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1.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 59(5)2023 May 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245462

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Kidneys are one of the main targets for SARS-CoV-2. Early recognition and precautionary management are essential in COVID-19 patients due to the multiple origins of acute kidney injury and the complexity of chronic kidney disease management. The aims of this research were to investigate the association between COVID-19 infection and renal injury in a regional hospital. Materials and Methods: The data of 601 patients from the Vilnius regional university hospital between 1 January 2020 and 31 March 2021 were collected for this cross-sectional study. Demographic data (gender, age), clinical outcomes (discharge, transfer to another hospital, death), length of stay, diagnoses (chronic kidney disease, acute kidney injury), and laboratory test data (creatinine, urea, C-reactive protein, potassium concentrations) were collected and analyzed statistically. Results: Patients discharged from the hospital were younger (63.18 ± 16.02) than those from the emergency room (75.35 ± 12.41, p < 0.001), transferred to another hospital (72.89 ± 12.06, p = 0.002), or who died (70.87 ± 12.83, p < 0.001). Subsequently, patients who died had lower creatinine levels on the first day than those who survived (185.00 vs. 311.17 µmol/L, p < 0.001), and their hospital stay was longer (Spearman's correlation coefficient = -0.304, p < 0.001). Patients with chronic kidney disease had higher first-day creatinine concentration than patients with acute kidney injury (365.72 ± 311.93 vs. 137.58 ± 93.75, p < 0.001). Patients with acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease complicated by acute kidney injury died 7.81 and 3.66 times (p < 0.001) more often than patients with chronic kidney disease alone. The mortality rate among patients with acute kidney injury was 7.79 (p < 0.001) times higher than among patients without these diseases. Conclusions: COVID-19 patients who developed acute kidney injury and whose chronic kidney disease was complicated by acute kidney injury had a longer hospital stay and were more likely to die.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Humans , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Creatinine , Cross-Sectional Studies , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Kidney , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Hospitals , Retrospective Studies , Hospital Mortality , Risk Factors
2.
Rev Invest Clin ; 75(2): 76-89, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324886

ABSTRACT

Background: A high incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) has been reported in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in critical care units and those undergoing invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). The introduction of dexamethasone (DXM) as treatment for severe COVID-19 has improved mortality, but its effects in other organs remain under study. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between DXM and AKI in COVID-19. Methods: In this prospective observational cohort study, we evaluated the incidence of AKI in critically ill COVID-19 patients undergoing mechanical ventilation, and the association of DXM treatment with the incidence, severity, and outcomes of AKI. The association between DXM treatment and AKI was evaluated by multivariable logistic regression. The association of the combination of DXM treatment and AKI on mortality was evaluated by Cox-regression analysis. Results: We included 552 patients. AKI was diagnosed in 311 (56%), of which 196 (63%) corresponded to severe (stage 2 or 3) AKI, and 46 (14.8%) received kidney replacement therapy. Two hundred and sixty-seven (48%) patients were treated with DXM. This treatment was associated to lower incidence of AKI (Odds Radio 0.34, 95% Confidence intervals [CI] 0.22-0.52, p < 0.001) after adjusting for age, body mass index, laboratory parameters, SOFA score, and vasopressor use. DXM treatment significantly reduced mortality in patients with severe AKI (HR 0.63, 95%CI 0.41-0.96, p = 0.032). Conclusions: The incidence of AKI is high in COVID-19 patients under IMV. DXM treatment is associated with a lower incidence of AKI and a lower mortality in the group with severe AKI.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Respiration, Artificial , Prospective Studies , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Critical Care , Intensive Care Units , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/prevention & control , Critical Illness , Dexamethasone , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
3.
Int J Risk Saf Med ; 34(2): 87-99, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317872

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recently, antivirals, including remdesivir, have been repurposed to treat COVID-19 infections. Initial concerns have been raised about the adverse renal and cardiac events associated with remdesivir. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to analyse the adverse renal and cardiac events associated with remdesivir in patients with COVID-19 infections using the US FDA adverse event reporting system. METHOD: A case/non-case method was used to determine adverse drug events associated with remdesivir as the primary suspect drug between January 1, 2020, and November 11, 2021, for patients with COVID-19 infections. Cases were reports for remdesivir with ≥1 ADEs as preferred terms included in the Medical Dictionary of Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) system organ classes 'Renal and urinary disorders' or 'cardiac' disorders. To measure disproportionality in reporting of ADEs, frequentist approaches, including the proportional reporting ratio (PRR) and reporting odds ratio (ROR), were used. The empirical Bayesian Geometric Mean (EBGM) score and information component (IC) value were calculated using a Bayesian approach. A signal was defined as the lower limit of 95% confidence intervals of ROR ≥ 2, PRR ≥ 2, IC > 0, and EBGM > 1 for ADEs with ≥4 reports. Sensitivity analyses were undertaken by excluding reports for non-Covid indications and medications strongly associated with AKI and cardiac arrhythmias. RESULTS: In the main analysis for remdesivir use in patients with COVID-19 infections, we identified 315 adverse cardiac events comprising 31 different MeDRA PTs and 844 adverse renal events comprising 13 different MeDRA PTs. Regarding adverse renal events, disproportionality signals were noted for "renal failure" (ROR = 2.8 (2.03-3.86); EBGM = 1.92 (1.58-2.31), "acute kidney injury" (ROR = 16.11 (12.52-20.73); EBGM = 2.81 (2.57-3.07), "renal impairment" (ROR = 3.45 (2.68-4.45); EBGM = 2.02 (1.74-2.33). Regarding adverse cardiac events, strong disproportionality signals were noted for "electrocardiogram QT prolonged" (ROR = 6.45 (2.54-16.36); EBGM = 2.04 (1.65-2.51), "pulseless electrical activity" (ROR = 43.57 (13.64-139.20); EBGM = 2.44 (1.74-3.33), "sinus bradycardia" (ROR = 35.86 (11.16-115.26); EBGM = 2.82 (2.23-3.53), "ventricular tachycardia" (ROR = 8.73 (3.55-21.45); EBGM = 2.52 (1.89-3.31). The risk of AKI and cardiac arrythmias were confirmed by sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSION: This hypothesis-generating study identified AKI and cardiac arrhythmias associated with remdesivir use in patients with COVID-19 infections. The relationship between AKI and cardiac arrhythmias should be further investigated using registries or large clinical data to assess the impact of age, genetics, comorbidity, and the severity of Covid infections as potential confounders.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Heart Diseases , United States , Humans , Bayes Theorem , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/chemically induced , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , United States Food and Drug Administration , Pharmacovigilance
4.
Int Urol Nephrol ; 55(6): 1501-1508, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316840

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the main complications of COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of AKI in Brazilian hospitalized patients diagnosed with COVID-19 and identify the risk factors associated with its onset and those associated with its prognosis. METHODS: A prospective cohort study of hospitalized patients diagnosed with COVID-19 at a public and tertiary university hospital in São Paulo from March to December 2020. RESULTS: There were 347 patients hospitalized with COVID-19, 52.4% were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and 47.6% were admitted to the wards. The overall incidence of AKI was 46.4%, more frequent in the ICU (68.1% vs 22.4, p < 0.01) and the overall mortality was 36.1%. Acute kidney replacement therapy was indicated in 46.6% of patients with AKI. In the general population, the factors associated with AKI were older age (OR 1.03, CI 1-1.05, p < 0.05), mechanical ventilation (OR 1.23, CI 1.06-1.83, p < 0.05), presence of proteinuria (OR 1.46, CI 1.22-1.93, p < 0.05), and use of vasoactive drugs (OR 1.26, CI 1.07-1.92, p < 0.05). Mortality was higher in the elderly (OR 1.08, CI 1.04-1.11, p < 0.05), in those with AKI (OR 1.12, CI 1.02-2.05, p < 0.05), particularly KDIGO stage 3 AKI (OR 1.10, CI 1.22-2.05, p < 0.05) and in need of mechanical ventilation (OR 1.13, CI 1.03-1.60, p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: AKI was frequent in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and the factors associated with its development were older age, mechanical ventilation, use of vasoactive drugs, and presence of proteinuria, being a risk factor for death.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Humans , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Brazil/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Prognosis , Communicable Diseases/complications , Intensive Care Units , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Risk Factors , Hospital Mortality , Proteinuria/complications
5.
Ren Fail ; 45(1): 2205958, 2023 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314046

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The renal angina index (RAI) is a tool that has been validated by several studies in the pediatric population to predict the development of severe acute kidney injury (AKI). The aims of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of the RAI in predicting severe AKI in critically ill patients with COVID-19 and to propose a modified RAI (mRAI) for this population. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort analysis of all COVID-19 patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of a third-level hospital in Mexico City from 03/2020 to 01/2021. AKI was defined according to KDIGO guidelines. The RAI score was calculated for all enrolled patients using the method of Matsuura. Since all patients had the highest score for the condition (due to receiving IMV), the score corresponded to the delta creatinine (ΔSCr) value. The main outcome was severe AKI (stage 2 or 3) at 24 and 72 h after ICU admission. A logistic regression analysis was applied to search for factors associated with the development of severe AKI, and the data were applied to develop a mRAI and compare it vis-à-vis the efficacy of both scores (RAI and mRAI). RESULTS: Of the 452 patients studied, 30% developed severe AKI. The original RAI score was associated with AUCs of 0.67 and 0.73 at 24 h and 72 h, respectively, with a cutoff of 10 points to predict severe AKI. In the multivariate analysis adjusted for age and sex, a BMI ≥30 kg/m2, a SOFA score ≥6, and Charlson score were identified as risk factors for the development of severe AKI. In the new proposed score (mRAI), the conditions were summed and multiplied by the ΔSCr value. With these modifications, the AUC improved to 0.72 and 0.75 at 24 h and 72 h, respectively, with a cutoff of 8 points. CONCLUSIONS: The original RAI is a limited tool for patients with critical COVID-19 receiving IMV. The mRAI, with the parameters proposed in the present study, improves predictive performance and risk stratification in critically ill patients receiving IMV.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Humans , Child , Critical Illness , Prospective Studies , COVID-19/complications , Intensive Care Units , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology
6.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 38(4): 590-597, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2303991

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is the leading cause of hospital acquired-infectious diarrhea in the USA. In this study, we assess the prevalence and impact of CDI in COVID-19 hospitalizations in the USA. METHODS: We used the 2020 National Inpatient Sample database to identify adult patients with COVID-19. The patients were stratified into two groups based on the presence of CDI. The impact of CDI on outcomes such as in-hospital mortality, ICU admission, shock, acute kidney injury (AKI), and sepsis rates. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to assess the effects of CDI on outcomes. RESULTS: The study population comprised 1581 585 patients with COVID-19. Among these, 0.65% of people had a CDI. There was a higher incidence of mortality in patients with COVID-19 and CDI compared with patients without COVID-19 (23.25% vs 13.33%, P < 0.001). The patients with COVID-19 and CDI had a higher incidence of sepsis (7.69% vs 5%, P < 0.001), shock (23.59% vs 8.59%, P < 0.001), ICU admission (25.54% vs 12.28%, P < 0.001), and AKI (47.71% vs 28.52%, P < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, patients with CDI had a statistically significant higher risk of mortality than those without (aOR = 1.47, P < 0.001). We also noted a statistically significant higher risk of sepsis (aOR = 1.47, P < 0.001), shock (aOR = 2.7, P < 0.001), AKI (aOR = 1.55, P < 0.001), and ICU admission (aOR = 2.16, P < 0.001) in the study population. CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed the prevalence of CDI in COVID-19 patients was 0.65%. Although the prevalence was low, its presence is associated with worse outcomes and higher resource utilization.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections , Sepsis , Adult , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Clostridioides , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Hospitalization , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies
7.
PLoS One ; 18(4): e0284248, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2303039

ABSTRACT

This study describes the incidence, evolution and prognosis of acute kidney injury (AKI) in critical COVID-19 during the first pandemic wave. We performed a prospective, observational, multicenter study of confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted to 19 intensive care units (ICUs) in Catalonia (Spain). Data regarding demographics, comorbidities, drug and medical treatment, physiological and laboratory results, AKI development, need for renal replacement therapy (RRT) and clinical outcomes were collected. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis for AKI development and mortality were used. A total of 1,642 patients were enrolled (mean age 63 (15.95) years, 67.5% male). Mechanical ventilation (MV) was required for 80.8% and 64.4% of these patients, who were in prone position, while 67.7% received vasopressors. AKI at ICU admission was 28.4% and increased to 40.1% during ICU stay. A total of 172 (10.9%) patients required RRT, which represents 27.8% of the patients who developed AKI. AKI was more frequent in severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) ARDS patients (68% vs 53.6%, p<0.001) and in MV patients (91.9% vs 77.7%, p<0.001), who required the prone position more frequently (74.8 vs 61%, p<0.001) and developed more infections. ICU and hospital mortality were increased in AKI patients (48.2% vs 17.7% and 51.1% vs 19%, p <0.001) respectively). AKI was an independent factor associated with mortality (IC 1.587-3.190). Mortality was higher in AKI patients who required RRT (55.8% vs 48.2%, p <0.04). Conclusions There is a high incidence of AKI in critically ill patients with COVID-19 disease and it is associated with higher mortality, increased organ failure, nosocomial infections and prolonged ICU stay.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Female , Spain/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Critical Illness , Intensive Care Units , Renal Replacement Therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
8.
J Gen Intern Med ; 38(8): 1911-1919, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2299717

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was associated with severe acute illness including multiple organ failure. Acute kidney injury (AKI) was a common finding, often requiring dialysis support. OBJECTIVE: Define the incidence of new clinically identified chronic kidney disease (CKD) among patients with COVID-19 and no pre-existing kidney disease. DESIGN PARTICIPANTS: The South Carolina (SC) Department of Health and Environmental Control (DHEC) COVID-19 mandatory reporting registry of SC residents testing for COVID-19 between March 2020 and October 2021 was included. DESIGN MAIN MEASURES: The primary outcome was a new incidence of a CKD diagnosis (N18.x) in those without a pre-existing diagnosis of CKD during the follow-up period of March 2020 to January 14, 2022. Patients were stratified by severity of illness (hospitalized or not, intensive care unit needed or not). The new incidence of CKD diagnosis was examined using logistic regression and cox proportional hazards analyses. KEY RESULTS: Among patients with COVID-19 (N = 683,958) without a pre-existing CKD diagnosis, 8322 (1.2 %) were found to have a new diagnosis of CKD. The strongest predictors for subsequent CKD diagnosis were age ≥ 60 years hazard ratio (HR) 31.5 (95% confidence interval [95%CI] 25.5-38.8), and intervening (between COVID-19 and CKD diagnoses) AKI diagnosis HR 20.7 (95%CI 19.7-21.7). The presence of AKI was associated with an HR of 23.6, 95% CI 22.3-25.0, among those not hospitalized, and HR of 6.2, 95% CI 5.7-6.8 among those hospitalized, for subsequent CKD. COVID-19 was not significantly associated with subsequent CKD after accounting for the severity of illness and comorbidities. CONCLUSION: Among SC residents, COVID-19 was not associated with CKD independent from indicators of the severity of illness, especially AKI diagnosis. Kidney-specific follow-up testing may be reserved for those high-risk for CKD development. Further prospective registries should examine the long-term kidney consequences to confirm these findings.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Humans , Middle Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , South Carolina/epidemiology , Incidence , COVID-19 Testing , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Risk Factors , Retrospective Studies
9.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 26(3): 341-346, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2297660

ABSTRACT

Background: The relationship between Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and acute kidney injury (AKI) is well-established. However, a comprehensive evaluation of kidney outcomes in the long-term course of COVID-19 is not yet been performed. The aim of this study is to investigate whether chronic kidney disease (CKD) develops within six months after hospital discharge in COVID-19 patients who did not have kidney damage at the time of admission to the hospital. Patients and Methods: This single-center retrospective study investigated a total of 1008 participants selected from 7500 COVID-19 patients with real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) positivity. All patients had mild/moderate or severe COVID-19. Patients were randomly selected from inpatient and outpatient settings. Critical COVID-19 patients were not included. Results: The mean age of the patients was 56.57 ± 16.30 years, and 69.9% of them were male. The comorbidity percentages of the participants were as follows; 19.5% coronary artery disease (CAD), 28.6% diabetes mellitus (DM), 36.2% hypertension (HT), 3.1% cerebrovascular obstruction (CVO), 1.7% malignancy, 2.6% chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 9.4% asthma, % 1.7 dementia, 9.9% hyperlipidaemia, and 1.7% hepatitis B virus (HBV). Kidney function tests of these patients at first admission and 6 months later were compared to reveal the relationship between COVID-19 and CKD. Serum glucose, sodium estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and uric acid levels were found to be high in the post-COVID-19 period (P = 0.001). However, there were a decrease in serum albumin, potassium, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), C-reactive protein (CRP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) levels (P = 0.001). The difference between the first measurement of serum urea and creatinine (Cr) levels and the measurement 6 months later was not statistically significant (P = 0.102 and P = 0.300, respectively). Conclusions: Those who survived the mild/moderate and severe clinical manifestations of COVID-19 did not exhibit any risk of kidney outcomes after the acute phase of the disease, suggesting that the kidney can protect itself over a long period of time.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Female , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology
10.
Curr Med Res Opin ; 39(3): 399-407, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2249313

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the incidence, predictors, mortality, and economic outcomes of recurrent Acute kidney injury (AKI) in Jordan. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study that included adult patients who were admitted with AKI to university hospitals in the country from 2010-2019. Recurrent episodes of AKI, laboratory data, baseline medication list, and death dates were retrieved from patient's medical records. The incidence rate of recurrent AKI was estimated. Predictors of recurrent AKI and mortality during the five years post-discharge was evaluated. Total admission charges were described and evaluated in total and by service provided. RESULTS: Among 1162 AKI patients, 57 patients (4.9%) died during the index admission (first admission during the study period), and among the survivors, 220 patients were re-hospitalized with a recurrent AKI during five years of follow-up. Patients with higher discharge serum creatinine level (SCr) at index admission had higher odds of AKI recurrence (OR = 1.001). Patients who were on respiratory, antineoplastic, or anticoagulant medications were also more susceptible to recurrence; ORs were 1.69, 2.77, and 4.16, respectively. Patients who were elderly, with recurrent AKI episodes, or with a more extended hospital stay at index admission were more likely to die during the five years post discharge. The median charge of recurrent admissions was higher than the median charge of the index admissions; 1519.17 JOD ($2142.7) versus 1362.85 JOD ($1922.2), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Recurrent AKI is associated with increased mortality and health expenditures. Higher discharge SCr levels at index admission, and chronic comorbidities are associated with a higher likelihood of AKI recurrence.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Aftercare , Adult , Humans , Aged , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , Financial Stress , Risk Factors , Patient Discharge , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Hospital Mortality
11.
J Nephrol ; 36(5): 1349-1359, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2281334

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) complicates a substantial part of patients with COVID-19. Direct viral penetration of renal cells through the Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 receptor, and indirect damage by the aberrant inflammatory response characteristic of COVID-19 are likely mechanisms. Nevertheless, other common respiratory viruses such as Influenza and Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) are also associated with AKI. METHODS: We retrospectively compared the incidence, risk factors and outcomes of AKI among patients who were admitted to a tertiary hospital because of infection with COVID-19, influenza (A + B) or RSV. RESULTS: We collected data of 2593 patients hospitalized with COVID-19, 2041 patients with influenza and 429 with RSV. Patients affected by RSV were older, had more comorbidities and presented with higher rates of AKI at admission and within 7 days (11.7% vs. 13.3% vs. 18% for COVID-19, influenza and RSV, respectively p = 0.001). Nevertheless, patients hospitalized with COVID-19 had higher mortality (18% with COVID-19 vs. 8.6% and 13.5% for influenza and RSV, respectively P < 0.001) and higher need of mechanical ventilation (12.4% vs. 6.5% vs.8.2% for COVID-19, influenza and RSV, respectively, P = 0.002). High ferritin levels and low oxygen saturation were independent risk factors for severe AKI only in the COVID-19 group. AKI in the first 48 h of admission and in the first 7 days of hospitalization were strong independent risk factors for adverse outcome in all groups. CONCLUSION: Despite many reports of direct kidney injury by SARS-COV-2, AKI was less in patients with COVID-19 compared to influenza and RSV patients. AKI was a prognostic marker for adverse outcome across all viruses.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Orthomyxoviridae , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Humans , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses , Prognosis , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/complications , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Hospitalization , Risk Factors , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology
12.
Int Urol Nephrol ; 55(8): 1977-1984, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2280113

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic may have an impact on the long-term kidney function of survivors. The clinical relevance is not clear. METHODS: This review summarises the currently published data. RESULTS: There is a bidirectional relationship between chronic kidney disease and COVID-19 disease. Chronic kidney diseases due to primary kidney disease or chronic conditions affecting kidneys increase the susceptibility to COVID-19 infection, the risks for progression and critical COVID-19 disease (with acute or acute-on-chronic kidney damage), and death. Patients who have survived COVID-19 face an increased risk of worse kidney outcomes in the post-acute phase of the disease. Of clinical significance, COVID-19 may predispose surviving patients to chronic kidney disease, independently of clinically apparent acute kidney injury (AKI). The increased risk of post-acute renal dysfunction of COVID-19 patients can be graded according to the severity of the acute infection (non-hospitalised, hospitalised or ICU patients). The burden of chronic kidney disease developing after COVID-19 is currently unknown. CONCLUSION: Post-acute COVID-19 care should include close attention to kidney function. Future prospective large-scale studies are needed with long and complete follow-up periods, assessing kidney function using novel markers of kidney function/damage, urinalysis and biopsy studies.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Kidney , Prospective Studies , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Retrospective Studies
13.
Int J Clin Pharm ; 45(2): 509-514, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2268881

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence about remdesivir-associated acute kidney injury (AKI) among patients with novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was controversial. AIM: To investigate the signal of disproportionate reporting of remdesivir-related AKI in COVID-19 patients over time with data from US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System. METHOD: Adverse events in COVID-19 patients reported between April 2020 and September 2022 were included. Reporting odds ratios (RORs) of AKI and renal disorders (a more sensitive definition for AKI) were estimated to compare remdesivir with other medications prescribed in comparable situations of COVID-19. RESULTS: During the entire study period, significant signals were identified for remdesivir-related AKI (ROR 2.00, 95% CI: 1.83-2.18) and renal disorder (ROR 2.35, 95% CI: 2.17-2.54) when compared to all comparable drugs. However, in the third quarter of 2022 (the most recent quarter) signals disappeared as the ROR of AKI was 1.50 (95% CI 0.91-2.45) and ROR of renal disorder was 1.69 (95% CI 1.06-2.70). Number of signals in sensitivity analyses and the proportion of AKI in remdesivir-associated events decreased over time. CONCLUSION: In COVID-19 patients, we observed diminishing signals of remdesivir-associated AKI over time and no significant signal in the most recent quarter, suggesting remdesivir might not be nephrotoxic.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , United States/epidemiology , Humans , United States Food and Drug Administration , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology
14.
Am J Nephrol ; 54(3-4): 156-164, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2273686

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a global pandemic which continues to cause systemic inflammation, leading to multi-system organ damage including acute kidney injury (AKI) and thrombotic complications. We hypothesize that D-dimer level predicts an increased risk of AKI and thrombotic complications in COVID-19. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study performed at a single-center academic center. Patients hospitalized with COVID-19 between January 1, 2020, and January 1, 2021, were included in the analysis. Demographics and associated medical records were reviewed from the electronic medical record. Statistical analysis was done to determine the incidence of AKI and thrombosis and if D-dimer was predictive of an adverse event. RESULTS: The study included 389 patients with the diagnosis of COVID-19 who were hospitalized. AKI was evident in 143 patients with 59 experiencing a thrombotic event. Factors associated with AKI included age, chronic kidney disease, proteinuria, use of outpatient angiotensin-blocking medications, and D-dimer greater than 1.75 (p < 0.05). Factors associated with thrombosis included use of outpatient anticoagulants, elevated WBC, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and D-dimer greater than 1.75 (p < 0.05). When D-dimer was dichotomized at the median value for the entire dataset (value greater than 1.75), there was good discrimination for AKI and very good discrimination for thrombosis. CONCLUSIONS: Complications of acute renal failure and thrombosis are common in patients presenting with COVID-19. D-dimer was found to be predictive of both. Future studies to validate the association of these two events in patients presenting with COVID-19 are warranted as early treatment with antithrombotic agents may have a role in preventing adverse sequelae and outcomes.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/complications
15.
J Investig Med ; 71(5): 459-464, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2243232

ABSTRACT

We previously developed and validated a model to predict acute kidney injury (AKI) in hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients and found that the variables with the highest importance included a history of chronic kidney disease and markers of inflammation. Here, we assessed model performance during periods when COVID-19 cases were attributable almost exclusively to individual variants. Electronic Health Record data were obtained from patients admitted to 19 hospitals. The outcome was hospital-acquired AKI. The model, previously built in an Inception Cohort, was evaluated in Delta and Omicron cohorts using model discrimination and calibration methods. A total of 9104 patients were included, with 5676 in the Inception Cohort, 2461 in the Delta cohort, and 967 in the Omicron cohort. The Delta Cohort was younger with fewer comorbidities, while Omicron patients had lower rates of intensive care compared with the other cohorts. AKI occurred in 13.7% of the Inception Cohort, compared with 13.8% of Delta and 14.4% of Omicron (Omnibus p = 0.84). Compared with the Inception Cohort (area under the curve (AUC): 0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.76-0.80), the model showed stable discrimination in the Delta (AUC: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.75-0.80, p = 0.89) and Omicron (AUC: 0.74, 95% CI: 0.70-0.79, p = 0.37) cohorts. Estimated calibration index values were 0.02 (95% CI: 0.01-0.07) for Inception, 0.08 (95% CI: 0.05-0.17) for Delta, and 0.12 (95% CI: 0.04-0.47) for Omicron cohorts, p = 0.10 for both Delta and Omicron vs Inception. Our model for predicting hospital-acquired AKI remained accurate in different COVID-19 variants, suggesting that risk factors for AKI have not substantially evolved across variants.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Hospitals
16.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis ; 76: 25-30, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2230699

ABSTRACT

Stress cardiomyopathy was noted to occur at a higher incidence during coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This database analysis has been done to compare the in-hospital outcomes in patients with stress cardiomyopathy and concurrent COVID-19 infection with those without COVID-19 infection. The National Inpatient Sample database for the year 2020 was queried to identify all admissions diagnosed with stress cardiomyopathy. These patients were then stratified based on whether they had concomitant COVID-19 infection or not. A 1:1 propensity score matching was performed. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was done to identify predictors of mortality. We identified 41,290 hospitalizations for stress cardiomyopathy, including 1665 patients with concurrent diagnosis of COVID-19. The female preponderance was significantly lower in patients with stress cardiomyopathy and COVID-19. Patients with concomitant COVID-19 were more likely to be African American, diabetic and have chronic kidney disease. After propensity matching, the incidence of complications, including acute kidney injury (AKI), AKI requiring dialysis, coagulopathy, sepsis, cardiogenic shock, cases with prolonged intubation of >24 h, requirement of vasopressor and inpatient mortality, were noted to be significantly higher in patients with COVID-19. Concomitant COVID-19 infection was independently associated with worse outcomes and increased mortality in patients hospitalized with stress cardiomyopathy.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Humans , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/complications , Hospitalization , Shock, Cardiogenic , Inpatients , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Retrospective Studies
17.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 29(5): 623-628, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2234885

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of melatonin versus placebo on the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients treated with polymyxin B. METHODS: We performed a single-centre, double-blind, randomized clinical trial (NCT03725267) of 30-mg oral melatonin versus placebo for patients treated with intravenous polymyxin B. Patients aged ≥18 years receiving polymyxin B for ≤48 hours were eligible. Melatonin or placebo pills were administered until the end of polymyxin B treatment or for a maximum of 14 days. The main outcome was any level of AKI. RESULTS: Eighty-eight patients were randomized: 44 in the melatonin group and 44 in the placebo group. The study ended prematurely because of polymyxin B shortage during the COVID-19 pandemic. The patients' mean age was 63.6 ± 17.3 years, and 60.2% of the patients were men. Forty-six (52.3%, 23 in each group) patients developed AKI during the follow-up period. The incidence rate of AKI was 81.9/1000 and 77.4/1000 patients per day in melatonin and placebo groups, respectively (hazard ratio, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.61-1.94; p 0.78). Renal failure and 30-day mortality were similar between the groups. Moreover, the incidence of AKI was not different in pre-specified sub-groups. DISCUSSION: Melatonin initiated in the first 48 hours of therapy did not reduce the incidence of AKI in patients treated with polymyxin B.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Melatonin , Male , Humans , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Polymyxin B/adverse effects , Melatonin/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/prevention & control , Double-Blind Method
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 102(6): e32919, 2023 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2227150

ABSTRACT

The frequency of acute kidney injury (AKI) in COVID-19 patients can be varied and related to worse outcomes in the disease population. AKI is common among hospitalized patients with COVID-19, particularly the ones needing critical care. This study was conducted in order to determine the outcomes of hospitalized patients with prolonged hospital stays who suffered from COVID-19 associated AKI. It was conducted as a multi-centered, retrospective, cohort study, and including all patients who were diagnosed on COVID-19 PCR. End-stage renal disease patients on hemodialysis were excluded. The cohort included 1069 patients, with 68% males, mean age of 56.21 years, and majority within 50 to 75 years age group (60%). Mean disease onset was 14.43 ± 7.44 days and hospital stay was 7.01 ± 5.78 days. About 62% of patients stayed in intensive care and 18% of them were on invasive ventilation. The mortality rate was 27%. Frequency of AKI was 42%, around 14% of them were resolving during hospital stay and other 28% worsened. The mortality rate was significantly higher with AKI (OR: 4.7, P < .001). Alongside AKI, concomitant liver dysfunction was also significantly contributing to mortality (OR: 2.5), apart from ICU stay (OR: 2.9), invasive ventilation (OR: 9.2), and renal replacement therapy (OR: 2.4). Certain laboratory markers were associated with AKI throughout in-hospital stay.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Female , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Length of Stay , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Pakistan/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units , Hospital Mortality , Biomarkers , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Risk Factors
19.
Iran J Kidney Dis ; 1(1): 20-27, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2233332

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Renal disorders have been reported as the underlying cause as well as complications of critical COVID-19 in pediatric patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the pattern of kidney involvement, particularly acute kidney injury (AKI), among pediatric patients with COVID-19. METHODS: In this prospective study, hospitalized pediatric patients with a clinical diagnosis of COVID-19 were enrolled. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory findings were collected and analyzed using a mixed method of qualitative and quantitative approaches and descriptive statistics. RESULTS: One hundred and eighty-seven patients, including 120 (64.2%) males and 67 (35.8%) females with COVID-19 with a median age (interquartile range) of 60 (24 to 114) months were enrolled in this study. Most patients (n = 108, 58.1%) had one or two underlying comorbidities, mainly malnutrition (77.4%), neurologic/learning disorders (21.4%), and malignancy (10.2%). According to the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) classification, AKI was detected in 38.5% of patients (stage 1: 55.6%, stage 2: 36.1%, and stage 3: 8.3%) at presentation or during hospitalization. Nine patients (4.8%) required hemodialysis and 16 (8.6%) eventually died. There was no significant association between AKI and admission to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) (P > .05), a multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) (P > .05), comorbidities (P > .05), and mortality rate (P > .05). CONCLUSION: Kidneys are among the major organs affected by COVID-19. Although kidney abnormalities resolve in the majority of pediatric COVID-19 infections, particular attention should be paid to serum creatinine and electrolyte levels in patients affected by COVID-19, particularly children with a history of malnutrition and kidney disorders.  DOI: 10.52547/ijkd.7151.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Male , Female , Child , Humans , Child, Preschool , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Hospital Mortality
20.
S Afr Fam Pract (2004) ; 65(1): e1-e5, 2023 01 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2217218

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) commonly occurs in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients who have been hospitalised and is associated with a poor prognosis. This study aimed to determine the incidence of AKI among COVID-19 patients who died in a regional hospital in South Africa. METHODS: This retrospective record review was conducted at the Mthatha Regional Hospital in South Africa's Eastern Cape province. Data were collected between 10 July 2020 and 31 January 2021. RESULTS: The incidence of AKI was 38% among the hospitalised patients who died due to COVID-19. Most study participants were female, with a mean age of 63.3 ± 16 years. The most common symptom of COVID-19 at the time of hospitalisation was shortness of breath, followed by fever and cough. Half of the patients had hypertension, while diabetes, human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) were other comorbidities. At admission, the average oxygen saturation was 75.5% ± 17. CONCLUSION: The study revealed a high incidence of AKI among hospitalised patients who died due to COVID-19. It also found that those received adequate crystalloid fluids at the time of admission had a lower incidence of AKI.Contribution: Acute kidney injury can be prevented by adequate fluid management during early stage of COVID-19. Majority of COVID-19 patients were referred from lower level of care and primary care providers have their first encounter with these patients. Adequate fluid resuscitation in primary care settings can improve the outcome of hospitalised COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/complications , Retrospective Studies , South Africa/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology
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