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1.
Kidney360 ; 3(8): 1317-1322, 2022 08 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2111635

ABSTRACT

Background: Persistent hyperkalemia (hyperK) and hyperphosphatemia (hyperP) despite renal replacement therapy (RRT) was anecdotally reported in COVID-19 and acute kidney injury (AKI) requiring RRT (CoV-AKI-RRT). However, observation bias could have accounted for the reports. Thus, we systematically examined the rate and severity of hyperK and hyperP in patients with CoV-AKI-RRT in comparison with the pre-COVID-19 era. Methods: We identified patients with CoV-AKI-RRT treated with sustained low-efficiency dialysis (SLED) for ≥2 days in March-April 2020. As pre-COVID-19 control, we included patients with AKI treated with SLED in December 2019. We examined the rates of hyperK (serum potassium [sK] ≥5.5 mEq/L), severe hyperK (sK ≥6.5 mEq/L), hyperP (serum phosphate [sP] ≥4.5 mg/dl), and moderate or severe hyperP (sP ≥7-10 and >10 mg/dl, respectively) as %SLED-days with an event. Results: Along the duration of SLED, the incidence of hyperK was greater in CoV-AKI-RRT (n=64; mean 19%±2% versus 14%±3% SLED-days, P=0.002) compared with control (n=60). The proportion of patients with one or more event of severe hyperK was greater in CoV-AKI (33% versus 7%, P<0.001). The incidence of hyperP was similar between groups (mean 56%±4% versus 53%±5% SLED-days, P=0.49). However, the proportion of patients with one or more event of moderate and severe hyperP was greater in CoV-AKI-RRT (86% versus 60%, P=0.001, and 50% versus 18%, P<0.001, respectively). Among those with CoV-AKI-RRT, sK and sP correlated with lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; r=0.31, P=0.04, and r=0.31, P=0.04, respectively), whereas hyperP also correlated with shorter SLED runs (hours/run; r=-0.27, P=0.05). Conclusions: Refractory hyperK and hyperP were more frequent in CoV-AKI-RRT compared with the pre-COVID-19 era. Because of the correlation of sK and sP with higher LDH and sP with shorter SLED runs, intracellular ion release from cell injury due to cytokine storm and RRT interruptions may account for the findings.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Hyperkalemia , Hyperphosphatemia , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Hyperkalemia/epidemiology , Hyperphosphatemia/etiology , Lactate Dehydrogenases , Phosphates , Potassium , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099560

ABSTRACT

Cystatin C is a specific biomarker of kidney function. We perform this meta-analysis to determine the association of Cystatin C with the COVID-19 severity. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane library, and Web of Science for studies published until 2nd September 2022 that reported associations between Cystatin C levels and COVID-19 severity. The analysis was performed using a random-effects model to calculate pooled standard mean difference (SMD). Twenty-five studies were included in the meta-analysis. Pooled analysis showed statistically significant differences of Cystatin C levels among survive vs. decreased patients (0.998 ± 0.225 vs. 1.328 ± 0.475 mg/dL, respectively; SMD = -2.14; 95%CI: -3.28 to -1.01; p < 0.001). Cystatin C levels in COVID-19 severe vs. non-severe groups varied and amounted to 1.485 ± 1.191 vs. 1.014 ± 0.601 mg/dL, respectively (SMD = 1.81; 95%CI: 1.29 to 2.32; p < 0.001). Additionally, pooled analysis showed that Cystatin C levels in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) was 1.562 ± 0.885 mg/dL, compared to 0.811 ± 0.108 mg/dL for patients without AKI (SMD = 4.56; 95%CI: 0.27 to 8.85; p = 0.04). Summing up, Cystatin C is a potentially very good marker to be used in the context of COVID-19 disease due to the prognosis of patients' serious condition, risk of AKI and mortality. In addition, Cystatin C could be used as a marker of renal complications in COVID-19 other than AKI due to the need to monitor patients even longer after leaving the hospital.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Humans , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Biomarkers , Cystatin C , Prognosis
3.
Iran J Kidney Dis ; 16(4): 228-237, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2073693

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: As a multisystem illness, Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can damage different organs. This study investigated the effect of electrolyte imbalance (EI), with or without concomitant renal dysfunction, on the prognosis of COVID-19 in hospitalized patients. METHODS: We evaluated 499 hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19, without a history of chronic kidney disease. The patients' demographic data, laboratory values, and outcomes were retrospectively collected from the hospital information system. Serumelectrolytes including sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, and phosphorus abnormalities were analyzed on admission and during the hospitalization period. The outcomes of this study were the occurrence of acute kidney injury (AKI) after the first week of hospitalization and in-hospital mortality rate. Multivariate analyses were carried out to obtain the independent risk of each EI on mortality, by adjusting for age, gender, and AKI occurrence. RESULTS: Among the 499 COVID-19 patients (60.9% male), AKI occurred in 168 (33.7%) and mortality in 92 (18.4%) cases. Hypocalcemia (38%) and hyponatremia (22.6%) were the most prevalent EIs, and all EIs were more common in the AKI group than in the non-AKI group. Hyponatremia (Adjusted Odds ratio [AOR] = 2.34, 95% CI: 1.30 to 4.18), hypernatremia (AOR = 8.52, 95% CI: 1.95 to 37.32), and hyperkalemia (AOR = 4.63, 95% CI: 1.65 to 13) on admission were associated with poor prognosis. Moreover, hyponatremia (AOR = 3.02, 95% CI: 1.28 to 7.15) and hyperphosphatemia (AOR = 5.12, 95% CI: 1.24 to 21.09) on admission were associated with late AKI occurrence. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the role of hyponatremia, hypernatremia, hyperkalemia, and hyperphosphatemia in poor prognosis of COVID-19. According to the independent effect of EI on late AKI and mortality, we recommend physicians to raise awareness to closely monitor and correct EI during hospitalization.  DOI: 10.52547/ijkd.6904.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Hyperkalemia , Hypernatremia , Hyperphosphatemia , Hyponatremia , Water-Electrolyte Imbalance , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Electrolytes , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypernatremia/complications , Male , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
4.
West Afr J Med ; 39(10): 1007-1012, 2022 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2073026

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel viral infection, now a pandemic, caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been associated with severe COVID-19 and poor glycaemic control is reportedly the link between these conditions. This study aimed to determine the association between DM and the severity of COVID-19. METHODS: This was a retrospective study involving 86 patients with COVID-19 admitted to a tertiary hospital in South-Western Nigeria. Socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory data were extracted from their medical records. Ethical approval was obtained and descriptive and inferential statistics computed. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 61 ± 16.1 years and 61.6% were males. Fever was noted in 67.4% of patients and, similarly, 67.4% of the patients had an SpO2<94% in ambient air when admitted. Thirty-six percent (36%) of the study patients had DM. Amongst patients with DM and those without DM, 72.2% and 62%, respectively, had severe or critical COVID-19 (p=0.323). Patients with DM were older than those without DM (65.8 years vs 57.3 years; p=0.015). The frequency of oxygen desaturation, respiratory failure, acute kidney injury (AKI) and multi-organ failure were significantly higher in COVID-19 patients with DM (p=0.037, 0.043, 0.004 and 0.016, respectively). Mortality was higher in COVID-19 patients with DM but this was not statistically significant (p=0.214). The odds of a patient with diabetes and COVID-19 developing respiratory failure and acute kidney injury were 1.395 (95%CI 1.154-6.913) and 1.125 (95%CI 1.025-1.621), respectively. CONCLUSION: Diabetes mellitus was recorded in older patients with COVID-19 and associated with suboptimal oxygen saturation at presentation, respiratory failure, and acute kidney injury. There was no association found between DM and COVID-19 severity and mortality.


CONTEXTE ET OBJECTIFS: La maladie de coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) est une nouvelle infection virale, aujourd'hui pandémique, causée par le coronavirus-2 du syndrome respiratoire aigu sévère (SARS-CoV-2). Le diabète sucré (DM) a été associé à une COVID-19 sévère et un mauvais contrôle glycémique serait le lien entre ces deux pathologies. Cette étude vise à déterminer l'association entre le DM et la sévérité du COVID-19. MÉTHODES: Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective portant sur 86 patients atteints de COVID-19 admis dans un hôpital tertiaire du sud-ouest du Nigeria. Les données sociodémographiques, cliniques et de laboratoire ont été extraites de leurs dossiers médicaux. Une approbation éthique a été obtenue et des statistiques descriptives et inférentielles ont été calculées. RÉSULTATS: L'âge moyen des patients était de 61 ± 16,1 ans et 61,6% étaient des hommes. De la fièvre a été notée chez 67,4 % des patients et de même, 67,4 % des patients avaient une SpO2<94 % à l'air ambiant lors de leur admission. Trente-six pour cent (36 %) des patients de l'étude étaient atteints de diabète. Parmi les patients atteints de DM et ceux qui ne l'étaient pas, 72,2 % et 62 % respectivement présentaient un COVID-19 sévère ou critique (p=0,323). Les patients atteints de DM étaient plus âgés que ceux sans DM (65,8 vs 57,3 ; p=0,015). La fréquence de la désaturation en oxygène, de l'insuffisance respiratoire, de l'insuffisance rénale aiguë (IRA) et de la défaillance multi-organique était significativement plus élevée chez les patients atteints de diabète de type 1 (p=0,037, 0,043, 0,004 et 0,016 respectivement). La mortalité était plus élevée chez les patients diabétiques de COVID-19, mais cela n'était pas statistiquement significatif (p=0,214). Les probabilités qu'un patient diabétique et COVID-19 développe une insuffisance respiratoire et une lésion rénale aiguë étaient de 1,395 (95%CI 1,154-6,913) et 1,125 (95%CI 1,025-1,621). CONCLUSION: Le diabète sucré a été enregistré chez les patients âgés atteints de COVID-19 et associé à une saturation en oxygène sous-optimale à la présentation, à une insuffisance respiratoire et à des lésions rénales aiguës. Aucune association n'a été trouvée entre le DM et la sévérité du COVID-19 et la mortalité. Mots clés: COVID-19 ; Diabète Mellitus ; SRAS- CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Respiratory Insufficiency , Male , Humans , Aged , Adult , Middle Aged , Female , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Nigeria/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Oxygen
5.
Arch Argent Pediatr ; 120(5): 310-316, 2022 10.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056103

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Renal involvement among pediatric patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) ranges between 1.2% and 44%. Given the limited information available locally, the primary objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of renal involvement in our setting. POPULATION AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study conducted in 13 Argentine sites between March and December 2020. Patients aged 1 month to 18 years hospitalized due to COVID-19 and with at least one measurement of serum creatinine and/or a urinalysis were included. Those with a known kidney disease were excluded. Renal involvement was defined as the presence of acute kidney injury (AKI), proteinuria, hematuria, leukocyturia and/or arterial hypertension (HTN). RESULTS: Among 528 eligible medical records, 423 patients were included (55.0% were males; median age: 5.3 years). The clinical presentation was asymptomatic in 31%; mild, in 39.7%; moderate, in 23.9%; severe, in 1.2%; critical, in 0.7%; and 3.5% had multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). Two patients (0.47%) died. The prevalence of renal involvement was 10.8% (95% confidence interval: 8.2-14.2); it was described as leukocyturia (16.9%), proteinuria (16.0%), hematuria (13.2%), HTN (3.7%), and AKI (2.3%). No patient required dialysis. Renal involvement was associated with severe forms of disease (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of renal involvement among pediatric patients hospitalized due to COVID-19 in 13 Argentine sites was 10.8%; severe forms of disease prevailed.


Introducción. El compromiso renal (CR) en niños internados con enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19, por su sigla en inglés) varía entre el 1,2 % y el 44 %. Dado que existe limitada información local, el objetivo primario de este estudio fue estimar la prevalencia de CR en nuestro medio. Población y métodos. Estudio transversal realizado en 13 centros de Argentina entre marzo y diciembre de 2020. Se incluyeron pacientes internados con COVID-19, de 1 mes a 18 años y que tuvieran al menos una determinación de creatinina sérica y/o de orina completa. Se excluyeron aquellos con enfermedad renal conocida. Se consideró CR la presencia de lesión renal aguda (LRA), proteinuria, hematuria, leucocituria y/o hipertensión arterial (HTA). Resultados. De 528 historias clínicas elegibles, se incluyeron las de 423 pacientes (el 55,0 % de sexo masculino, mediana de edad 5,3 años). El cuadro clínico fue asintomático en el 31 %, leve en el 39,7 %, moderado en el 23,9 %, grave en el 1,2 %, crítico en el 0,7 %, y el 3,5 % presentó síndrome inflamatorio multisistémico pediátrico (SIMP). Dos pacientes (0,47 %) fallecieron. La prevalencia de CR fue del 10,8 % (intervalo de confianza 95% 8,2-14,2), expresada por leucocituria (16,9 %), proteinuria (16,0 %), hematuria (13,2 %), HTA (3,7 %) y LRA (2,3 %). Ninguno requirió diálisis. Presentar CR se asoció (p <0,0001) con formas graves de enfermedad. Conclusión. La prevalencia de CR en pacientes pediátricos internados con COVID-19 en 13 centros de nuestro país fue del 10,8 % y predominó en las formas clínicas graves.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Hypertension , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Creatinine , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hematuria/epidemiology , Hematuria/etiology , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Prevalence , Proteinuria/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
6.
Curr Opin Crit Care ; 28(6): 630-637, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051669

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: While it is now widely established acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and important complication of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) disease, there is marked variability in its reported incidence and outcomes. This narrative review provides a mid-2022 summary of the latest epidemiological evidence on AKI in COVID-19. RECENT FINDINGS: Large observational studies and meta-analyses report an AKI incidence of 28-34% in all inpatients and 46-77% in intensive care unit (ICU). The incidence of more severe AKI requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) in ICU appears to have declined over time, in data from England and Wales RRT use declined from 26% at the start of the pandemic to 14% in 2022. The majority of survivors apparently recover their kidney function by hospital discharge; however, these individuals appear to remain at increased risk of future AKI, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decline and chronic kidney disease. Importantly even in the absence of overt AKI a significant proportion of survivors of COVID-19 hospitalisation had reduced eGFR on follow-up. SUMMARY: This review summarises the epidemiology, risk factors, outcomes and treatment of COVID-19-associated AKI across the global pandemic. In particular the long-term impact of COVID-19 disease on kidney health is uncertain and requires further characterisation.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Renal Replacement Therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Intensive Care Units , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Risk Factors , Retrospective Studies
7.
Ter Arkh ; 94(6): 743-747, 2022 Aug 04.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2044340

ABSTRACT

AIM: To determine the incidence and risk factors of acute kidney injury (AKI) in Russian cohort of patients with COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included 315 patients, who were hospitalized with COVID-19 from October 2020 till February 2021. The diagnosis was established on the basis of the positive SARS-CoV-2 swab test and/or typical radiologic findings on CT scans. RESULTS: AKI complicated the clinical course in 92 (29.21%) cases. The independent risk factors of AKI were female sex, underline chronic kidney disease and the highest level of C-reactive protein during hospitalization. In the general group of patients were 41 (13%) lethal cases, in the group with AKI 32 (34.8%). Compared with those without AKI, patients with AKI had 4.065 (95% confidence interval 2.154 to 7.671) times the odds of death. Respiratory support, the highest serum creatinine and glucose levels appeared to be the risk factors of death among patients with AKI in the multivariable Cox regression. CONCLUSION: The clinical course of COVID-19 was complicated by AKI in 29% cases. The independent risk factors of AKI in patients with COVID-19 are underline chronic kidney disease, circulatory disorder and the highest level of C-reactive protein during hospitalization.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Humans , Female , Male , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Creatinine , C-Reactive Protein , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Kidney , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/etiology , Glucose , Hospital Mortality
8.
Front Public Health ; 10: 963667, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043533

ABSTRACT

Background: This umbrella review aims to consolidate evidence from systematic reviews and meta-analyses investigating the impact of the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) on kidney health, and the associations between kidney diseases and clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients. Methods: Five databases, namely, EMBASE, PubMed, Web of Science, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Ovid Medline, were searched for meta-analyses and systematic reviews from January 1, 2020 to June 2, 2022. Two reviewers independently selected reviews, identified reviews for inclusion and extracted data. Disagreements were resolved by group discussions. Two reviewers independently assessed the methodological quality of all included reviews using ROBIS tool. A narrative synthesis was conducted. The characteristics and major findings of the included reviews are presented using tables and forest plots. The included meta-analyses were updated when necessary. The review protocol was prospectively registered in PROSPERO (CRD42021266300). Results: A total of 103 reviews were identified. Using ROBIS, 30 reviews were rated as low risk of bias. Data from these 30 reviews were included in the narrative synthesis. Ten meta-analyses were updated by incorporating 119 newly available cohort studies. Hospitalized COVID-19 patients had a notable acute kidney injury (AKI) incidence of 27.17%. AKI was significantly associated with mortality (pooled OR: 5.24) and severe conditions in COVID-19 patients (OR: 14.94). The pooled prevalence of CKD in COVID-19 patients was 5.7%. Pre-existing CKD was associated with a higher risk of death (pooled OR: 2.21) and disease severity (pooled OR: 1.87). Kidney transplant recipients were susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection (incidence: 23 per 10,000 person-weeks) with a pooled mortality of 18%. Conclusion: Kidney disease such as CKD or recipients of kidney transplants were at increased risk of contracting COVID-19. Persons with COVID-19 also had a notable AKI incidence. AKI, the need for RRT, pre-existing CKD and a history of kidney transplantation are associated with adverse outcomes in COVID-19. Systematic review registration: www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?ID=CRD42021266300, identifier: CRD42021266300.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Kidney , Pandemics , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Systematic Reviews as Topic
9.
J Nephrol ; 35(9): 2383-2386, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2014624

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is commonly seen in critically ill hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and its incidence reaches 60% in this setting. The aim of this work was to determine the prevalence, characteristics, risk factors and mortality of AKI in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for COVID-19. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This observational retrospective case series was conducted between February 1, 2020 and December 31, 2020 at the ICU of the university hospital Mohammed VI of Oujda, Morocco. all COVID-19 patients hospitalized in the ICU with acute respiratory failure were included. AKI was defined and classified into three stages using the KDIGO criteria 2012. We excluded patients with end-stage kidney disease and those who were under 18 years old. RESULTS: Six hundred adult patients were included and 65.5% of them were men. Sixty patients had minimal lung damage (< 25%), 105 patients had mild lung damage (25-50%), 186 had severe lung damage (50-75%) and 193 patients had very severe lung damage (> 75%). A total of 210 patients (35%) developed AKI, of whom 78 (37.2%) had mild AKI (stage 1) and 132 (62.8%) severe AKI (stages 2 and 3). Patients in the severe and mild AKI groups had a higher rate of comorbidities, especially hypertension (mild AKI [46.2%] vs. severe AKI [36.4%] vs. no AKI [27.4%], p = 0.002) and diabetes (mild AKI [52.6%] vs. severe AKI [33.3%] vs. no AKI [26.4%], p < 0.001). During hospitalization, 23.3% of patients with AKI received kidney replacement therapy. In-hospital mortality was observed in 51.3% for mild AKI, 55.3% for severe AKI and 21% in patients who did not have AKI (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Our findings revealed that not only severe AKI, but also mild AKI was correlated to in-hospital mortality. Whatever the severity of the kidney impairment, it remains a major prognostic element.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Hospital Mortality , Intensive Care Units , Morocco/epidemiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
10.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 324, 2022 09 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009398

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is frequently associated with COVID-19, and the need for kidney replacement therapy (KRT) is considered an indicator of disease severity. This study aimed to develop a prognostic score for predicting the need for KRT in hospitalised COVID-19 patients, and to assess the incidence of AKI and KRT requirement. METHODS: This study is part of a multicentre cohort, the Brazilian COVID-19 Registry. A total of 5212 adult COVID-19 patients were included between March/2020 and September/2020. Variable selection was performed using generalised additive models (GAM), and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression was used for score derivation. Accuracy was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC). RESULTS: The median age of the model-derivation cohort was 59 (IQR 47-70) years, 54.5% were men, 34.3% required ICU admission, 20.9% evolved with AKI, 9.3% required KRT, and 15.1% died during hospitalisation. The temporal validation cohort had similar age, sex, ICU admission, AKI, required KRT distribution and in-hospital mortality. The geographic validation cohort had similar age and sex; however, this cohort had higher rates of ICU admission, AKI, need for KRT and in-hospital mortality. Four predictors of the need for KRT were identified using GAM: need for mechanical ventilation, male sex, higher creatinine at hospital presentation and diabetes. The MMCD score had excellent discrimination in derivation (AUROC 0.929, 95% CI 0.918-0.939) and validation (temporal AUROC 0.927, 95% CI 0.911-0.941; geographic AUROC 0.819, 95% CI 0.792-0.845) cohorts and good overall performance (Brier score: 0.057, 0.056 and 0.122, respectively). The score is implemented in a freely available online risk calculator ( https://www.mmcdscore.com/ ). CONCLUSIONS: The use of the MMCD score to predict the need for KRT may assist healthcare workers in identifying hospitalised COVID-19 patients who may require more intensive monitoring, and can be useful for resource allocation.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Dextrans , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mitomycin , ROC Curve , Renal Replacement Therapy/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
11.
BMC Nephrol ; 23(1): 308, 2022 09 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009365

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) was common in the first two waves of the SARS-COV-2 pandemic in critically ill patients. A high percentage of these patients required renal replacement therapy and died in the hospital. METHODS: The present study examines the clinical presentation, laboratory parameters and therapeutic interventions in critically ill patients with AKI admitted to the ICU in two centres, one each in India and Pakistan. Patient and outcome details of all critically ill COVID 19 patients admitted to the ICU requiring renal replacement therapy were collected. Data was analysed to detect patient variables associated with mortality. RESULTS: A total of 1,714 critically ill patients were admitted to the ICUs of the two centres. Of these 393 (22.9%) had severe acute kidney injury (AKIN stage 3) requiring dialysis. Of them, 60.5% were men and the mean (± SD) age was 58.78 (± 14.4) years. At the time of initiation of dialysis, 346 patients (88%) were oligo-anuric. The most frequent dialysis modality in these patients was intermittent hemodialysis (48.1%) followed by slow low efficiency dialysis (44.5%). Two hundred and six (52.4%) patients died. The mortality was higher among the Indian cohort (68.1%) than the Pakistani cohort (43.4%). Older age (age > 50 years), low serum albumin altered sensorium, need for slower forms of renal replacement therapy and ventilatory support were independently associated with mortality. CONCLUSION: There was a very high mortality in patients with COVID-19 associated AKI undergoing RRT in the ICUs in this cohort from the Indian sub-continent.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Pakistan/epidemiology , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Renal Replacement Therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
12.
BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care ; 10(4)2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001822

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of admission glucose in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 with and without diabetes mellitus in a largely African American cohort. DESIGN AND METHODS: This study included 708 adults (89% non-Hispanic Black) admitted with COVID-19 to an urban hospital between 1 March and 15 May 2020. Patients with diabetes were compared with those without and were stratified based on admission glucose of 140 and 180 mg/dL. Adjusted ORs were calculated for outcomes of mortality, intubation, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, acute kidney injury (AKI), and length of stay based on admission glucose levels. RESULTS: Patients with diabetes with admission glucose >140 mg/dL (vs <140 g/dL) had 2.4-fold increased odds of intubation (95% CI 1.2 to 4.6) and 2.1-fold increased odds of ICU admission (95% CI 1.0 to 4.3). Patients with diabetes with admission glucose >180 mg/dL (vs <180 g/dL) had a 1.9-fold increased mortality (95% CI 1.2 to 3.1). Patients without diabetes with admission glucose >140 mg/dL had a 2.3-fold increased mortality (95% CI 1.3 to 4.3), 2.7-fold increased odds of ICU admission (95% CI 1.3 to 5.4), 1.9-fold increased odds of intubation (95% CI 1.0 to 3.7) and 2.2-fold odds of AKI (95% CI 1.1 to 3.8). Patients without diabetes with glucose >180 mg/dL had 4.4-fold increased odds of mortality (95% CI 1.9 to 10.4), 2.7-fold increased odds of intubation (95% CI 1.2 to 5.8) and 3-fold increased odds of ICU admission (95% CI 1.3 to 6.6). CONCLUSION: Our results show hyperglycemia portends worse outcomes in patients with COVID-19 with and without diabetes. While our study was limited by its retrospective design, our findings suggest that patients presenting with hyperglycemia require closer observation and more aggressive therapies.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Hyperglycemia , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Adult , African Americans , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Glucose , Humans , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Sugars
13.
Nat Rev Nephrol ; 18(11): 724-737, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2000908

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has disproportionately affected patients with kidney disease, causing significant challenges in disease management, kidney research and trainee education. For patients, increased infection risk and disease severity, often complicated by acute kidney injury, have contributed to high mortality. Clinicians were faced with high clinical demands, resource shortages and novel ethical dilemmas in providing patient care. In this review, we address the impact of COVID-19 on the entire spectrum of kidney care, including acute kidney injury, chronic kidney disease, dialysis and transplantation, trainee education, disparities in health care, changes in health care policies, moral distress and the patient perspective. Based on current evidence, we provide a framework for the management and support of patients with kidney disease, infection mitigation strategies, resource allocation and support systems for the nephrology workforce.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Renal Dialysis , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Kidney
14.
Iran J Kidney Dis ; 16(4): 228-237, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1989996

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: As a multisystem illness, Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can damage different organs. This study investigated the effect of electrolyte imbalance (EI), with or without concomitant renal dysfunction, on the prognosis of COVID-19 in hospitalized patients. METHODS: We evaluated 499 hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19, without a history of chronic kidney disease. The patients' demographic data, laboratory values, and outcomes were retrospectively collected from the hospital information system. Serumelectrolytes including sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, and phosphorus abnormalities were analyzed on admission and during the hospitalization period. The outcomes of this study were the occurrence of acute kidney injury (AKI) after the first week of hospitalization and in-hospital mortality rate. Multivariate analyses were carried out to obtain the independent risk of each EI on mortality, by adjusting for age, gender, and AKI occurrence. RESULTS: Among the 499 COVID-19 patients (60.9% male), AKI occurred in 168 (33.7%) and mortality in 92 (18.4%) cases. Hypocalcemia (38%) and hyponatremia (22.6%) were the most prevalent EIs, and all EIs were more common in the AKI group than in the non-AKI group. Hyponatremia (Adjusted Odds ratio [AOR] = 2.34, 95% CI: 1.30 to 4.18), hypernatremia (AOR = 8.52, 95% CI: 1.95 to 37.32), and hyperkalemia (AOR = 4.63, 95% CI: 1.65 to 13) on admission were associated with poor prognosis. Moreover, hyponatremia (AOR = 3.02, 95% CI: 1.28 to 7.15) and hyperphosphatemia (AOR = 5.12, 95% CI: 1.24 to 21.09) on admission were associated with late AKI occurrence. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the role of hyponatremia, hypernatremia, hyperkalemia, and hyperphosphatemia in poor prognosis of COVID-19. According to the independent effect of EI on late AKI and mortality, we recommend physicians to raise awareness to closely monitor and correct EI during hospitalization.  DOI: 10.52547/ijkd.6904.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Hyperkalemia , Hypernatremia , Hyperphosphatemia , Hyponatremia , Water-Electrolyte Imbalance , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Electrolytes , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypernatremia/complications , Male , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
15.
Perit Dial Int ; 42(6): 554-561, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1978692

ABSTRACT

Acute kidney injury (AKI) has been shown to be associated with significant morbidity and mortality in patients with severe COVID-19 disease. Due to increasing number of cases in pandemic, there is a significant shortage of medical facilities and equipment in relation to patient load. In low resource settings where access to intermittent haemodialysis (HD) or continuous kidney replacement therapy (CKRT) is limited, peritoneal dialysis (PD) may play a vital role in the management of COVID-19-induced AKI. A literature search using Medline/PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar and Cochrane register was performed using following search strategy: (((COVID 19) OR (SARS-CoV-2)) AND (((acute kidney injury) OR (acute renal failure)) OR (acute renal dysfunction))) AND (peritoneal dialysis). Search strategy yielded total 79 articles. After going through titles and abstracts, full text of 15 articles was obtained. Finally, six studies were included in the review after exclusion of 10 studies. Five studies were single centre and one study was multicentric; four studies were conducted in the United States and one in the United Kingdom; PD catheter placement was done by surgeons in three studies and by nephrologist in one study. The mortality reported in the studies varied from 43% to as high as 63%.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Peritoneal Dialysis , Humans , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Pandemics , Peritoneal Dialysis/adverse effects , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl ; 32(6): 1764-1774, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1975055

ABSTRACT

The kidney is the most vulnerable organ in coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) patients besides the lungs, with evidence of acute kidney injury (AKI). We aimed to find the prevalence of AKI among COVID-19 patients and further evaluate the association of between COVID-19 and AKI along with an understanding of mortality. A prospective observational study was conducted among COVID-19 patients admitted to a tertiary care hospital, Hayatabad Medical Complex, between March 2020 and June 2020. Chi-square test was applied for comparative analysis, whereas for predictors of mortality, odds ratios (OR) were calculated using logistic regression. A total of 606 patients with COVID-19 were admitted to the dedicated ward, of which 250 (41.3%) had AKI and 190 (31.4%) died, whereas, patients having AKI presented 62.1% of mortality. Our study revealed a statistically significant association between AKI and mortality (OR = 3.5; P <0.0001). Moreover, we observed a greater risk of deaths among patients with AKI stage I-III i.e., AKI stage I (OR = 2.4; P <0.0001), stage II (OR = 5.5; P = 0.0001), and stage III (OR = 6.6; P<0.0001). Our study reported AKI and associated mortality in a considerable number of patients with COVID-19. AKI patients have significantly higher chances of death versus non-AKI patients. Further, the risk of mortality increases with further deterioration in kidney function, i.e., patients with AKI stage III showed a higher mortality rate compared with stage II and stage I.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Pakistan/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
17.
Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl ; 32(6): 1543-1551, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1975052

ABSTRACT

Initial reports early on in the pandemic in 2020 indicate a high incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). There is a need to better understand risk factors for AKI in patients with COVID-19. It is also unclear if AKI in patients with COVID-19 differs from AKI due to other causes. More data are required to clarify if COVID-19 is an independent risk factor for AKI and how COVID-19-associated AKI may differ from AKI due to other causes. We, therefore, sought to review the published evidence about the reported relationship between COVID-19, AKI, and outcomes. We performed a systematic search via PubMed and EMBASE using key words "COVID-19" and "AKI" to identify relevant observational studies, case series, and cohort studies published between March 2020 and April 2021. We also manually examined the reference lists of included studies and reviewed the AKI reports published in general medicine journals such as BMJ, Lancet, NEJM, and JAMA. The prevalence of AKI in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 differed across various regions of the world. Initial reports from China where cases of COVID-19 began initially have shown a much lower prevalence compared to those from Europe and North America, especially in critically ill patients in the intensive care unit with acute respiratory distress syndrome. The various components of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated AKI appear in large parts to be similar to sepsis-induced AKI. However, affinity of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) specifically to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptors located on podocytes and endothelial cells of the kidney also points toward the direct cytotoxic effects of the virus on the kidney. Numerous mechanisms likely occur simultaneously and hence more treatment approaches need to be streamlined based on pathophysiology. Although data from published literature regarding previous SARS coronaviruses can give some useful insights, we will know more going forward about the nature of kidney injury associated with COVID-19 virus as well as optimum-specific therapeutic management.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Endothelial Cells , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
18.
BMC Emerg Med ; 22(1): 138, 2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1968544

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, maintenance of essential healthcare systems became very challenging. We describe the triage system of our institute, and assess the quality of care provided to critically ill non-COVID-19 patients requiring continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) during the pandemic. METHODS: We introduced an emergency triage pathway early in the pandemic. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients who received CRRT in our hospital from January 2016 to March 2021. We excluded end-stage kidney disease patients on maintenance dialysis. Patients were stratified as medical and surgical patients. The time from hospital arrival to intensive care unit (ICU) admission, the time from hospital arrival to intervention/operation, and the in-hospital mortality rate were compared before (January 2016 to December 2019) and during (January 2021 to March 2021) the pandemic. RESULTS: The mean number of critically ill patients who received CRRT annually in the surgical department significantly decreased during the pandemic in (2016-2019: 76.5 ± 3.1; 2020: 56; p < 0.010). Age, sex, and the severity of disease at admission did not change, whereas the proportions of medical patients with diabetes (before: 44.4%; after: 56.5; p < 0.005) and cancer (before: 19.4%; after: 32.3%; p < 0.001) increased during the pandemic. The time from hospital arrival to ICU admission and the time from hospital arrival to intervention/operation did not change. During the pandemic, 59.6% of surgical patients received interventions/operations within 6 hours of hospital arrival. In Cox's proportional hazard modeling, the hazard ratio associated with the pandemic was 1.002 (0.778-1.292) for medical patients and 1.178 (0.783-1.772) for surgical patients. CONCLUSION: Our triage system maintained the care required by critically ill non-COVID-19 patients undergoing CRRT at our institution.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care , Critical Illness/therapy , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , Renal Replacement Therapy , Retrospective Studies
19.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 225, 2022 07 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962881

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) has been reported as a frequent complication of critical COVID-19. We aimed to evaluate the occurrence of AKI and use of kidney replacement therapy (KRT) in critical COVID-19, to assess patient and kidney outcomes and risk factors for AKI and differences in outcome when the diagnosis of AKI is based on urine output (UO) or on serum creatinine (sCr). METHODS: Multicenter, retrospective cohort analysis of patients with critical COVID-19 in seven large hospitals in Belgium. AKI was defined according to KDIGO within 21 days after ICU admission. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to explore the risk factors for developing AKI and to assess the association between AKI and ICU mortality. RESULTS: Of 1286 patients, 85.1% had AKI, and KRT was used in 9.8%. Older age, obesity, a higher APACHE II score and use of mechanical ventilation at day 1 of ICU stay were associated with an increased risk for AKI. After multivariable adjustment, all AKI stages were associated with ICU mortality. AKI was based on sCr in 40.1% and UO in 81.5% of patients. All AKI stages based on sCr and AKI stage 3 based on UO were associated with ICU mortality. Persistent AKI was present in 88.6% and acute kidney disease (AKD) in 87.6%. Rapid reversal of AKI yielded a better prognosis compared to persistent AKI and AKD. Kidney recovery was observed in 47.4% of surviving AKI patients. CONCLUSIONS: Over 80% of critically ill COVID-19 patients had AKI. This was driven by the high occurrence rate of AKI defined by UO criteria. All AKI stages were associated with mortality (NCT04997915).


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Belgium/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness , Hospitals , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Retrospective Studies
20.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 123(5): 382-380, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1939235

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: SARS-CoV-2 as the newest member of Beta-Coronaviruses can cause a complicated disease called COVID-19. This virus is able to penetrate a broad range of human cells, such as liver, heart, and kidney cells via ACE2-associated endocytosis. Heart involvement can result in kidney injuries; it is now testified that kidney congestion occurs following the cardio-renal syndrome. Acute Kidney Injury is one of the most critical damages to the kidney in a wide range of COVID-19-caused kidney injuries (which includes proteinuria, hematuria, etc.). Examination of AKI risk factors in COVID-19 patients can assist physicians to prevent its incidence. The final aim of this systematic review was to collate the condition and risk factors of AKI and non-AKI COVID-19 patients and to investigate AKI incidence in high-risk patients. METHOD: A complete and comprehensive survey was performed by reviewing original articles and case reports indexed in various databases such as PubMed/Medline, Embase, and WoS to find appropriate articles. The eligible articles then were selected by two authors and entered into the evaluation process. This systematic review conforms PRISMA statement. RESULTS: After searching for potentially relevant articles, 14 out of the initial 463 articles from 6 countries were selected and evaluated. All of eligible articles have investigated the rate of AKI incidence and its physio-pathological consequences in COVID-19 patients in all conditions (not only patients in critical condition). First, the initial differences between AKI and non-AKI patients were compared. As an instance, our study revealed that mean of White Blood cells (WBC) was much higher in AKI patients which can be responsible for the severe conditions. Then, other variations like differences in laboratory and imaging findings were compared between these two groups. Our outcomes demonstrated that the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension (HTN), and male sex can be three significant risk factors in AKI incidence in COVID-19 patients. Fatality rate and treatment methods were also compared among these two groups. CONCLUSION: As one of kidney damages, AKI can worsen COVID-19 patients' status by causing conditions such as acidosis. Our study shows the common symptoms in AKI COVID-19 patients were fever, cough, and malaise. The results of our study can help physicians to arrange COVID-19 with AKI patients' treatment strategy precisely (Tab. 8, Fig. 1, Ref. 48).


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Male , Proteinuria , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
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