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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(50): e28302, 2021 Dec 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583956

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Although the number of deaths due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is higher in men than women, prior studies have provided limited sex-stratified clinical data.We evaluated sex-related differences in clinical outcomes among critically ill adults with COVID-19.Multicenter cohort study of adults with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 admitted to intensive care units at 67 U.S. hospitals from March 4 to May 9, 2020. Multilevel logistic regression was used to evaluate 28-day in-hospital mortality, severe acute kidney injury (AKI requiring kidney replacement therapy), and respiratory failure occurring within 14 days of intensive care unit admission.A total of 4407 patients were included (median age, 62 years; 2793 [63.4%] men; 1159 [26.3%] non-Hispanic White; 1220 [27.7%] non-Hispanic Black; 994 [22.6%] Hispanic). Compared with women, men were younger (median age, 61 vs 64 years, less likely to be non-Hispanic Black (684 [24.5%] vs 536 [33.2%]), and more likely to smoke (877 [31.4%] vs 422 [26.2%]). During median follow-up of 14 days, 1072 men (38.4%) and 553 women (34.3%) died. Severe AKI occurred in 590 men (21.8%), and 239 women (15.5%), while respiratory failure occurred in 2255 men (80.7%) and 1234 women (76.5%). After adjusting for age, race/ethnicity and clinical variables, compared with women, men had a higher risk of death (OR, 1.50, 95% CI, 1.26-1.77), severe AKI (OR, 1.92; 95% CI 1.57-2.36), and respiratory failure (OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.11-1.80).In this multicenter cohort of critically ill adults with COVID-19, men were more likely to have adverse outcomes compared with women.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Respiratory Insufficiency , Sex Factors , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Illness , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
2.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(10): 2561-2575, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521396

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) acute kidney injury (AKI) to sepsis-AKI (S-AKI). The morphology and transcriptomic and proteomic characteristics of autopsy kidneys were analyzed. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Individuals 18 years of age and older who died from COVID-19 and had an autopsy performed at Mayo Clinic between April 2020 to October 2020 were included. Morphological evaluation of the kidneys of 17 individuals with COVID-19 was performed. In a subset of seven COVID-19 cases with postmortem interval of less than or equal to 20 hours, ultrastructural and molecular characteristics (targeted transcriptome and proteomics analyses of tubulointerstitium) were evaluated. Molecular characteristics were compared with archived cases of S-AKI and nonsepsis causes of AKI. RESULTS: The spectrum of COVID-19 renal pathology included macrophage-dominant microvascular inflammation (glomerulitis and peritubular capillaritis), vascular dysfunction (peritubular capillary congestion and endothelial injury), and tubular injury with ultrastructural evidence of mitochondrial damage. Investigation of the spatial architecture using a novel imaging mass cytometry revealed enrichment of CD3+CD4+ T cells in close proximity to antigen-presenting cells, and macrophage-enriched glomerular and interstitial infiltrates, suggesting an innate and adaptive immune tissue response. Coronavirus disease 2019 AKI and S-AKI, as compared to nonseptic AKI, had an enrichment of transcriptional pathways involved in inflammation (apoptosis, autophagy, major histocompatibility complex class I and II, and type 1 T helper cell differentiation). Proteomic pathway analysis showed that COVID-19 AKI and to a lesser extent S-AKI were enriched in necroptosis and sirtuin-signaling pathways, both involved in regulatory response to inflammation. Upregulation of the ceramide-signaling pathway and downregulation of oxidative phosphorylation in COVID-19 AKI were noted. CONCLUSION: This data highlights the similarities between S-AKI and COVID-19 AKI and suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction may play a pivotal role in COVID-19 AKI. This data may allow the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic targets.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Kidney/pathology , Sepsis/pathology , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Adult , Autopsy , Humans , Kidney Tubules, Proximal/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Sepsis/virology
3.
Pediatr Nephrol ; 36(9): 2627-2638, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1520348

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 is responsible for the 2019 novel coronavirus disease pandemic. Despite the vast research about the adult population, there has been little data collected on acute kidney injury (AKI) epidemiology, associated risk factors, treatments, and mortality in pediatric COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU. AKI is a severe complication of COVID-19 among children and adolescents. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted in PubMed/MEDLINE and Cochrane Center Trials to find all published literature related to AKI in COVID-19 patients, including incidence and outcomes. RESULTS: Twenty-four studies reporting the outcomes of interest were included. Across all studies, the overall sample size of COVID positive children was 1,247 and the median age of this population was 9.1 years old. Among COVID positive pediatric patients, there was an AKI incidence of 30.51%, with only 0.56% of these patients receiving KRT. The mortality was 2.55% among all COVID positive pediatric patients. The incidence of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) among COVID positive patients was 74.29%. CONCLUSION: AKI has shown to be a negative prognostic factor in adult patients with COVID-19 and now also in the pediatric cohort with high incidence and mortality rates. Additionally, our findings show a strong comparison in epidemiology between adult and pediatric COVID-19 patients; however, they need to be confirmed with additional data and studies.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Renal Replacement Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/immunology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Adult , Age Factors , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality
4.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(9): 1273-1276, 2021 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478140

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: An outbreak of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) has occurred in different parts of the world. Although a large piece of information regarding the epidemiology, clinical features, and management of COVID-19 has been reported in the general population, there is very limited data regarding organ transplant recipients, particularly regarding the management of maintenance immunosuppressive agents during infection. METHODOLOGY: We described a case of kidney transplant recipient from Thailand who had COVID-19 pneumonia and severe acute kidney injury. RESULTS: The patient's serum creatinine peaked at 7.0 mg/dL on day 15 of illness and returned to baseline value of 2.0 mg/dL on day 26 of illness. We have shown how we modified tacrolimus, mycophenolate, and steroids in the patient who had received favipiravir and lopinavir/ritonavir for COVID-19 pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: In this case, successful modification of this immunosuppressive regimen was accomplished to reduce drug interaction complications, aiming to avoid calcineurin inhibitor nephrotoxicity while maintaining appropriate levels of immunosuppression to prevent organ rejection and to promote the patient's recovery from infection.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/virology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Adult , Amides/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Drug Interactions , Humans , Kidney Transplantation , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Mycophenolic Acid/administration & dosage , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Steroids/administration & dosage , Tacrolimus/administration & dosage , Thailand , Transplant Recipients
5.
Transplant Proc ; 53(8): 2451-2467, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347841

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Kidney transplant recipients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are at increased risk for adverse outcomes, such as acute kidney injury (AKI), intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and death. The association of inflammatory biomarkers with outcomes and the impact of changes in immunosuppression on biomarker levels are unknown. METHODS: We investigated factors associated with a composite of AKI, ICU admission, or death, and whether immunosuppression changes correlated with changes in inflammatory biomarkers and outcomes in kidney transplant recipients with a positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Of 59 patients, 50% had estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Patients who discontinued calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) had higher peak high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) than those who maintained the same dose (median, 344; interquartile range [IQR], 145-374 vs median, 41; IQR, 22-116 mg/L, P = .03). Of the patients, 73% were hospitalized, 22% had admissions to the ICU, and 20% died. Of the 56% with AKI, 35% required dialysis. All patients with AKI but without pulmonary manifestations recovered to 10% of baseline creatinine levels. Factors associated with the composite outcome were eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (odds ratio [OR], 5.833; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.880-18.099; P = .002), hs-CRP (OR, 1.011/unit increase; 95% CI, 1.002-1.021; P = .019), white blood cell count (OR, 1.173/unit increase; 95% CI, 1.006-1.368; P = .041), and decreased or discontinued CNI (OR, 4.286; 95% CI, 1.353-13.572; P = .013). eGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (OR, 11.176; 95% CI, 1.581-79.001; P = .016), and peak hs-CRP (OR, 1.010/unit increase; 95% CI, 1.000-1.020; P = .049) remained associated with the composite in the multivariable model. CONCLUSIONS: Kidney transplant recipients with COVID-19 have high rates of ICU admissions, AKI, and death. Those with eGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m2 are at highest risk. CNI reduction is associated with higher inflammatory biomarkers, correlating with worse outcomes. More studies are needed to determine if this association should drive clinical management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Transplant Recipients , United States
6.
Contrib Nephrol ; 199: 229-243, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338891

ABSTRACT

Clinical Background: The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) rapidly spread globally from late 2019, reaching pandemic proportions. Epidemiology: The related disease, COVID-19, exacerbates and progresses due to patients' abnormal inflammatory/immune responses, widespread endothelial damage, and complement-induced blood clotting with microangiopathy. COVID-19 manifests mainly as a respiratory illness. In cases of severe viral pneumonia, it may lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome, respiratory failure, and death. Challenges: Many extrapulmonary manifestations commonly occur, and a substantial proportion of patients with severe COVID-19 exhibit signs of kidney damage. Clinically, kidney involvement ranges from mild/moderate proteinuria and hematuria to acute kidney injury (AKI) requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT). The pathophysiologic mechanisms of kidney damage and AKI in patients with COVID-19 remain unclear but are known to be multifactorial. Current knowledge implies direct SARS-CoV-2-dependent effects on kidney cells (tubular epithelial cells and podocytes) and indirect mechanisms through the systemic effect of viral infection secondary to the critical pulmonary illness and its management. Prevention and Treatment: Standard-of-care strategies apply, as there is no specific evidence to suggest that COVID-19 AKI should be managed differently from other types in severely ill patients. If conservative management fails, RRT should be considered. The choice of RRT approaches and sequential extracorporeal therapies depends on local availability, resources, and expertise. The focus should now be on the long-term follow-up of COVID-19 patients, especially those who developed kidney injury and dysfunction. This represents an opportunity for integrated multidisciplinary research to clarify the natural history of COVID-19 renal sequelae and the best therapeutic interventions to mitigate them.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hematuria/virology , Humans , Nephrologists , Proteinuria/virology , Renal Replacement Therapy , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 142: 111966, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330663

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, the world was encountered a new disease called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Although SARS-CoV-2 initially causes lung damage, it also affects many other organs, including the kidneys, and on average, 5-23% of people with COVID-19 develop the symptoms of acute kidney injury (AKI), including elevated blood creatinine and urea, hematuria, proteinuria, and histopathological damages. The exact mechanism is unknown, but the researchers believe that SARS-CoV-2 directly and indirectly affects the kidneys. The direct pathway is by binding the virus to ACE2 receptor in the kidney, damage to cells, the renin-angiotensin system disturbances, activating coagulation pathways, and damaging the renal vascular endothelium. The initial evidence from studying the kidney tissue in postmortem patients is more in favor of the direct pathway. The indirect pathway is created by increased cytokines and cytokine storm, sepsis, circulatory disturbances, hypoxemia, as well as using the nephrotoxic drugs. Using renal tissue biopsy and autopsy in the patients with COVID-19, recent studies found evidence for a predominant indirect pathway in AKI induction by SARS-CoV-2. Besides, some studies showed that the degree of acute tubular injury (ATI) in autopsies from COVID-19 victims is milder compared to AKI degree. We review the mechanism of AKI induction and the renal side effects of the most common drugs used to treat COVID-19 after the overview of the latest findings on SARS-CoV-2 pathogenicity.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19/drug therapy , Kidney/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Humans , Kidney Function Tests/methods , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
9.
Nephrol Ther ; 17(4): 203-207, 2021 Aug.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1316598

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a disease caused by the RNA virus SARS-CoV-2. It is characterised by an attack mainly affecting the respiratory system. There is renal involvement which is characterised by three main types of damage, acute tubular necrosis occurring in the most severe cases, proximal tubulopathy which is a prognostic marker of the disease and segmental and focal hyalinosis occurring in a genetically predisposed terrain. The pathophysiology of SARS-CoV-2 renal involvement is not yet defined. The direct role of the virus is debated, whereas the cytokine storm and the hypoxic and thrombotic complications seem more important. The long-term outcome of the renal damage appears to be quite good. Long-term follow-up will allow us to say whether the renal damage is part of the long COVID.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/virology , COVID-19/complications , Glomerulosclerosis, Focal Segmental/virology , Kidney Tubular Necrosis, Acute/virology , Biopsy , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Kidney/pathology
11.
Nat Rev Nephrol ; 17(11): 751-764, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1297305

ABSTRACT

Although respiratory failure and hypoxaemia are the main manifestations of COVID-19, kidney involvement is also common. Available evidence supports a number of potential pathophysiological pathways through which acute kidney injury (AKI) can develop in the context of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Histopathological findings have highlighted both similarities and differences between AKI in patients with COVID-19 and in those with AKI in non-COVID-related sepsis. Acute tubular injury is common, although it is often mild, despite markedly reduced kidney function. Systemic haemodynamic instability very likely contributes to tubular injury. Despite descriptions of COVID-19 as a cytokine storm syndrome, levels of circulating cytokines are often lower in patients with COVID-19 than in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome with causes other than COVID-19. Tissue inflammation and local immune cell infiltration have been repeatedly observed and might have a critical role in kidney injury, as might endothelial injury and microvascular thrombi. Findings of high viral load in patients who have died with AKI suggest a contribution of viral invasion in the kidneys, although the issue of renal tropism remains controversial. An impaired type I interferon response has also been reported in patients with severe COVID-19. In light of these observations, the potential pathophysiological mechanisms of COVID-19-associated AKI may provide insights into therapeutic strategies.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/physiopathology , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Adaptive Immunity/physiology , Biopsy , Complement System Proteins , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Hematuria/physiopathology , Humans , Immunity, Humoral/physiology , Immunity, Innate/physiology , Immunosenescence , Inflammation/physiopathology , Inflammation/virology , Interferon Type I/physiology , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/virology , Proteinuria/physiopathology , Severity of Illness Index , Viral Load
12.
BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 224, 2021 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1277921

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) has been declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organisation. Severe disease typically presents with respiratory failure but Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) and a hypercoagulable state can also occur. Early reports suggest that thrombosis may be linked with AKI. We studied the development of AKI and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 taking chronic anticoagulation therapy. METHODS: Electronic records were reviewed for all adult patients admitted to Manchester University Foundation Trust Hospitals between March 10 and April 302,020 with a diagnosis of COVID-19. Patients with end-stage kidney disease were excluded. AKI was classified as per KDIGO criteria. RESULTS: Of the 1032 patients with COVID-19 studied,164 (15.9%) were taking anticoagulant therapy prior to admission. There were similar rates of AKI between those on anticoagulants and those not anticoagulated (23.8% versus 19.7%) with no difference in the severity of AKI or requirement of renal replacement therapy between groups (1.2% versus 3.5%). Risk factors for AKI included hypertension, pre-existing renal disease and male sex. There was a higher mortality in those taking anticoagulant therapy (40.2% versus 30%). Patients taking anticoagulants were less likely to be admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (8.5% versus 17.4%) and to receive mechanical ventilation (42.9% versus 78.1%). CONCLUSION: Patients on chronic anticoagulant therapy did not have a reduced incidence or severity of AKI suggesting that AKI is unlikely to be thrombotic in nature. Therapeutic anticoagulation is currently still under investigation in randomised controlled studies to determine whether it has a potential role in COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Thrombophilia , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/prevention & control , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Preexisting Condition Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombophilia/diagnosis , Thrombophilia/prevention & control , Thrombophilia/virology , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/etiology , United Kingdom/epidemiology
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12606, 2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270673

ABSTRACT

Increasing evidence has shown that Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) severity is driven by a dysregulated immunologic response. We aimed to assess the differences in inflammatory cytokines in COVID-19 patients compared to contemporaneously hospitalized controls and then analyze the relationship between these cytokines and the development of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) and mortality. In this cohort study of hospitalized patients, done between March third, 2020 and April first, 2020 at a quaternary referral center in New York City we included adult hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and negative controls. Serum specimens were obtained on the first, second, and third hospital day and cytokines were measured by Luminex. Autopsies of nine cohort patients were examined. We identified 90 COVID-19 patients and 51 controls. Analysis of 48 inflammatory cytokines revealed upregulation of macrophage induced chemokines, T-cell related interleukines and stromal cell producing cytokines in COVID-19 patients compared to the controls. Moreover, distinctive cytokine signatures predicted the development of ARDS, AKI and mortality in COVID-19 patients. Specifically, macrophage-associated cytokines predicted ARDS, T cell immunity related cytokines predicted AKI and mortality was associated with cytokines of activated immune pathways, of which IL-13 was universally correlated with ARDS, AKI and mortality. Histopathological examination of the autopsies showed diffuse alveolar damage with significant mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltration. Additionally, the kidneys demonstrated glomerular sclerosis, tubulointerstitial lymphocyte infiltration and cortical and medullary atrophy. These patterns of cytokine expression offer insight into the pathogenesis of COVID-19 disease, its severity, and subsequent lung and kidney injury suggesting more targeted treatment strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cytokines/blood , Acute Kidney Injury/blood , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/therapy , Case-Control Studies , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , New York City , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Treatment Outcome
14.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(9): 2242-2254, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266593

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes significan t morbidity, mainly from pulmonary involvement, extrapulmonary symptoms are also major componen ts of the disease. Kidney disease, usually presenting as AKI, is particularly severe among patients with COVID-19. It is unknown, however, whether such injury results from direct kidney infection with COVID-19's causative virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), or from indirect mechanisms. METHODS: Using ex vivo cell models, we sought to analyze SARS-CoV-2 interactions with kidney tubular cells and assess direct tubular injury. These models comprised primary human kidney epithelial cells (derived from nephrectomies) and grown as either proliferating monolayers or quiescent three-dimensional kidney spheroids. RESULTS: We demonstrated that viral entry molecules and high baseline levels of type 1 IFN-related molecules were present in monolayers and kidney spheroids. Although both models support viral infection and replication, they did not exhibit a cytopathic effect and cell death, outcomes that were strongly present in SARS-CoV-2-infected controls (African green monkey kidney clone E6 [Vero E6] cultures). A comparison of monolayer and spheroid cultures demonstrated higher infectivity and replication of SARS-CoV-2 in actively proliferating monolayers, although the spheroid cultures exhibited high er levels of ACE2. Monolayers exhibited elevation of some tubular injury molecules-including molecules related to fibrosis (COL1A1 and STAT6) and dedifferentiation (SNAI2)-and a loss of cell identity, evident by reduction in megalin (LRP2). The three-dimensional spheroids were less prone to such injury. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 can infect kidney cells without a cytopathic effect. AKI-induced cellular proliferation may potentially intensify infectivity and tubular damage by SARS-CoV-2, suggesting that early intervention in AKI is warranted to help minimize kidney infection.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spheroids, Cellular/virology , Animals , Cells, Cultured , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cohort Studies , Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral , Epithelial Cells/pathology , Epithelial Cells/virology , Host Microbial Interactions , Humans , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Kidney/immunology , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/virology , Mice , Mice, Inbred NOD , Mice, SCID , Models, Biological , Pandemics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spheroids, Cellular/pathology , Vero Cells , Virus Replication
15.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 29(10): 1719-1730, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263114

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine whether obesity is independently associated with major adverse clinical outcomes and inflammatory and thrombotic markers in critically ill patients with COVID-19. METHODS: The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality in adults with COVID-19 admitted to intensive care units across the US. Secondary outcomes were acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), acute kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy (AKI-RRT), thrombotic events, and seven blood markers of inflammation and thrombosis. Unadjusted and multivariable-adjusted models were used. RESULTS: Among the 4,908 study patients, mean (SD) age was 60.9 (14.7) years, 3,095 (62.8%) were male, and 2,552 (52.0%) had obesity. In multivariable models, BMI was not associated with mortality. Higher BMI beginning at 25 kg/m2 was associated with a greater risk of ARDS and AKI-RRT but not thrombosis. There was no clinically significant association between BMI and inflammatory or thrombotic markers. CONCLUSIONS: In critically ill patients with COVID-19, higher BMI was not associated with death or thrombotic events but was associated with a greater risk of ARDS and AKI-RRT. The lack of an association between BMI and circulating biomarkers calls into question the paradigm that obesity contributes to poor outcomes in critically ill patients with COVID-19 by upregulating systemic inflammatory and prothrombotic pathways.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Inflammation/epidemiology , Obesity/epidemiology , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Aged , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , United States/epidemiology
16.
J Med Virol ; 93(7): 4411-4419, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263106

ABSTRACT

In late December 2019, an outbreak of a novel coronavirus which caused coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was initiated. Acute kidney injury (AKI) was associated with higher severity and mortality of COVID-19. We aimed to evaluate the effects of comorbidities and medications in addition to determining the association between AKI, antibiotics against coinfections (AAC) and outcomes of patients. We conducted a retrospective study on adult patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in a tertiary center. Our primary outcomes were the incidence rate of AKI based on comorbidities and medications. The secondary outcome was to determine mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and prolonged hospitalization by AKI and AAC. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression method was used to explore predictive effects of AKI and AAC on outcomes. Out of 854 included participants, 118 patients developed AKI in whom, 57 used AAC and 61 did not. Hypertension and diabetes were the most common comorbidities in patients developed AKI. AAC, lopinavir/ritonavir, ribavirin, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers, and corticosteroids had significant higher rate of administration in patients developed AKI. AAC were associated with higher deaths (odds ratio [OR] = 5.13; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3-8.78) and ICU admission (OR = 5.87; 95%CI: 2.81-12.27), while AKI had higher OR for prolonged hospitalization (3.37; 95%CI: 1.76-6.45). Both AKI and AAC are associated with poor prognosis of COVID-19. Defining strict criteria regarding indications and types of antibiotics would help overcoming concomitant infections and minimizing related adverse events.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Adult , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Coinfection/drug therapy , Coinfection/prevention & control , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Drug Combinations , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Linezolid/therapeutic use , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Ribavirin/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Vancomycin/therapeutic use
17.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(10): 2517-2528, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259282

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: AKI is a complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) that is associated with high mortality. Despite documented kidney tropism of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), there are no consistent reports of viral detection in urine or correlation with AKI or COVID-19 severity. Here, we hypothesize that quantification of the viral load of SARS-CoV-2 in urine sediment from patients with COVID-19 correlates with occurrence of AKI and mortality. METHODS: The viral load of SARS-CoV-2 in urine sediments (U-viral load) was quantified by qRT-PCR in 52 patients with PCR-confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis, who were hospitalized between March 15 and June 8, 2020. Immunolabeling of SARS-CoV-2 proteins Spike and Nucleocapsid was performed in two COVID-19 kidney biopsy specimens and urine sediments. Viral infectivity assays were performed from 32 urine sediments. RESULTS: A total of 20 patients with COVID-19 (39%) had detectable SARS-CoV-2 U-viral load, of which 17 (85%) developed AKI with an average U-viral load four-times higher than patients with COVID-19 who did not have AKI. U-viral load was highest (7.7-fold) within 2 weeks after AKI diagnosis. A higher U-viral load correlated with mortality but not with albuminuria or AKI stage. SARS-CoV-2 proteins partially colocalized with the viral receptor ACE2 in kidney biopsy specimens in tubules and parietal cells, and in urine sediment cells. Infective SARS-CoV-2 was not detected in urine sediments. CONCLUSION: Our results further support SARS-CoV-2 kidney tropism. A higher SARS-CoV-2 viral load in urine sediments from patients with COVID-19 correlated with increased incidence of AKI and mortality. Urinary viral detection could inform the medical care of patients with COVID-19 and kidney injury to improve prognosis.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/virology , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Load , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/urine , Adult , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/analysis , COVID-19/urine , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , Urine/virology
18.
BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 202, 2021 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249548

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The reported incidence of AKI, however, varies among studies. We aimed to evaluate the incidence of AKI and its association with mortality and morbidity in children infected with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) who required hospital admission. METHODS: This was a multicenter retrospective cohort study from three tertiary centers, which included children with confirmed COVID-19. All children were evaluated for AKI using the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) definition and staging. RESULTS: Of 89 children included, 19 (21 %) developed AKI (52.6 % stage I). A high renal angina index score was correlated with severity of AKI. Also, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) was increased in children with AKI compared to those with normal kidney function (15 % vs. 1.5 %). Patients with AKI had significantly more pediatric intensive care admissions (PICU) (32 % vs. 2.8 %, p < 0.001) and mortality (42 % vs. 0 %, p < 0.001). However, AKI was not associated with prolonged hospitalization (58 % vs. 40 %, p = 0.163) or development of MIS-C (10.5 % vs. 1.4 %, p = 0.051). No patient in the AKI group required renal replacement therapy. Residual renal impairment at discharge occurred in 9 % of patients. This was significantly influenced by the presence of comorbidities, hypotension, hypoxia, heart failure, acute respiratory distress, hypernatremia, abnormal liver profile, high C-reactive protein, and positive blood culture. CONCLUSIONS: AKI occurred in one-fifth of children with SARS-CoV-2 infection requiring hospital admission, with one-third of those requiring PICU. AKI was associated with increased morbidity and mortality, and residual renal impairment at time of discharge.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , COVID-19/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Creatinine/blood , Critical Care , Female , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Incidence , Length of Stay , Male , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications
19.
Ren Fail ; 43(1): 911-918, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246489

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early reports indicate that AKI is common during COVID-19 infection. Different mortality rates of AKI due to SARS-CoV-2 have been reported, based on the degree of organic dysfunction and varying from public to private hospitals. However, there is a lack of data about AKI among critically ill patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter cohort study of 424 critically ill adults with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and AKI, both associated with SARS-CoV-2, admitted to six public ICUs in Brazil. We used multivariable logistic regression to identify risk factors for AKI severity and in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: The average age was 66.42 ± 13.79 years, 90.3% were on mechanical ventilation (MV), 76.6% were at KDIGO stage 3, and 79% underwent hemodialysis. The overall mortality was 90.1%. We found a higher frequency of dialysis (82.7% versus 45.2%), MV (95% versus 47.6%), vasopressors (81.2% versus 35.7%) (p < 0.001) and severe AKI (79.3% versus 52.4%; p = 0.002) in nonsurvivors. MV, vasopressors, dialysis, sepsis-associated AKI, and death (p < 0.001) were more frequent in KDIGO 3. Logistic regression for death demonstrated an association with MV (OR = 8.44; CI 3.43-20.74) and vasopressors (OR = 2.93; CI 1.28-6.71; p < 0.001). Severe AKI and dialysis need were not independent risk factors for death. MV (OR = 2.60; CI 1.23-5.45) and vasopressors (OR = 1.95; CI 1.12-3.99) were also independent risk factors for KDIGO 3 (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Critically ill patients with SARS and AKI due to COVID-19 had high mortality in this cohort. Mortality was largely determined by the need for mechanical ventilation and vasopressors rather than AKI severity.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , COVID-19/complications , Critical Illness , Renal Dialysis , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Aged , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
20.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 35(6): e23805, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241507

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) has been reported developing commonly in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients and could increase the risk of poor outcomes in these patients. We design this study to explore the value of serum procalcitonin (PCT) on predicting AKI and construct risk score for predicting AKI in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with COVID-19 and hospitalized in Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University between January 30 and February 24, 2020, were included. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression was performed to identify the strongest predictors of AKI. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to find independent risk factors for AKI and construct risk score using odds ratio (OR) value of those risk factors. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves were plotted, and area under the ROC curve (AUC) value was calculated to evaluate the predictive value of single PCT level and the constructed risk score. RESULTS: Among 389 included COVID-19 patients, 28 (7.2%) patients developed AKI. LASSO regression showed hypertension, saturation of arterial oxygen (SaO2 ), PCT, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were the strongest predictors for AKI. After multivariate logistic regression analysis, only SaO2 (<0.001), PCT (p = 0.004), and BUN (p = 0.005) were independently associated with development of AKI in COVID-19 patients. The AUC of single PCT and constructed risk score was 0. 881 and 0.928, respectively. CONCLUSION: PCT level is correlated with AKI in COVID-19 patients. The efficient risk score consisted of SaO2 , PCT, and BUN is readily accessible for physicians to evaluate the possibility of AKI in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Procalcitonin/blood , Acute Kidney Injury/blood , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , China , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
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