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1.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(6)2022 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869705

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We investigated the values of procalcitonin (PCT) and presepsin (PSS) for predicting AKI and 30-day hospital mortality in patients with COVID-19. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 151 patients with COVID-19 who were admitted to the hospital via the emergency department. The diagnosis of AKI was based on the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes clinical practice guidelines. Results: The median patient age was 77 years, and 86 patients (57%) were male. Fifty-six patients (37.1%) developed AKI, and 19 patients (12.6%) died within 30 days of hospital admission. PCT and PSS levels were significantly higher in patients with AKI and non-survivors. The cutoff values of PCT levels for predicting AKI and mortality were 2.26 ng/mL (sensitivity, 64.3%; specificity, 89.5%) and 2.67 ng/mL (sensitivity, 68.4%; specificity, 77.3%), respectively. The cutoff values of PSS levels for predicting AKI and mortality were 572 pg/mL (sensitivity, 66.0%; specificity, 69.1%) and 865 pg/mL (sensitivity, 84.6%; specificity, 76.0%), respectively. Conclusion: PCT and PSS are valuable biomarkers for predicting AKI and 30-day hospital mortality in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Aged , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Lipopolysaccharide Receptors , Male , Peptide Fragments , Procalcitonin , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors
2.
BMC Nephrol ; 23(1): 183, 2022 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846808

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Kidney transplant recipients have an increased risk of complications from COVID-19. However, data on the risk of allograft damage or death in kidney transplant recipients recovering from COVID-19 is limited. In addition, the first and second waves of the pandemic occurred at different times all over the world. In Turkey, the Health Minister confirmed the first case in March 2020; after that, the first wave occurred between March and August 2020; afterward, the second wave began in September 2020. This study aims to demonstrate the clinical presentations of kidney transplant recipients in the first two waves of the pandemic in Turkey and explore the impact of COVID-19 on clinical outcomes after the initial episode. METHODS: Patients with COVID-19 from seven centers were included in this retrospective cohort study. Initially, four hundred and eighty-eight kidney transplant recipients diagnosed with COVID-19 between 1 March 2020 to 28 February 2021 were enrolled. The endpoints were the occurrence of all-cause mortality, acute kidney injury, cytokine storm, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. In addition, longer-term outcomes such as mortality, need for dialysis, and allograft function of the surviving patients was analyzed. RESULTS: Four hundred seventy-five patients were followed up for a median of 132 days after COVID-19. Forty-seven patients (9.9%) died after a median length of hospitalization of 15 days. Although the mortality rate (10.1% vs. 9.8%) and intensive care unit admission (14.5% vs. 14.5%) were similar in the first two waves, hospitalization (68.8% vs. 29.7%; p < 0.001), acute kidney injury (44.2% vs. 31.8%; p = 0.009), acute respiratory distress syndrome (18.8% vs. 16%; p = 0.456), and cytokine storm rate (15.9% vs. 10.1%; p = 0.072) were higher in first wave compared to the second wave. These 47 patients died within the first month of COVID-19. Six (1.4%) of the surviving patients lost allografts during treatment. There was no difference in the median serum creatinine clearance of the surviving patients at baseline (52 mL/min [IQR, 47-66]), first- (56 mL/min [IQR, 51-68]), third- (51 mL/min [IQR,48-67]) and sixth-months (52 mL/min [IQR, 48-81]). Development of cytokine storm and posttransplant diabetes mellitus were independent predictors for mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality remains a problem in COVID-19. All the deaths occur in the first month of COVID-19. Also, acute kidney injury is common in hospitalized patients, and some of the patients suffer from graft loss after the initial episode.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19/complications , Kidney Transplantation , Transplant Recipients , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Humans , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Pandemics , Renal Dialysis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Turkey/epidemiology
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3474, 2022 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1721587

ABSTRACT

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with increased mortality in most critical settings. However, it is unclear whether its mild form (i.e. AKI stage 1) is associated with increased mortality also in non-critical settings. Here we conducted an international study in patients hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 infection aiming 1. to estimate the incidence of AKI at each stage and its impact on mortality 2. to identify AKI risk factors at admission (susceptibility) and during hospitalization (exposures) and factors contributing to AKI-associated mortality. We included 939 patients from medical departments in Moscow (Russia) and Padua (Italy). In-hospital AKI onset was identified in 140 (14.9%) patients, mainly with stage 1 (65%). Mortality was remarkably higher in patients with AKI compared to those without AKI (55 [39.3%] vs. 34 [4.3%], respectively). Such association remained significant after adjustment for other clinical conditions at admission (relative risk [RR] 5.6; CI 3.5- 8.8) or restricting to AKI stage 1 (RR 3.2; CI 1.8-5.5) or to subjects with AKI onset preceding deterioration of clinical conditions. After hospital admission, worsening of hypoxic damage, inflammation, hyperglycemia, and coagulopathy were identified as hospital-acquired risk factors predicting AKI onset. Following AKI onset, the AKI-associated worsening of respiratory function was identified as the main contributor to AKI-induced increase in mortality risk. In conclusion, AKI is a common complication of Sars-CoV2 infection in non-intensive care settings where it markedly increases mortality risk also at stage 1. The identification of hospital-acquired risk factors and exposures might help prevention of AKI onset and of its complications.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Internationality , Length of Stay , Longitudinal Studies , Patient Admission , Risk Factors
4.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 17(3): 342-349, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714924

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: AKI is a common complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and is associated with high mortality. Palliative care, a specialty that supports patients with serious illness, is valuable for these patients but is historically underutilized in AKI. The objectives of this paper are to describe the use of palliative care in patients with AKI and COVID-19 and their subsequent health care utilization. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of New York University Langone Health electronic health data of COVID-19 hospitalizations between March 2, 2020 and August 25, 2020. Regression models were used to examine characteristics associated with receiving a palliative care consult. RESULTS: Among patients with COVID-19 (n=4276; 40%), those with AKI (n=1310; 31%) were more likely than those without AKI (n=2966; 69%) to receive palliative care (AKI without KRT: adjusted odds ratio, 1.81; 95% confidence interval, 1.40 to 2.33; P<0.001; AKI with KRT: adjusted odds ratio, 2.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.52 to 3.97; P<0.001), even after controlling for markers of critical illness (admission to intensive care units, mechanical ventilation, or modified sequential organ failure assessment score); however, consults came significantly later (10 days from admission versus 5 days; P<0.001). Similarly, 66% of patients initiated on KRT received palliative care versus 37% (P<0.001) of those with AKI not receiving KRT, and timing was also later (12 days from admission versus 9 days; P=0.002). Despite greater use of palliative care, patients with AKI had a significantly longer length of stay, more intensive care unit admissions, and more use of mechanical ventilation. Those with AKI did have a higher frequency of discharges to inpatient hospice (6% versus 3%) and change in code status (34% versus 7%) than those without AKI. CONCLUSIONS: Palliative care was utilized more frequently for patients with AKI and COVID-19 than historically reported in AKI. Despite high mortality, consultation occurred late in the hospital course and was not associated with reduced initiation of life-sustaining interventions. PODCAST: This article contains a podcast at https://www.asn-online.org/media/podcast/CJASN/2022_02_24_CJN11030821.mp3.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Health Resources/trends , Palliative Care/trends , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Critical Care/trends , Electronic Health Records , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Referral and Consultation/trends , Respiration, Artificial/trends , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(4)2022 Feb 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700470

ABSTRACT

As of December 2021, SARS-CoV-2 had caused over 250 million infections and 5 million deaths worldwide. Furthermore, despite the development of highly effective vaccines, novel variants of SARS-CoV-2 continue to sustain the pandemic, and the search for effective therapies for COVID-19 remains as urgent as ever. Though the primary manifestation of COVID-19 is pneumonia, the disease can affect multiple organs, including the kidneys, with acute kidney injury (AKI) being among the most common extrapulmonary manifestations of severe COVID-19. In this article, we start by reflecting on the epidemiology of kidney disease in COVID-19, which overwhelmingly demonstrates that AKI is common in COVID-19 and is strongly associated with poor outcomes. We also present emerging data showing that COVID-19 may result in long-term renal impairment and delve into the ongoing debate about whether AKI in COVID-19 is mediated by direct viral injury. Next, we focus on the molecular pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection by both reviewing previously published data and presenting some novel data on the mechanisms of cellular viral entry. Finally, we relate these molecular mechanisms to a series of therapies currently under investigation and propose additional novel therapeutic targets for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Kidney/virology , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Animals , Humans , Kidney/physiopathology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/etiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/virology
6.
Biomolecules ; 12(2)2022 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674482

ABSTRACT

A high proportion of critically ill patients with COVID-19 develop acute kidney injury (AKI) and die. The early recognition of subclinical AKI could contribute to AKI prevention. Therefore, this study was aimed at exploring the role of the urinary biomarkers NGAL and [TIMP-2] × [IGFBP7] for the early detection of AKI in this population. This prospective, longitudinal cohort study included critically ill COVID-19 patients without AKI at study entry. Urine samples were collected on admission to critical care areas for determination of NGAL and [TIMP-2] × [IGFBP7] concentrations. The demographic information, comorbidities, clinical, and laboratory data were recorded. The study outcomes were the development of AKI and mortality during hospitalization. Of the 51 individuals that were studied, 25 developed AKI during hospitalization (49%). Of those, 12 had persistent AKI (23.5%). The risk factors for AKI were male gender (HR = 7.57, 95% CI: 1.28-44.8; p = 0.026) and [TIMP-2] × [IGFBP7] ≥ 0.2 (ng/mL)2/1000 (HR = 7.23, 95% CI: 0.99-52.4; p = 0.050). Mortality during hospitalization was significantly higher in the group with AKI than in the group without AKI (p = 0.004). Persistent AKI was a risk factor for mortality (HR = 7.42, 95% CI: 1.04-53.04; p = 0.046). AKI was frequent in critically ill COVID-19 patients. The combination of [TIMP-2] × [IGFBP7] together with clinical information, were useful for the identification of subclinical AKI in critically ill COVID-19 patients. The role of additional biomarkers and their possible combinations for detection of AKI in ritically ill COVID-19 patients remains to be explored in large clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/urine , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/urine , Critical Illness/mortality , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/urine , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins/urine , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Lipocalin-2/urine , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2/urine
7.
Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl ; 32(2): 377-386, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622688

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic, also affecting Pakistan with its first case reported on February 26, 2020. Since then, it has been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization. Our study aimed to evaluate the renal derangements associated with COVID-19 infection in our population. A retrospective, observational study was conducted to include all the admitted patients having COVID-19 positive, and evaluated those for derangements of renal function (n = 362). Out of the 362 patients, 229were admitted in the ward, 133 were in intensive care unit (ICU), 258 of them recovered, while 104 deaths reported. At admission, the renal profile was deranged in almost one-half of ICU admissions and mortalities which increased to two-third during the hospital stay, with around 80% of deaths reported with increased urea and creatinine levels. Among the deceased patients, around one-third of the mortalities developed renal profile derangements during the hospital stay although they were admitted with a normal renal profile. An estimated glomerular filtration rate showed a mean increase of 13.37 mL/min/1.73 m2 during the hospital stay of surviving patients, while a decline of 19.92 in nonsurviving patients. A hazard ratio of 3.293 (P <0.001) for admitting serum urea and 3.795 (P = 0.009) at discharge and for serum creatinine at 5.392 (P <0.001) on discharge was associated significantly with mortality. Kaplan-Meier plot showed a significant decline in days of survival with deranged urea and creatinine (P <0.001). The deranged renal function in COVID-19 patients is associated with an increased number of ICU admissions as well as mortalities.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Hospital Mortality , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Creatinine/blood , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Incidence , Kidney Function Tests , Pakistan/epidemiology , Renal Dialysis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Tertiary Healthcare , Urea/blood
8.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261958, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622349

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Multicenter studies involving patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) associated with the disease caused by the new coronavirus (COVID-19) and treated with renal replacement therapy (RRT) in developing countries are scarce. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the demographic profile, clinical picture, risk factors for mortality, and outcomes of critically ill patients with AKI requiring dialysis (AKI-RRT) and with COVID-19 in the megalopolis of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: This multicenter, retrospective, observational study was conducted in the intensive care units of 13 public and private hospitals in the metropolitan region of the municipality of São Paulo. Patients hospitalized in an intensive care unit, aged ≥ 18 years, and treated with RRT due to COVID-19-associated AKI were included. RESULTS: The study group consisted of 375 patients (age 64.1 years, 68.8% male). Most (62.1%) had two or more comorbidities: 68.8%, arterial hypertension; 45.3%, diabetes; 36.3%, anemia; 30.9%, obesity; 18.7%, chronic kidney disease; 15.7%, coronary artery disease; 10.4%, heart failure; and 8.5%, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Death occurred in 72.5% of the study population (272 patients). Among the 103 survivors, 22.3% (23 patients) were discharged on RRT. In a multiple regression analysis, the independent factors associated with death were the number of organ dysfunctions at admission and RRT efficiency. CONCLUSION: AKI-RRT associated with COVID-19 occurred in patients with an elevated burden of comorbidities and was associated with high mortality (72.5%). The number of organ dysfunctions during hospitalization and RRT efficiency were independent factors associated with mortality. A meaningful portion of survivors was discharged while dependent on RRT (22.3%).


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/complications , COVID-19/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Aged , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Critical Illness/mortality , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Renal Replacement Therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
9.
J Clin Pathol ; 74(12): 796-803, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526518

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Hospitalised patients with COVID-19 have a variable incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) according to studies from different nationalities. The present systematic review and meta-analysis describes the incidence of AKI, need for renal replacement therapy (RRT) and mortality among patients with COVID-19-associated AKI. METHODS: We systematically searched electronic database PubMed, SCOPUS and Web of Science to identify English articles published until 25 May 2020. In case of significant heterogeneity, the meta-analyses were conducted assuming a random-effects model. RESULTS: From 746 screened publications, we selected 21 observational studies with 15 536 patients with COVID-19 for random-effects model meta-analyses. The overall incidence of AKI was 12.3% (95% CI 7.3% to 20.0%) and 77% of patients with AKI were critically ill (95% CI 58.9% to 89.0%). The mortality among patients with AKI was 67% (95% CI 39.8% to 86.2%) and the risk of death was 13 times higher compared with patients without AKI (OR=13.3; 95% CI 6.1 to 29.2). Patients with COVID-19-associated AKI needed for RRT in 23.4% of cases (95% CI 12.6% to 39.4%) and those cases had high mortality (89%-100%). CONCLUSION: The present study evidenced an incidence of COVID-19-associated AKI higher than previous meta-analysis. The majority of patients affected by AKI were critically ill and mortality rate among AKI cases was high. Thus, it is extremely important for health systems to be aware about the impact of AKI on patients' outcomes in order to establish proper screening, prevention of additional damage to the kidneys and adequate renal support when needed.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Renal Replacement Therapy , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
10.
Cytokine ; 149: 155727, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506763

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although pneumonia is the hallmark of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), multiple organ failure may develop in severe disease. TNFα receptors in their soluble form (sTNFR) are involved in the immune cascade in other systemic inflammatory processes such as septic shock, and could mediate the inflammatory activation of distant organs. The aim of this study is to analyse plasma levels of sTNFR 1 and 2 in association with organ failure and outcome in critically ill patients with COVID-19. METHODS: After informed consent, we included 122 adult patients with PCR-confirmed COVID-19 at ICU admission. Demographic data, illness severity scores, organ failure and survival at 30 days were collected. Plasma sTNFR 1 and 2 levels were quantified during the first days after ICU admission. Twenty-five healthy blood donors were used as control group. RESULTS: Levels of sTNFR were higher in severe COVID-19 patients compared to controls (p < 0.001). Plasma levels of sTNFR were associated to illness severity scores (SAPS 3 and SOFA), inflammation biomarkers such as IL-6, ferritin and PCT as well as development of AKI during ICU stay. sTNFR 1 higher than 2.29 ng/mL and? sTNFR 2 higher than 11.7 ng/mL were identified as optimal cut-offs to discriminate survivors and non-survivors 30 days after ICU admission and had an area under the curve in receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.75 and 0.67 respectively. CONCLUSION: Plasma levels of sTNFR 1 and 2 were higher in COVID-19 patients compared to controls and were strongly associated with other inflammatory biomarkers, severity of illness and acute kidney injury development during ICU stay. In addition, sTNFR 1 was an independent predictor of 30-day mortality after adjustment for age and respiratory failure.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/blood , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Illness/mortality , Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Organ Failure/blood , Multiple Organ Failure/mortality , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index
11.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 16(10): 1601-1609, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502239

ABSTRACT

AKI is a common complication in hospitalized and critically ill patients. Its incidence has steadily increased over the past decade. Whether transient or prolonged, AKI is an independent risk factor associated with poor short- and long-term outcomes, even if patients do not require KRT. Most patients with early AKI improve with conservative management; however, some will require dialysis for a few days, a few weeks, or even months. Approximately 10%-30% of AKI survivors may still need dialysis after hospital discharge. These patients have a higher associated risk of death, rehospitalization, recurrent AKI, and CKD, and a lower quality of life. Survivors of critical illness may also suffer from cognitive dysfunction, muscle weakness, prolonged ventilator dependence, malnutrition, infections, chronic pain, and poor wound healing. Collaboration and communication among nephrologists, primary care physicians, rehabilitation providers, physical therapists, nutritionists, nurses, pharmacists, and other members of the health care team are essential to create a holistic and patient-centric care plan for overall recovery. Integration of the patient and family members in health care decisions, and ongoing education throughout the process, are vital to improve patient well-being. From the nephrologist standpoint, assessing and promoting recovery of kidney function, and providing appropriate short- and long-term follow-up, are crucial to prevent rehospitalizations and to reduce complications. Return to baseline functional status is the ultimate goal for most patients, and dialysis independence is an important part of that goal. In this review, we seek to highlight the varying aspects and stages of recovery from AKI complicating critical illness, and propose viable strategies to promote recovery of kidney function and dialysis independence. We also emphasize the need for ongoing research and multidisciplinary collaboration to improve outcomes in this vulnerable population.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Kidney/physiopathology , Renal Dialysis , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Acute Kidney Injury/physiopathology , Critical Illness , Humans , Recovery of Function , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Renal Dialysis/mortality , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome
12.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0257619, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502062

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with poor outcomes in COVID patients. Differences between hospital-acquired (HA-AKI) and community-acquired AKI (CA-AKI) are not well established. METHODS: Prospective, observational cohort study. We included 877 patients hospitalized with COVID diagnosis at two third-level hospitals in Mexico. Primary outcome was all-cause mortality at 28 days compared between COVID patients with CA-AKI and HA-AKI. Secondary outcomes included the need for KRT, and risk factors associated with the development of CA-AKI and HA-AKI. RESULTS: A total of 377 patients (33.7%) developed AKI. CA-AKI occurred in 202 patients (59.9%) and HA-AKI occurred in 135 (40.1%). Patients with CA-AKI had more significant comorbidities, including diabetes (52.4% vs 38.5%), hypertension (58.4% vs 39.2%), CKD (30.1% vs 14.8%), and COPD (5.9% vs 1.4%), than those with HA-AKI. Patients' survival without AKI was 87.1%, with CA-AKI it was 75.4%, and with HA-AKI it was 69.6%, log-rank test p < 0.001. Only age > 60 years (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.06-1.18, p <0.001), COVID severity (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.03-1.16, p = 0.002), the need in mechanical lung ventilation (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.56-1.78, p <0.001), and HA-AKI stage 3 (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.05-1.29, p = 0.003) had a significant increase in mortality. The presence of CKD (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.391.56, p < 0.001), serum lymphocytes < 1000 µL (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.00-1.07, p = 0.03), the need in mechanical lung ventilation (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02-1.11, p = 0.003), and CA-AKI stage 3 (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.29-1.46, p < 0.001) were the only variables associated with a KRT start. CONCLUSIONS: We found that COVID patients who are complicated by CA-AKI have more comorbidities and worse biochemical parameters at the time of hospitalization than HA-AKI patients, but despite these differences, their probability of dying is similar.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , COVID-19/mortality , Community-Acquired Infections/mortality , Iatrogenic Disease/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Mexico/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
13.
BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 359, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496153

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common among patients hospitalised with COVID-19 and associated with worse prognosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiology, risk factors and outcomes of AKI in patients with COVID-19 in a large UK tertiary centre. METHODS: We analysed data of consecutive adults admitted with a laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 across two sites of a hospital in London, UK, from 1st January to 13th May 2020. RESULTS: Of the 1248 inpatients included, 487 (39%) experienced AKI (51% stage 1, 13% stage 2, and 36% stage 3). The weekly AKI incidence rate gradually increased to peak at week 5 (3.12 cases/100 patient-days), before reducing to its nadir (0.83 cases/100 patient-days) at the end the study period (week 10). Among AKI survivors, 84.0% had recovered renal function to pre-admission levels before discharge and none required on-going renal replacement therapy (RRT). Pre-existing renal impairment [odds ratio (OR) 3.05, 95%CI 2.24-4,18; p <  0.0001], and inpatient diuretic use (OR 1.79, 95%CI 1.27-2.53; p <  0.005) were independently associated with a higher risk for AKI. AKI was a strong predictor of 30-day mortality with an increasing risk across AKI stages [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.59 (95%CI 1.19-2.13) for stage 1; p < 0.005, 2.71(95%CI 1.82-4.05); p < 0.001for stage 2 and 2.99 (95%CI 2.17-4.11); p < 0.001for stage 3]. One third of AKI3 survivors (30.7%), had newly established renal impairment at 3 to 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: This large UK cohort demonstrated a high AKI incidence and was associated with increased mortality even at stage 1. Inpatient diuretic use was linked to a higher AKI risk. One third of survivors with AKI3 exhibited newly established renal impairment already at 3-6 months.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Renal Replacement Therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Incidence , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Kidney Function Tests/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Patient Acuity , Renal Replacement Therapy/methods , Renal Replacement Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , United Kingdom/epidemiology
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20073, 2021 10 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462039

ABSTRACT

Kidney transplantation recipients (KTR) with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are at higher risk of death than general population. However, mortality risk factors in KTR are still not clearly identified. Our objective was to systematically analyze published evidence for risk factors associated with mortality in COVID-19 KTR. Electronic databases were searched for eligible studies on 1 August 2021. All prospective and retrospective studies of COVID-19 in KTR were considered eligible without language restriction. Since data in case reports and series could potentially be subsets of larger studies, only studies with ≥ 50 patients were included. Random-effects model meta-analysis was used to calculate weighted mean difference (WMD) and pooled odds ratio (OR) of factors associated with mortality. From a total 1,137 articles retrieved, 13 were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis comprising 4,440 KTR. Compared with survivors, non-survivors were significantly older (WMD 10.5 years, 95% CI 9.3-11.8). KTR of deceased donor were at higher risk of death (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.10-2.74). Comorbidities including diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and active cancer significantly increased mortality risk. KTR with dyspnea (OR 5.68, 95% CI 2.11-15.33) and pneumonia (OR 10.64, 95% CI 3.37-33.55) at presentation were at higher mortality risk, while diarrhea decreased the risk (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.47-0.78). Acute kidney injury was associated with mortality (OR 3.24, 95% CI 1.36-7.70). Inflammatory markers were significantly higher in the non-survivors, including C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, and interleukine-6. A number of COVID-19 mortality risk factors were identified from KTR patient characteristics, presenting symptoms, and laboratory investigations. KTR with these risk factors should receive more intensive monitoring and early therapeutic interventions to optimize health outcomes.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Kidney Transplantation , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , COVID-19/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Humans , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/mortality , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Transplant Recipients
15.
BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 300, 2021 09 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430407

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Acute kidney injury is a common complication of percutaneous coronary intervention and has been associated with an increased risk of death and progressive chronic kidney disease. However, whether the timing of acute kidney injury after urgent percutaneous coronary intervention could be used to improve patient risk stratification is not known. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study in adults surviving an urgent percutaneous coronary intervention between 2008 and 2013 within Kaiser Permanente Northern California, a large integrated healthcare delivery system, to evaluate the impact of acute kidney injury during hospitalization at 12 (±6), 24 (±6) and 48 (±6) hours after urgent percutaneous coronary intervention and subsequent risks of adverse outcomes within the first year after discharge. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards models with adjustment for a high-dimensional propensity score for developing acute kidney injury after percutaneous coronary intervention to examine the associations between acute kidney injury timing and all-cause death and worsening chronic kidney disease. RESULTS: Among 7250 eligible adults undergoing urgent percutaneous coronary intervention, 306 (4.2%) had acute kidney injury at one or more of the examined time periods after percutaneous coronary intervention. After adjustment, acute kidney injury at 12 (±6) hours was independently associated with higher risks of death (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 3.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.19-5.75) and worsening kidney function (aHR 2.40, 95% CI:1.24-4.63). Similar results were observed for acute kidney injury at 24 (±6) hours and death (aHR 3.90, 95% CI:2.29-6.66) and worsening chronic kidney disease (aHR 4.77, 95% CI:2.46-9.23). Acute kidney injury at 48 (±6) hours was associated with excess mortality (aHR 1.97, 95% CI:1.19-3.26) but was not significantly associated with worsening kidney function (aHR 0.91, 95% CI:0.42-1.98). CONCLUSIONS: Timing of acute kidney injury after urgent percutaneous coronary intervention may be differentially associated with subsequent risk of worsening kidney function but not death.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/adverse effects , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Aged , Cause of Death , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Propensity Score , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Time Factors
16.
BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 297, 2021 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1381255

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Kidney disease and renal failure are associated with hospital deaths in patients with COVID - 19. We aimed to test if contrast enhancement affects short-term renal function in hospitalized COVID - 19 patients. METHODS: Plasma creatinine (P-creatinine) was measured on the day of computed tomography (CT) and 24 h, 48 h, and 4-10 days after CT. Contrast-enhanced (n = 142) and unenhanced (n = 24) groups were subdivided, based on estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR), > 60 and ≤ 60 ml/min/1.73 m2. Contrast-induced acute renal failure (CI-AKI) was defined as ≥27 µmol/L increase or a > 50% rise in P-creatinine from CT or initiation of renal replacement therapy during follow-up. Patients with renal replacement therapy were studied separately. We evaluated factors associated with a > 50% rise in P-creatinine at 48 h and at 4-10 days after contrast-enhanced CT. RESULTS: Median P-creatinine at 24-48 h and days 4-10 post-CT in patients with eGFR> 60 and eGFR≥30-60 in contrast-enhanced and unenhanced groups did not differ from basal values. CI-AKI was observed at 48 h and at 4-10 days post contrast administration in 24 and 36% (n = 5/14) of patients with eGFR≥30-60. Corresponding figures in the eGFR> 60 contrast-enhanced CT group were 5 and 5% respectively, (p < 0.037 and p < 0.001, Pearson χ2 test). In the former group, four of the five patients died within 30 days. Odds ratio analysis showed that an eGFR≥30-60 and 30-day mortality were associated with CK-AKI both at 48 h and 4-10 days after contrast-enhanced CT. CONCLUSION: Patients with COVID - 19 and eGFR≥30-60 had a high frequency of CK-AKI at 48 h and at 4-10 days after contrast administration, which was associated with increased 30-day mortality. For patients with eGFR≥30-60, we recommend strict indications are practiced for contrast-enhanced CT. Contrast-enhanced CT had a modest effect in patients with eGFR> 60.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , COVID-19/complications , Contrast Media/adverse effects , Creatinine/blood , Iodine/adverse effects , Kidney/drug effects , Acute Kidney Injury/blood , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Kidney/diagnostic imaging , Kidney/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Regression Analysis , Renal Replacement Therapy , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
17.
Clin Exp Nephrol ; 26(1): 36-44, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359946

ABSTRACT

AIM: The rates of development of acute kidney injury (AKI) in COVID-19 have been variably reported from across the world. Prevalence and outcomes of AKI in hospitalised COVID-19 patients in India has not been studied well. METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study amongst adult hospitalised COVID-19 patients admitted at a tertiary care centre between May 1 and October 31, 2020. We estimated the prevalence of AKI and outcomes including mortality and acute kidney disease (AKD) at the time of discharge. Regression analysis was done to study the factors associated with mortality and AKD. RESULTS: Out of 2650 hospitalised patients with COVID-19, 190 (7.2%) patients developed AKI. Mean age of patients with AKI was 62.6 years, 81.6% were male. Comorbidities included diabetes mellitus in 72.1%, hypertension in 66.8%, heart disease in 30% and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in 22.6%. Most patients had stage 1 AKI (71.1%). Overall mortality in patients with AKI was 22.1%, 75% in those requiring dialysis and 74.5% in those requiring ICU. Amongst survivors without pre-existing CKD, 40.9% patients had acute kidney disease at the time of discharge. Higher age, stage 3 AKI and need for mechanical ventilation were associated with higher mortality. On multivariable regression, factors associated with AKD at discharge included pre-existing heart disease and severe albuminuria during hospitalisation. CONCLUSION: In our study population, we found a low prevalence of AKI. Mortality was high in AKI patients requiring ICU care and dialysis. Amongst survivors, a significant percentage had AKD at the time of discharge.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , India/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Renal Dialysis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Tertiary Care Centers , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
18.
Med Intensiva (Engl Ed) ; 45(6): 325-331, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343315

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe outcomes of critically ill patients with COVID-19, particularly the association of renal replacement therapy to mortality. DESIGN: A single-center prospective observational study was carried out. SETTING: ICU of a tertiary care center. PATIENTS: Consecutive adults with COVID-19 admitted to the ICU. INTERVENTION: Renal replacement therapy. MAIN VARIABLES OF INTEREST: Demographic data, medical history, illness severity, type of oxygen therapy, laboratory data and use of renal replacement therapy to generate a logistic regression model describing independent risk factors for mortality. RESULTS: Of the total of 166 patients, 51% were mechanically ventilated and 26% required renal replacement therapy. The overall hospital mortality rate was 36%, versus 56% for those requiring renal replacement therapy, and 68% for those with both mechanical ventilation and renal replacement therapy. The logistic regression model identified four independent risk factors for mortality: age (adjusted OR 2.8 [95% CI 1.8-4.4] for every 10-year increase), mechanical ventilation (4.2 [1.7-10.6]), need for continuous venovenous hemofiltration (2.3 [1.3-4.0]) and C-reactive protein (1.1 [1.0-1.2] for every 10mg/L increase). CONCLUSIONS: In our cohort, acute kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy was associated to a high mortality rate similar to that associated to the need for mechanical ventilation, while multiorgan failure necessitating both techniques implied an extremely high mortality risk.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , COVID-19/complications , Critical Illness/therapy , Renal Replacement Therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , Comorbidity , Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy , Critical Illness/mortality , District of Columbia/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitals, University/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Multiple Organ Failure/mortality , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Procedures and Techniques Utilization/statistics & numerical data , Prospective Studies , Renal Replacement Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Risk Factors , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Treatment Outcome
19.
Pharmacol Res ; 161: 105107, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318943

ABSTRACT

Currently, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is spreading rapidly around the world. This study aimed to investigate whether the presence of acute kidney injury (AKI) might increase the risk of severe infection and fatality in COVID-19 patients. We searched the PubMed, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, MedRxiv and COVID-19 academic research communication platforms for studies reporting severe infection rates and case-fatality rates in COVID-19 patients with and without AKI up to June 20, 2020. The main outcomes were the comparisons of the severe infection rates and fatality rates in COVID-19 patients with and without AKI and the estimation of the odds ratio (OR) and its 95 % confidence interval (CI) for severe infection and mortality. Statistical analyses were performed with R statistical software. A total of 40 studies involving 24,527 patients with COVID-19 were included in our meta-analysis. The incidence of AKI was 10 % (95 % CI 8%-13 %) in COVID-19 patients. The patients had higher severe infection and fatality rates (55.6 % vs. 17.7 % and 63.1 % vs. 12.9 %, respectively, all P < 0.01) with COVID-19. AKI was a predictor of fatality (OR = 14.63, 95 % CI: 9.94-21.51, P < 0.00001) and severe infection (OR = 8.11, 95 % CI: 5.01-13.13, P < 0.00001) in patients with COVID-19. Higher levels of serum creatinine (Scr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were associated with a significant increase in fatality [Scr: mean difference (MD): 20.19 µmol/L, 95 % CI: 14.96-25.42, P < 0.001; BUN: MD: 4.07 mmol/L, 95 % CI: 3.33-4.81, P < 0.001] and severe infection (Scr: MD: 7.78 µmol/L, 95 % CI: 4.43-11.14, P < 0.00001, BUN: MD: 2.12 mmol/L, 95 % CI: 1.74-2.50, P < 0.00001) in COVID-19 patients. In conclusion, AKI is associated with severe infection and higher fatality rates in patients with COVID-19. Clinicians should pay more attention to the monitoring and treatment of COVID-19 patients with AKI.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Humans
20.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 16(8): 1158-1168, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1311348

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: AKI treated with dialysis initiation is a common complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among hospitalized patients. However, dialysis supplies and personnel are often limited. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Using data from adult patients hospitalized with COVID-19 from five hospitals from the Mount Sinai Health System who were admitted between March 10 and December 26, 2020, we developed and validated several models (logistic regression, Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO), random forest, and eXtreme GradientBoosting [XGBoost; with and without imputation]) for predicting treatment with dialysis or death at various time horizons (1, 3, 5, and 7 days) after hospital admission. Patients admitted to the Mount Sinai Hospital were used for internal validation, whereas the other hospitals formed part of the external validation cohort. Features included demographics, comorbidities, and laboratory and vital signs within 12 hours of hospital admission. RESULTS: A total of 6093 patients (2442 in training and 3651 in external validation) were included in the final cohort. Of the different modeling approaches used, XGBoost without imputation had the highest area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve on internal validation (range of 0.93-0.98) and area under the precision-recall curve (AUPRC; range of 0.78-0.82) for all time points. XGBoost without imputation also had the highest test parameters on external validation (AUROC range of 0.85-0.87, and AUPRC range of 0.27-0.54) across all time windows. XGBoost without imputation outperformed all models with higher precision and recall (mean difference in AUROC of 0.04; mean difference in AUPRC of 0.15). Features of creatinine, BUN, and red cell distribution width were major drivers of the model's prediction. CONCLUSIONS: An XGBoost model without imputation for prediction of a composite outcome of either death or dialysis in patients positive for COVID-19 had the best performance, as compared with standard and other machine learning models. PODCAST: This article contains a podcast at https://www.asn-online.org/media/podcast/CJASN/2021_07_09_CJN17311120.mp3.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , COVID-19/complications , Machine Learning , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , COVID-19/mortality , Hospitalization , Humans
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