J Med Case Rep ; 16(1): 491, 2022 Dec 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196439

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We present this case of coronavirus disease 2019-associated acute kidney injury with rhabdomyolysis-with noteworthy renal biopsy findings demonstrating myoglobin cast nephropathy-to add to the limited literature on coronavirus disease 2019-related acute kidney injury and rhabdomyolysis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 67-year-old Caucasian man presented to our hospital with 3 weeks of malaise and decreased oral intake and several days of abnormal taste, poor appetite, decrease urine output, gastrointestinal symptoms, and myalgias, and was ultimately diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019. His hospital course was complicated by acute kidney injury and, upon workup of his renal failure, was diagnosed with myoglobin cast nephropathy due to coronavirus disease 2019-mediated rhabdomyolysis. Ultimately, his renal function improved following hydration back to his baseline 6 weeks after his initial diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019. CONCLUSIONS: Given our limited knowledge of manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019, it is important to have a more in-depth understanding of the spectrum of disease of coronavirus disease 2019, which can affect various organ systems, including the kidney, and the manifestations of end-organ damage associated with it. We present this case to highlight a rarely reported finding of myoglobin cast nephropathy due to coronavirus disease 2019-mediated rhabdomyolysis.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Rhabdomyolysis , Male , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Myoglobin , Rhabdomyolysis/diagnosis , Rhabdomyolysis/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Kidney
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(23)2022 Dec 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2155126

ABSTRACT

In hospitalized COVID-19 patients, disease progression leading to acute kidney injury (AKI) may be driven by immune dysregulation. We explored the role of urinary cytokines and their relationship with kidney stress biomarkers in COVID-19 patients before and after the development of AKI. Of 51 patients, 54.9% developed AKI. The principal component analysis indicated that in subclinical AKI, epidermal growth factor (EGF) and interferon (IFN)-α were associated with a lower risk of AKI, while interleukin-12 (IL-12) and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1ß were associated with a higher risk of AKI. After the manifestation of AKI, EGF and IFN-α remained associated with a lower risk of AKI, while IL-1 receptor (IL-1R), granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), interferon-gamma-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) and IL-5 were associated with a higher risk of AKI. EGF had an inverse correlation with kidney stress biomarkers. Subclinical AKI was characterized by a significant up-regulation of kidney stress biomarkers and proinflammatory cytokines. The lack of EGF regenerative effects and IFN-α antiviral activity seemed crucial for renal disease progression. AKI involved a proinflammatory urinary cytokine storm.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Humans , Cytokines , Epidermal Growth Factor , COVID-19/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Biomarkers , Disease Progression , Lipocalin-2
19.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1047073, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2163193

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a prevalent complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and is closely linked with a poorer prognosis. The aim of this study was to develop and validate an easy-to-use and accurate early prediction model for AKI in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Methods: Data from 480 COVID-19-positive patients (336 in the training set and 144 in the validation set) were obtained from the public database of the Cancer Imaging Archive (TCIA). The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression method and multivariate logistic regression were used to screen potential predictive factors to construct the prediction nomogram. Receiver operating curves (ROC), calibration curves, as well as decision curve analysis (DCA) were adopted to assess the effectiveness of the nomogram. The prognostic value of the nomogram was also examined. Results: A predictive nomogram for AKI was developed based on arterial oxygen saturation, procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, glomerular filtration rate, and the history of coronary artery disease. In the training set, the nomogram produced an AUC of 0.831 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.774-0.889) with a sensitivity of 85.2% and a specificity of 69.9%. In the validation set, the nomogram produced an AUC of 0.810 (95% CI: 0.737-0.871) with a sensitivity of 77.4% and a specificity of 78.8%. The calibration curve shows that the nomogram exhibited excellent calibration and fit in both the training and validation sets. DCA suggested that the nomogram has promising clinical effectiveness. In addition, the median length of stay (m-LS) for patients in the high-risk group for AKI (risk score ≥ 0.122) was 14.0 days (95% CI: 11.3-16.7 days), which was significantly longer than 8.0 days (95% CI: 7.1-8.9 days) for patients in the low-risk group (risk score <0.122) (hazard ratio (HR): 1.98, 95% CI: 1.55-2.53, p < 0.001). Moreover, the mortality rate was also significantly higher in the high-risk group than that in the low-risk group (20.6 vs. 2.9%, odd ratio (OR):8.61, 95%CI: 3.45-21.52). Conclusions: The newly constructed nomogram model could accurately identify potential COVID-19 patients who may experience AKI during hospitalization at the very beginning of their admission and may be useful for informing clinical prognosis.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Nomograms , Patients , Procalcitonin
20.
Anal Chem ; 94(47): 16290-16298, 2022 Nov 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119298

ABSTRACT

One of the serious complications of COVID-19 is acute kidney injury (AKI), leading to a decrease in kidney function and even death. The concentration of ammonia (NH3) in the exhaled breath (EB) of COVID-19 patients suffering from AKI symptoms will be significantly increased. In this work, the detection of breath NH3 was performed at gold interdigital electrodes modified with a soluble polypyrrole microparticle and silver nanoparticle film (Au-IDEs/S-PPyMPs/AgNPs) as a noninvasive chemiresistor gas sensor. The response behavior of unmodified and modified gas sensors toward NH3 and other interfering compounds was studied. The Au-IDEs/S-PPyMPs/AgNPs exhibited NH3 detection in the linear dynamic range of 1.00-19.23 ppm, with a limit of detection of 0.12 ppm. Finally, the fabricated gas sensor was used to monitor the NH3 concentration in the EB of COVID-19 patients suffering from AKI symptoms. For this purpose, the gas sensor was validated in 19 EB samples (seven COVID-19-positive patients, four COVID-19-negative patients, and eight post-COVID-19 patients). The gas sensor was directly exposed to the EB samples, followed by recording the changes in electrical resistance via a low-cost digital multimeter. The sensing mechanism was explained as the interaction between breath NH3 and sensing materials. The breath NH3 concentrations have a desirable correlation (R2 = 0.8463) with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) values in COVID-19-positive patients. The fabricated gas sensor can distinguish COVID-19-positive patients suffering from AKI symptoms from COVID-19-negative patients and post-COVID-19 patients. The present work can pave the way for the development of a simple and efficient analytical approach for COVID-19 patients with AKI without the need for sample pretreatment.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Humans , Silver , Ammonia , Polymers , Breath Tests , Pyrroles , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis
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