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2.
Crit Care Clin ; 38(3): 473-489, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2114478

ABSTRACT

Initial reporting suggested that kidney involvement following COVID-19 infection was uncommon but this is now known not to be the case. Acute kidney injury (AKI) may arise through several mechanisms and complicate up to a quarter of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 infection being associated with an increased risk for both morbidity and death. Mechanisms of injury include direct kidney damage predominantly through tubular injury, although glomerular injury has been reported; the consequences of the treatment of patients with severe hypoxic respiratory failure; secondary infection; and exposure to nephrotoxic drugs. The mainstay of treatment remains the prevention of worsening kidney damage and in some cases they need for renal replacement therapies (RRT). Although the use of other blood purification techniques has been proposed as potential treatments, results to-date have not been definitive.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Renal Replacement Therapy , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Turk J Med Sci ; 52(5): 1495-1503, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2091803

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury is strongly associated with mortality in critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); however, age-related risk factors for acute kidney injury are not clear yet. In this study, it was aimed to evaluate the effects of clinical factors on acute kidney injury development in an elderly COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Critically ill patients (≥65years) with COVID-19 admitted to the intensive care unit were included in the study. Primary outcome of the study was the rate of acute kidney injury, and secondary outcome was to define the effect of frailty and other risk factors on acute kidney injury development and mortality. RESULTS: A total of 132 patients (median age 76 years, 68.2% male) were assessed. Patients were divided into two groups as follows: acute kidney injury (n = 84) and nonacute kidney injury (n = 48). Frailty incidence (48.8% vs. 8.3%, p < 0.01) was higher in the acute kidney injury group. In multivariate analysis, frailty (OR, 3.32, 95% CI, 1.67-6.56), the use of vasopressors (OR, 3.06 95% CI, 1.16-8.08), and the increase in respiratory support therapy (OR, 2.60, 95% CI, 1.01-6.6) were determined to be independent risk factors for acute kidney injury development. The mortality rate was found to be 97.6% in patients with acute kidney injury. DISCUSSION: Frailty is a risk factor for acute kidney injury in geriatric patients with severe COVID-19. The evaluation of geriatric patients based on a frailty scale before intensive care unit admission may improve outcomes.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Frailty , Humans , Male , Aged , Female , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Frailty/complications , Frailty/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Intensive Care Units
4.
Front Immunol ; 13: 931210, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065505

ABSTRACT

Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) an important form of a thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) that can frequently lead to acute kidney injury (AKI). An important subset of aHUS is the anti-factor H associated aHUS. This variant of aHUS can occur due to deletion of the complement factor H genes, CFHR1 and CFHR3, along with the presence of anti-factor H antibodies. However, it is a point of interest to note that not all patients with anti-factor H associated aHUS have a CFHR1/R3 deletion. Factor-H has a vital role in the regulation of the complement system, specifically the alternate pathway. Therefore, dysregulation of the complement system can lead to inflammatory or autoimmune diseases. Patients with this disease respond well to treatment with plasma exchange therapy along with Eculizumab and immunosuppressant therapy. Anti-factor H antibody associated aHUS has a certain genetic predilection therefore there is focus on further advancements in the diagnosis and management of this disease. In this article we discuss the baseline characteristics of patients with anti-factor H associated aHUS, their triggers, various treatment modalities and future perspectives.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome , Complement System Proteins , Acute Kidney Injury/genetics , Acute Kidney Injury/immunology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Antibodies/genetics , Antibodies/immunology , Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome/complications , Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome/genetics , Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome/immunology , Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome/therapy , Blood Proteins/genetics , Complement C3b Inactivator Proteins/genetics , Complement Factor H/antagonists & inhibitors , Complement Factor H/genetics , Complement Factor H/immunology , Complement System Proteins/genetics , Complement System Proteins/immunology , Humans , Plasma Exchange
5.
Curr Opin Crit Care ; 28(6): 630-637, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051669

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: While it is now widely established acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and important complication of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) disease, there is marked variability in its reported incidence and outcomes. This narrative review provides a mid-2022 summary of the latest epidemiological evidence on AKI in COVID-19. RECENT FINDINGS: Large observational studies and meta-analyses report an AKI incidence of 28-34% in all inpatients and 46-77% in intensive care unit (ICU). The incidence of more severe AKI requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) in ICU appears to have declined over time, in data from England and Wales RRT use declined from 26% at the start of the pandemic to 14% in 2022. The majority of survivors apparently recover their kidney function by hospital discharge; however, these individuals appear to remain at increased risk of future AKI, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decline and chronic kidney disease. Importantly even in the absence of overt AKI a significant proportion of survivors of COVID-19 hospitalisation had reduced eGFR on follow-up. SUMMARY: This review summarises the epidemiology, risk factors, outcomes and treatment of COVID-19-associated AKI across the global pandemic. In particular the long-term impact of COVID-19 disease on kidney health is uncertain and requires further characterisation.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Renal Replacement Therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Intensive Care Units , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Risk Factors , Retrospective Studies
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(38): e30755, 2022 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2042659

ABSTRACT

Patients with preexisting kidney disease or acute kidney injury had poorer outcomes in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) illness. Lymphopenia was associated with more severe illness. Risk stratification with simple laboratory tests may help appropriate site patients in a cost-effective manner and ease the burden on healthcare systems. We examined a ratio of serum creatinine level to absolute lymphocyte count at presentation (creatinine-lymphocyte ratio, CLR) in predicting outcomes in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. We analyzed 553 consecutive polymerase chain reaction-positive SARS-COV-2 hospitalized patients. Patients with end-stage kidney disease were excluded. Serum creatinine and full blood count (FBC) examination were obtained within the first day of admission. We examined the utility of CLR in predicting adverse clinical outcomes (requiring intensive care, mechanical ventilation, acute kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy or death). An optimized cutoff of CLR > 77 was derived for predicting adverse outcomes (72.2% sensitivity, and 83.9% specificity). Ninety-seven patients (17.5%) fell within this cut off. These patients were older and more likely to have chronic medical conditions. A higher proportion of these patients had adverse outcomes (13.4% vs 1.1%, P < .001). On receiver operating curve analyses, CLR predicted patients who had adverse outcomes well (area under curve [AUC] = 0.82, 95%CI 0.72-0.92), which was comparable to other laboratory tests like serum ferritin, C-reactive protein and lactate dehydrogenase. Elevated CLR on admission, which may be determined by relatively simple laboratory tests, was able to reasonably discriminate patients who had experienced adverse outcomes during their hospital stay. This may be a simple and cost-effective means of risk stratification and triage.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/therapy , Creatinine , Critical Care , Ferritins , Humans , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Lymphocyte Count , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Nephrol ; 35(9): 2383-2386, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2014624

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is commonly seen in critically ill hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and its incidence reaches 60% in this setting. The aim of this work was to determine the prevalence, characteristics, risk factors and mortality of AKI in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for COVID-19. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This observational retrospective case series was conducted between February 1, 2020 and December 31, 2020 at the ICU of the university hospital Mohammed VI of Oujda, Morocco. all COVID-19 patients hospitalized in the ICU with acute respiratory failure were included. AKI was defined and classified into three stages using the KDIGO criteria 2012. We excluded patients with end-stage kidney disease and those who were under 18 years old. RESULTS: Six hundred adult patients were included and 65.5% of them were men. Sixty patients had minimal lung damage (< 25%), 105 patients had mild lung damage (25-50%), 186 had severe lung damage (50-75%) and 193 patients had very severe lung damage (> 75%). A total of 210 patients (35%) developed AKI, of whom 78 (37.2%) had mild AKI (stage 1) and 132 (62.8%) severe AKI (stages 2 and 3). Patients in the severe and mild AKI groups had a higher rate of comorbidities, especially hypertension (mild AKI [46.2%] vs. severe AKI [36.4%] vs. no AKI [27.4%], p = 0.002) and diabetes (mild AKI [52.6%] vs. severe AKI [33.3%] vs. no AKI [26.4%], p < 0.001). During hospitalization, 23.3% of patients with AKI received kidney replacement therapy. In-hospital mortality was observed in 51.3% for mild AKI, 55.3% for severe AKI and 21% in patients who did not have AKI (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Our findings revealed that not only severe AKI, but also mild AKI was correlated to in-hospital mortality. Whatever the severity of the kidney impairment, it remains a major prognostic element.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Hospital Mortality , Intensive Care Units , Morocco/epidemiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
8.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 324, 2022 09 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009398

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is frequently associated with COVID-19, and the need for kidney replacement therapy (KRT) is considered an indicator of disease severity. This study aimed to develop a prognostic score for predicting the need for KRT in hospitalised COVID-19 patients, and to assess the incidence of AKI and KRT requirement. METHODS: This study is part of a multicentre cohort, the Brazilian COVID-19 Registry. A total of 5212 adult COVID-19 patients were included between March/2020 and September/2020. Variable selection was performed using generalised additive models (GAM), and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression was used for score derivation. Accuracy was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC-ROC). RESULTS: The median age of the model-derivation cohort was 59 (IQR 47-70) years, 54.5% were men, 34.3% required ICU admission, 20.9% evolved with AKI, 9.3% required KRT, and 15.1% died during hospitalisation. The temporal validation cohort had similar age, sex, ICU admission, AKI, required KRT distribution and in-hospital mortality. The geographic validation cohort had similar age and sex; however, this cohort had higher rates of ICU admission, AKI, need for KRT and in-hospital mortality. Four predictors of the need for KRT were identified using GAM: need for mechanical ventilation, male sex, higher creatinine at hospital presentation and diabetes. The MMCD score had excellent discrimination in derivation (AUROC 0.929, 95% CI 0.918-0.939) and validation (temporal AUROC 0.927, 95% CI 0.911-0.941; geographic AUROC 0.819, 95% CI 0.792-0.845) cohorts and good overall performance (Brier score: 0.057, 0.056 and 0.122, respectively). The score is implemented in a freely available online risk calculator ( https://www.mmcdscore.com/ ). CONCLUSIONS: The use of the MMCD score to predict the need for KRT may assist healthcare workers in identifying hospitalised COVID-19 patients who may require more intensive monitoring, and can be useful for resource allocation.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Dextrans , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mitomycin , ROC Curve , Renal Replacement Therapy/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
9.
BMC Nephrol ; 23(1): 308, 2022 09 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009365

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) was common in the first two waves of the SARS-COV-2 pandemic in critically ill patients. A high percentage of these patients required renal replacement therapy and died in the hospital. METHODS: The present study examines the clinical presentation, laboratory parameters and therapeutic interventions in critically ill patients with AKI admitted to the ICU in two centres, one each in India and Pakistan. Patient and outcome details of all critically ill COVID 19 patients admitted to the ICU requiring renal replacement therapy were collected. Data was analysed to detect patient variables associated with mortality. RESULTS: A total of 1,714 critically ill patients were admitted to the ICUs of the two centres. Of these 393 (22.9%) had severe acute kidney injury (AKIN stage 3) requiring dialysis. Of them, 60.5% were men and the mean (± SD) age was 58.78 (± 14.4) years. At the time of initiation of dialysis, 346 patients (88%) were oligo-anuric. The most frequent dialysis modality in these patients was intermittent hemodialysis (48.1%) followed by slow low efficiency dialysis (44.5%). Two hundred and six (52.4%) patients died. The mortality was higher among the Indian cohort (68.1%) than the Pakistani cohort (43.4%). Older age (age > 50 years), low serum albumin altered sensorium, need for slower forms of renal replacement therapy and ventilatory support were independently associated with mortality. CONCLUSION: There was a very high mortality in patients with COVID-19 associated AKI undergoing RRT in the ICUs in this cohort from the Indian sub-continent.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Pakistan/epidemiology , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Renal Replacement Therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(35): e30423, 2022 Sep 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008671

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients with severe impairment of kidney function is associated with high mortality. We evaluated the effect of high dependency renal unit (HDRU), with nephrologists as primary care physicians, as a quality improvement initiative for the management of these patients. This was a quasi-experimental observational study conducted at a tertiary care hospital in western India. Patients hospitalized for COVID-19 with pre-existing end-stage-renal-disease and those with severe AKI requiring dialysis (AKI-D) were included. For the first 2 months, these patients were cared for in medical wards designated for COVID-19, after which HDRU was set up for their management. With nephrologists as primary care providers, the 4 key components of care in HDRU included: care bundles focusing on key nephrology and COVID-19 related issues, checklist-based clinical monitoring, integration of multi-specialty care, and training of nurses and doctors. Primary outcome of the study was in-hospital mortality before and after institution of the HDRU care. Secondary outcomes were dialysis dependence in AKI-D and predictors of death. A total of 238 out of 4254 (5.59%) patients with COVID-19, admitted from 28th March to 30th September 2020, had severe renal impairment (116 AKI-D and 122 end-stage-renal-disease). 145 (62%) had severe COVID-19. From 28th May to 31st August 2020, these patients were managed in HDRU. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed significant improvement in survival during HDRU care [19 of 52 (36.5%) in pre-HDRU versus 35 of 160 (21.9%) in HDRU died, P ≤ .01]. 44 (67.7%) AKI-D survivors were dialysis dependent at discharge. Breathlessness and altered mental status at presentation, development of shock during hospital stay, and leukocytosis predicted mortality. HDRU managed by nephrologists is a feasible and potentially effective approach to improve the outcomes of patients with COVID-19 and severe renal impairment.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Kidney , Renal Dialysis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy
11.
Nat Rev Nephrol ; 18(11): 724-737, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2000908

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has disproportionately affected patients with kidney disease, causing significant challenges in disease management, kidney research and trainee education. For patients, increased infection risk and disease severity, often complicated by acute kidney injury, have contributed to high mortality. Clinicians were faced with high clinical demands, resource shortages and novel ethical dilemmas in providing patient care. In this review, we address the impact of COVID-19 on the entire spectrum of kidney care, including acute kidney injury, chronic kidney disease, dialysis and transplantation, trainee education, disparities in health care, changes in health care policies, moral distress and the patient perspective. Based on current evidence, we provide a framework for the management and support of patients with kidney disease, infection mitigation strategies, resource allocation and support systems for the nephrology workforce.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Renal Dialysis , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Kidney
12.
BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care ; 10(4)2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001822

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of admission glucose in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 with and without diabetes mellitus in a largely African American cohort. DESIGN AND METHODS: This study included 708 adults (89% non-Hispanic Black) admitted with COVID-19 to an urban hospital between 1 March and 15 May 2020. Patients with diabetes were compared with those without and were stratified based on admission glucose of 140 and 180 mg/dL. Adjusted ORs were calculated for outcomes of mortality, intubation, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, acute kidney injury (AKI), and length of stay based on admission glucose levels. RESULTS: Patients with diabetes with admission glucose >140 mg/dL (vs <140 g/dL) had 2.4-fold increased odds of intubation (95% CI 1.2 to 4.6) and 2.1-fold increased odds of ICU admission (95% CI 1.0 to 4.3). Patients with diabetes with admission glucose >180 mg/dL (vs <180 g/dL) had a 1.9-fold increased mortality (95% CI 1.2 to 3.1). Patients without diabetes with admission glucose >140 mg/dL had a 2.3-fold increased mortality (95% CI 1.3 to 4.3), 2.7-fold increased odds of ICU admission (95% CI 1.3 to 5.4), 1.9-fold increased odds of intubation (95% CI 1.0 to 3.7) and 2.2-fold odds of AKI (95% CI 1.1 to 3.8). Patients without diabetes with glucose >180 mg/dL had 4.4-fold increased odds of mortality (95% CI 1.9 to 10.4), 2.7-fold increased odds of intubation (95% CI 1.2 to 5.8) and 3-fold increased odds of ICU admission (95% CI 1.3 to 6.6). CONCLUSION: Our results show hyperglycemia portends worse outcomes in patients with COVID-19 with and without diabetes. While our study was limited by its retrospective design, our findings suggest that patients presenting with hyperglycemia require closer observation and more aggressive therapies.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Hyperglycemia , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Adult , African Americans , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Glucose , Humans , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Sugars
13.
Perm J ; 26(3): 39-45, 2022 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1994486

ABSTRACT

IntroductionAcute kidney injury (AKI) occurs in up to 10%-30% of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. AKI patients who require renal replacement therapy (RRT) often have concurrent respiratory failure and represent a high-mortality-risk population. The authors sought to describe outcomes in hospitalized COVID-19 patients with AKI requiring RRT and determine factors associated with poor outcomes. MethodsA retrospective cohort study of hospitalized COVID-19 patients with AKI requiring RRT during the period from March 14, 2020, to September 30, 2020, was performed at Kaiser Permanente Southern California. RRT was defined as conventional hemodialysis and/or continuous renal replacement therapy. The primary outcome was hospitalization mortality, and secondary outcomes were mechanical ventilation, vasopressor support, and dialysis dependence among discharged patients. Hospitalization mortality risk ratios were estimated up to 30 days from RRT initiation. ResultsA total of 167 hospitalized COVID-19 patients were identified with AKI requiring RRT. The study population had a mean age of 60.7 years and included 71.3% male patients and 60.5% Hispanic patients. Overall, 114 (68.3%) patients died during their hospitalization. Among patients with baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) values of ≥ 60, 30-59, and < 30 mL/min, the mortality rates were 76.8%, 78.1%, and 50.0%, respectively. Among the 53 patients who survived to hospital discharge, 29 (54.7%) continued to require RRT. Compared to patients with eGFR < 30 mL/min, the adjusted 30-day hospitalization mortality risk ratios (95% CI) were 1.38 (0.90-2.12) and 1.54 (1.06-2.25) for eGFR values of 30-59 and ≥ 60, respectively. ConclusionAmong a diverse cohort of hospitalized COVID-19 patients with AKI requiring RRT, survival to discharge was low. Greater mortality was observed among patients with higher baseline kidney function. Most of the patients discharged alive continued to be dialysis-dependent.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Renal Dialysis , Renal Replacement Therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
14.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 25(8): 1348-1356, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1994308

ABSTRACT

Background: It has been reported that the most affected organ by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the lung, closely followed by the kidney. Aim: Over the course of the COVID-19, the factors affecting mortality in acute kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy (AKI-RRRT) have not been known. This study was conducted in order to shed light on this issue. Patients and Methods: There were 64 patients in total. Subjects were divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of a control group that comprised 33 subjects who did not have AKI during the time in which they were infected with COVID-19. Group 2 was COVID-19 related AKI requiring renal replacement therapy (COVID-19 AKI-RRRT), which included 31 subjects who were exposed to AKI-RRRT. Results: In Group 2, 27 (87%) patients died and 4 (13%) patients were recovered. The predominance of comorbidity and presence of more than one additional disease (p < 0.05), the excessive number of inpatients in intensive care unit (ICU) (p < 0.05), high mortality rates (p < 0.05), advanced age (p < 0.05), and long hospitalization periods (p < 0.05) were evident in Group 2. Serum levels of variables such as white blood cells (WBC), neutrophils, C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), ferritin, D-dimer, glucose, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and prothrombin time (PT) were high for patients in the Group 2 (p < 0.05) group. However, serum levels of lymphocyte, hemoglobin (HGB), and albumin were low. Conclusions: It can be argued that COVID-19 AKI-RRRT is associated with higher mortality.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Kidney , Renal Replacement Therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
15.
Perit Dial Int ; 42(6): 554-561, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1978692

ABSTRACT

Acute kidney injury (AKI) has been shown to be associated with significant morbidity and mortality in patients with severe COVID-19 disease. Due to increasing number of cases in pandemic, there is a significant shortage of medical facilities and equipment in relation to patient load. In low resource settings where access to intermittent haemodialysis (HD) or continuous kidney replacement therapy (CKRT) is limited, peritoneal dialysis (PD) may play a vital role in the management of COVID-19-induced AKI. A literature search using Medline/PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar and Cochrane register was performed using following search strategy: (((COVID 19) OR (SARS-CoV-2)) AND (((acute kidney injury) OR (acute renal failure)) OR (acute renal dysfunction))) AND (peritoneal dialysis). Search strategy yielded total 79 articles. After going through titles and abstracts, full text of 15 articles was obtained. Finally, six studies were included in the review after exclusion of 10 studies. Five studies were single centre and one study was multicentric; four studies were conducted in the United States and one in the United Kingdom; PD catheter placement was done by surgeons in three studies and by nephrologist in one study. The mortality reported in the studies varied from 43% to as high as 63%.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Peritoneal Dialysis , Humans , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Pandemics , Peritoneal Dialysis/adverse effects , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl ; 32(6): 1543-1551, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1975052

ABSTRACT

Initial reports early on in the pandemic in 2020 indicate a high incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). There is a need to better understand risk factors for AKI in patients with COVID-19. It is also unclear if AKI in patients with COVID-19 differs from AKI due to other causes. More data are required to clarify if COVID-19 is an independent risk factor for AKI and how COVID-19-associated AKI may differ from AKI due to other causes. We, therefore, sought to review the published evidence about the reported relationship between COVID-19, AKI, and outcomes. We performed a systematic search via PubMed and EMBASE using key words "COVID-19" and "AKI" to identify relevant observational studies, case series, and cohort studies published between March 2020 and April 2021. We also manually examined the reference lists of included studies and reviewed the AKI reports published in general medicine journals such as BMJ, Lancet, NEJM, and JAMA. The prevalence of AKI in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 differed across various regions of the world. Initial reports from China where cases of COVID-19 began initially have shown a much lower prevalence compared to those from Europe and North America, especially in critically ill patients in the intensive care unit with acute respiratory distress syndrome. The various components of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated AKI appear in large parts to be similar to sepsis-induced AKI. However, affinity of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) specifically to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptors located on podocytes and endothelial cells of the kidney also points toward the direct cytotoxic effects of the virus on the kidney. Numerous mechanisms likely occur simultaneously and hence more treatment approaches need to be streamlined based on pathophysiology. Although data from published literature regarding previous SARS coronaviruses can give some useful insights, we will know more going forward about the nature of kidney injury associated with COVID-19 virus as well as optimum-specific therapeutic management.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Endothelial Cells , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
17.
BMC Emerg Med ; 22(1): 138, 2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1968544

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, maintenance of essential healthcare systems became very challenging. We describe the triage system of our institute, and assess the quality of care provided to critically ill non-COVID-19 patients requiring continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) during the pandemic. METHODS: We introduced an emergency triage pathway early in the pandemic. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients who received CRRT in our hospital from January 2016 to March 2021. We excluded end-stage kidney disease patients on maintenance dialysis. Patients were stratified as medical and surgical patients. The time from hospital arrival to intensive care unit (ICU) admission, the time from hospital arrival to intervention/operation, and the in-hospital mortality rate were compared before (January 2016 to December 2019) and during (January 2021 to March 2021) the pandemic. RESULTS: The mean number of critically ill patients who received CRRT annually in the surgical department significantly decreased during the pandemic in (2016-2019: 76.5 ± 3.1; 2020: 56; p < 0.010). Age, sex, and the severity of disease at admission did not change, whereas the proportions of medical patients with diabetes (before: 44.4%; after: 56.5; p < 0.005) and cancer (before: 19.4%; after: 32.3%; p < 0.001) increased during the pandemic. The time from hospital arrival to ICU admission and the time from hospital arrival to intervention/operation did not change. During the pandemic, 59.6% of surgical patients received interventions/operations within 6 hours of hospital arrival. In Cox's proportional hazard modeling, the hazard ratio associated with the pandemic was 1.002 (0.778-1.292) for medical patients and 1.178 (0.783-1.772) for surgical patients. CONCLUSION: Our triage system maintained the care required by critically ill non-COVID-19 patients undergoing CRRT at our institution.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care , Critical Illness/therapy , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , Renal Replacement Therapy , Retrospective Studies
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(15)2022 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957350

ABSTRACT

Rhabdomyolysis is a compound disease that may be induced by many factors, both congenital and acquired. Statin therapy is considered one of the most common acquired factors. However, recent scientific reports suggest that serious complications such as rhabdomyolysis are rarely observed. Researchers suggest that, in many cases, side effects that occur with statin therapy, including muscle pain, can be avoided with lower-dose statin therapy or in combination therapy with other drugs. One of the most recent agents discovered to contribute to rhabdomyolysis is COVID-19 disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Rhabdomyolysis is defined as a damage to striated muscle cells with escape of intracellular substances into the bloodstream. These substances, including myoglobin, creatine kinase (CK), potassium, and uridine acid, are markers of muscle damage and early complications of rhabdomyolysis. Symptoms may be helpful in establishing the diagnosis. However, in almost 50% of patients, they do not occur. Therefore, the diagnosis is confirmed by serum CK levels five times higher than the upper limit of normal. One of the late complications of this condition is acute kidney injury (AKI), which is immediately life-threatening and has a high mortality rate among patients. Therefore, the prompt detection and treatment of rhabdomyolysis is important. Markers of muscle damage, such as CK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), myoglobin, troponins, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), are important in diagnosis. Treatment of rhabdomyolysis is mainly based on early, aggressive fluid resuscitation. However, therapeutic interventions, such as urinary alkalinization with sodium bicarbonate or the administration of mannitol or furosemide, have not proven to be beneficial. In some patients who develop AKI in the course of rhabdomyolysis, renal replacement therapy (RRT) is required.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Rhabdomyolysis , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , Creatine Kinase , Humans , Myoglobin , Rhabdomyolysis/complications , Rhabdomyolysis/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 153: 113454, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1936097

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Analysis of autopsy tissues obtained from patients who died from COVID-19 showed kidney tropism for SARS-COV-2, with COVID-19-related renal dysfunction representing an overlooked problem even in patients lacking previous history of chronic kidney disease. This study aimed to corroborate in a substantial sample of consecutive acutely ill COVID-19 hospitalized patients the efficacy of estimated GFR (eGFR), assessed at hospital admission, to identify acute renal function derangement and the predictive role of its association with in-hospital death and need for mechanical ventilation and admission to intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed charts of 764 patients firstly admitted to regular medical wards (Division of Internal Medicine) for symptomatic COVID-19 between March 6th and May 30th, 2020 and between October 1st, 2020 and March 15th, 2021. eGFR values were calculated with the 2021 CKD-EPI formula and assessed at hospital admission and discharge. Baseline creatinine and GFR values were assessed by chart review of patients' medical records from hospital admittance data in the previous year. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality, while ARDS development and need for non-invasive ventilation (NIV) and invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) were the secondary outcomes. RESULTS: SARS-COV-2 infection was diagnosed in 764 patients admitted with COVID-19 symptoms. A total of 682 patients (age range 23-100 years) were considered for statistical analysis, 310 needed mechanical ventilation and 137 died. An eGFR value <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 was found in 208 patients, 181 met KDIGO AKI criteria; eGFR values at hospital admission were significantly lower with respect to both hospital discharge and baseline values (p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, an eGFR value <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 was significantly associated with in-hospital mortality (OR 2.6, 1.7-4.8, p = 0.003); no association was found with both ARDS and need for mechanical ventilation. eGFR was non-inferior to both IL-6 serum levels and CALL Score in predicting in-hospital death (AUC 0.71, 0.68-0.74, p = 0.55). CONCLUSIONS: eGFR calculated at hospital admission correlated well with COVID-19-related kidney injury and eGFR values < 60 mL/min/1,73 m2 were independently associated with in-hospital mortality, but not with both ARDS or need for mechanical ventilation.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/therapy , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Hospital Mortality , Hospitals , Humans , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(13)2022 Jun 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934128

ABSTRACT

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an increasingly common problem afflicting all ages, occurring in over 20% of non-critically ill hospitalized patients and >30% of children and >50% of adults in critical care units. AKI is associated with serious short-term and long-term consequences, and current therapeutic options are unsatisfactory. Large gaps remain in our understanding of human AKI pathobiology, which have hindered the discovery of novel diagnostics and therapeutics. Although animal models of AKI have been extensively studied, these differ significantly from human AKI in terms of molecular and cellular responses. In addition, animal models suffer from interspecies differences, high costs and ethical considerations. Static two-dimensional cell culture models of AKI also have limited utility since they have focused almost exclusively on hypoxic or cytotoxic injury to proximal tubules alone. An optimal AKI model would encompass several of the diverse specific cell types in the kidney that could be targets of injury. Second, it would resemble the human physiological milieu as closely as possible. Third, it would yield sensitive and measurable readouts that are directly applicable to the human condition. In this regard, the past two decades have seen a dramatic shift towards newer personalized human-based models to study human AKI. In this review, we provide recent developments using human stem cells, organoids, and in silico approaches to advance personalized AKI diagnostics and therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Organoids , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Animals , Critical Illness/therapy , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Kidney Tubules, Proximal , Stem Cells
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