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1.
Molecules ; 28(11)2023 May 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238682

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) induces a severe cytokine storm that may cause acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) with high clinical morbidity and mortality in infected individuals. Cepharanthine (CEP) is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid isolated and extracted from Stephania cepharantha Hayata. It exhibits various pharmacological effects, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, anti-tumor, and antiviral activities. The low oral bioavailability of CEP can be attributed to its poor water solubility. In this study, we utilized the freeze-drying method to prepare dry powder inhalers (DPI) for the treatment of acute lung injury (ALI) in rats via pulmonary administration. According to the powder properties study, the aerodynamic median diameter (Da) of the DPIs was 3.2 µm, and the in vitro lung deposition rate was 30.26; thus, meeting the Chinese Pharmacopoeia standard for pulmonary inhalation administration. We established an ALI rat model by intratracheal injection of hydrochloric acid (1.2 mL/kg, pH = 1.25). At 1 h after the model's establishment, CEP dry powder inhalers (CEP DPIs) (30 mg/kg) were sprayed into the lungs of rats with ALI via the trachea. Compared with the model group, the treatment group exhibited a reduced pulmonary edema and hemorrhage, and significantly reduced content of inflammatory factors (TNF-α, IL-6 and total protein) in their lungs (p < 0.01), indicating that the main mechanism of CEP underlying the treatment of ALI is anti-inflammation. Overall, the dry powder inhaler can deliver the drug directly to the site of the disease, increasing the intrapulmonary utilization of CEP and improving its efficacy, making it a promising inhalable formulation for the treatment of ALI.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , Benzylisoquinolines , COVID-19 , Rats , Animals , Administration, Inhalation , Dry Powder Inhalers , COVID-19/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Respiratory Aerosols and Droplets , Lung/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Benzylisoquinolines/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/analysis , Particle Size , Powders/analysis
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(9)2023 Apr 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316764

ABSTRACT

Acute lung injury (ALI), caused by intrapulmonary or extrapulmonary factors such as pneumonia, shock, and sepsis, eventually disrupts the alveolar-capillary barrier, resulting in diffuse pulmonary oedema and microatasis, manifested by refractory hypoxemia, and respiratory distress. Not only is ALI highly lethal, but even if a patient survives, there are also multiple sequelae. Currently, there is no better treatment than supportive care, and we urgently need to find new targets to improve ALI. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are epigenetically important enzymes that, together with histone acetylases (HATs), regulate the acetylation levels of histones and non-histones. While HDAC inhibitors (HDACis) play a therapeutic role in cancer, inflammatory, and neurodegenerative diseases, there is also a large body of evidence suggesting the potential of HDACs as therapeutic targets in ALI. This review explores the unique mechanisms of HDACs in different cell types of ALI, including macrophages, pulmonary vascular endothelial cells (VECs), alveolar epithelial cells (AECs), and neutrophils.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , Endothelial Cells , Humans , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Histone Deacetylases/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors/metabolism
3.
Clin Immunol ; 249: 109289, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2310145

ABSTRACT

Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are life-threatening conditions triggered by multiple intra- and extra-pulmonary injury factors, characterized by complicated molecular mechanisms and high mortality. Great strides have been made in the field of immunometabolism to clarify the interplay between intracellular metabolism and immune function in the past few years. Emerging evidence unveils the crucial roles of immunometabolism in inflammatory response and ALI. During ALI, both macrophages and lymphocytes undergo robust metabolic reprogramming and discrete epigenetic changes after activated. Apart from providing ATP and biosynthetic precursors, these metabolic cellular reactions and processes in lung also regulate inflammation and immunity.In fact, metabolic reprogramming involving glucose metabolism and fatty acidoxidation (FAO) acts as a double-edged sword in inflammatory response, which not only drives inflammasome activation but also elicits anti-inflammatory response. Additionally, the features and roles of metabolic reprogramming in different immune cells are not exactly the same. Here, we outline the evidence implicating how adverse factors shape immunometabolism in differentiation types of immune cells during ALI and summarize key proteins associated with energy expenditure and metabolic reprogramming. Finally, novel therapeutic targets in metabolic intermediates and enzymes together with current challenges in immunometabolism against ALI were discussed.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Lung , Inflammation , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Macrophages , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy
4.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 119: 110177, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2300914

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Acute lung injury (ALI) poses a serious threat to human health globally, particularly with the Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Excessive recruitment and infiltration of neutrophils is the major etiopathogenesis of ALI. Esculin, also known as 6,7-dihydroxycoumarin, is a remarkable compound derived from traditional Chinese medicine Cortex fraxini. Accumulated evidence indicates that esculin has potent anti-inflammatory effects, but its pharmaceutical effect against ALI and potential mechanisms are still unclear. METHODS: This study evaluated the protective effect of esculin against ALI by histopathological observation and biochemical analysis of lung tissues and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged ALI mice in vivo. The effects of esculin on N-formyl-met-leu-phe (fMLP)-induced neutrophil migration and chemotaxis were quantitatively assessed using a Transwell assay and an automated cell imaging system equipped with a Zigmond chamber, respectively. The drug affinity responsive target stability (DARTS) assay, in vitro protein binding assay and molecular docking were performed to identify the potential therapeutic target of esculin and the potential binding sites and pattern. RESULTS: Esculin significantly attenuated LPS-induced lung pathological injury, reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in both BALF and lung, and suppressed the activation of NF-κB signaling. Esculin also significantly reduced the number of total cells and neutrophils as well as myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in the BALF. Esculin impaired neutrophil migration and chemotaxis as evidenced by the reduced migration distance and velocity. Furthermore, esculin remarkably inhibited Vav1 phosphorylation, suppressed Rac1 activation and the PAK1/LIMK1/cofilin signaling axis. Mechanistically, esculin could interact with ß2 integrin and then diminish its ligand affinity with intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). CONCLUSIONS: Esculin inhibits ß2 integrin-dependent neutrophil migration and chemotaxis, blocks the cytoskeletal remodeling process required for neutrophil recruitment, thereby contributing to its protective effect against ALI. This study demonstrates the new therapeutic potential of esculin as a novel lead compound.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , COVID-19 , Mice , Humans , Animals , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Esculin/metabolism , Esculin/pharmacology , Esculin/therapeutic use , Neutrophil Infiltration , Molecular Docking Simulation , COVID-19/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/chemically induced , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Lung/pathology , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Integrins/metabolism , Lim Kinases/metabolism
5.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1163397, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2306532

ABSTRACT

Introdcution: Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are major causes of COVID-19 mortality. However, drug delivery to lung tissues is impeded by endothelial cell barriers, limiting the efficacy of existing treatments. A prompt and aggressive treatment strategy is therefore necessary. Methods: We assessed the ability of anti-CD31-ORI-NPs to penetrate endothelial cell barriers and specifically accumulate in lung tissues using an animal model. We also compared the efficacy of anti-CD31-ORI-NPs to that of free oridonin in ameliorating acute lung injury and evaluated the cytotoxicity of both treatments on endothelial cells. Results: Compared to free ORI, the amount of anti-CD31-ORI-NPs accumulated in lung tissues increase at least three times. Accordingly, anti-CD31-ORI-NPs improve the efficacy three times on suppressing IL-6 and TNF-a secretion, ROS production, eventually ameliorating acute lung injury in animal model. Importantly, anti-CD31-ORI-NPs significantly decrease the cytotoxicity at least two times than free oridonin on endothelial cells. Discussion: Our results from this study will not only offer a novel therapeutic strategy with high efficacy and low toxicity, but also provide the rational design of nanomaterials of a potential drug for acute lung injury therapy.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , COVID-19 , Animals , Endothelial Cells , Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein 1 , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Inflammation/drug therapy , Epithelial Cells
6.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 311: 116423, 2023 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2270017

ABSTRACT

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Jingfang granules (JF), one famous traditional Chinese formula in "She Sheng Zhong Miao Fang" written by Shi-Che Zhang during the Ming Dynasty era, has been widely used to prevent epidemic diseases in history and now was recommended for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China. However, the roles of JF against acute lung injury and its mechanisms remain unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: Acute lung injury (ALI) and its progressive acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are a continuum of lung inflammatory disease with high morbidity and mortality in clinic, especially in COVID-19 patients. The present study aims to investigate the effect of JF on ALI and clarify its underlying mechanisms for clinical application in COVID-19 control. METHODS: Bleomycin-induced ALI mice were given oral gavage daily for seven days with or without Jingfang granules (2, 4 g/kg). The body weight, lung wet/dry weight ratios, lung appearance and tissue histopathology were evaluated. Quantitative real-time PCR, biochemical bronchoalveolar lavage fluids analysis was used to determine the gene expression of proinflammation factor and infiltrated inflammatory cells in lung. Immunofluorescence image and western blot were used to detect the markers of alveolar macrophages (AMs), endothelial cell apoptosis and changes of CD200-CD200R pathway. RESULTS: Firstly, histopathological analysis showed that JF significantly attenuated pulmonary injury and inflammatory response in ALI mice. Then, cytokine detection, inflammatory cells assay, and JNKs and p38 pathway analysis indicated that the recruitment and activation of alveolar macrophages was the main reason to cause ALI and JF could reverse this variation. Next, immunofluorescence staining and TUNEL assay showed that JF upregulated the expression of CD200 and suppressed the apoptosis of alveolar endothelial cells. Finally, double immunofluorescence staining of CD200 and CD11c indicated that the seriously damaged tissue had the lower CD200 while more AMs infiltration, which was confirmed by RT-PCR analysis of CD200/CD200R. CONCLUSIONS: Jingfang granules can protect lung from acu te injury and mitigate the recruitment and overactive AMs-induced inflammation via CD200-CD200R immunoregulatory signal axis, which will provide an experimental basis for Jingfang granules clinical applications in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , COVID-19 , Female , Mice , Animals , Bleomycin/toxicity , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/chemically induced , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Lipopolysaccharides
7.
Virulence ; 14(1): 2190650, 2023 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2281159

ABSTRACT

The global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has a detrimental impact on public health. COVID-19 usually manifests as pneumonia, which can progress into acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) related to uncontrolled TH17 immune reaction. Currently, there is no effective therapeutic agent to manage COVID-19 with complications. The currently available anti-viral drug remdesivir has an effectiveness of 30% in SARS-CoV-2-induced severe complications. Thus, there is a need to identify effective agents to treat COVID-19 and the associated acute lung injury and other complications. The host immunological pathway against this virus typically involves the THαß immune response. THαß immunity is triggered by type 1 interferon and interleukin-27 (IL-27), and the main effector cells of the THαß immune response are IL10-CD4 T cells, CD8 T cells, NK cells, and IgG1-producing B cells. In particular, IL-10 exerts a potent immunomodulatory or anti-inflammatory effect and is an anti-fibrotic agent for pulmonary fibrosis. Concurrently, IL-10 can ameliorate acute lung injury or ARDS, especially those caused by viruses. Owing to its anti-viral activity and anti-pro-inflammatory effects, in this review, IL-10 is suggested as a possible treatment agent for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Interleukin-10 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy
8.
Sci China Life Sci ; 66(7): 1589-1599, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288738

ABSTRACT

The global COVID-19 pandemic emerged at the end of December 2019. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and acute lung injury (ALI) are common lethal outcomes of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), avian influenza virus, and SARS-CoV-2. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a key target in the pathological pathway of ARDS and ALI. Previous studies have reported that herbal small RNAs (sRNAs) are a functional medical component. BZL-sRNA-20 (Accession number: B59471456; Family ID: F2201.Q001979.B11) is a potent inhibitor of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, BZL-sRNA-20 reduces intracellular levels of cytokines induced by lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly (I:C)). We found that BZL-sRNA-20 rescued the viability of cells infected with avian influenza H5N1, SARS-CoV-2, and several of its variants of concern (VOCs). Acute lung injury induced by LPS and SARS-CoV-2 in mice was significantly ameliorated by the oral medical decoctosome mimic (bencaosome; sphinganine (d22:0)+BZL-sRNA-20). Our findings suggest that BZL-sRNA-20 could be a pan-anti-ARDS ALI drug.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype , Influenza in Birds , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Mice , Humans , Animals , Lipopolysaccharides , Toll-Like Receptor 4/genetics , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype/metabolism , Pandemics , COVID-19/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/chemically induced , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Acute Lung Injury/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Lung/metabolism
9.
Inflammopharmacology ; 31(3): 1437-1447, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2258075

ABSTRACT

Acute lung injury (ALI) is a life-threatening condition usually associated with poor therapeutic outcomes and a high mortality rate. Since 2019, the situation has worsened due to the COVID-19 pandemic. ALI had approximately 40% of deaths before COVID-19, mainly due to the dysfunction of the blood-gas barrier that led to lung edema, failure of gas exchange, and dyspnea. Many strategies have been taken to mitigate the disease condition, such as diuretics, surfactants, antioxidants, glucocorticoids, heparin, and ventilators with concomitant sedatives. However, until now, there is no available effective therapy for ALI. Thus, we are presenting a new compound termed Arabincoside B (AR-B), recently isolated from Caralluma arabica, to be tested in such conditions. For that, the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mice model was used to investigate the capability of the AR-B compound to control the ALI compared to standard dexamethasone. The results showed that AR-B had a significant effect on retrieving ALI. A further mechanistic study carried out in the serum, lung homogenate, histological, and immunohistochemistry sections revealed that the AR-B either in 50 mg/kg or 75 mg/kg dose inhibited pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, IL-13, NF-κB, TNFα, and NO and stimulated regulatory cytokines IL-10. Moreover, AR-B showed a considerable potential to protect the pulmonary tissue against oxidative stress by decreasing MDA and increasing catalase and Nrf2. Also, the AR-B exhibited an anti-apoptotic effect on the lung epithelium, confirmed by reducing COX and BAX expression and upregulating Bcl-2 expression. These results pave its clinical application for ALI.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , Apocynaceae , COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Mice , Animals , Humans , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Signal Transduction , Pandemics , COVID-19/metabolism , Lung , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Pneumonia/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Apocynaceae/metabolism
10.
Biomolecules ; 13(1)2022 12 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2235322

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a serious inflammatory lung disorder and a complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection. In patients with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection, the transition to ARDS is principally due to the occurrence of a cytokine storm and an exacerbated inflammatory response. The effectiveness of ultra-micronized palmitoylethanolamide (PEA-um) during the earliest stage of COVID-19 has already been suggested. In this study, we evaluated its protective effects as well as the effectiveness of its congener, 2-pentadecyl-2-oxazoline (PEA-OXA), using in vitro models of acute lung injury. In detail, human lung epithelial cells (A549) activated by polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly-(I:C)) or Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-ß) were treated with PEA-OXA or PEA. The release of IL-6 and the appearance of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) were measured by ELISA and immunofluorescence assays, respectively. A possible mechanism of action for PEA-OXA and PEA was also investigated. Our results showed that both PEA-OXA and PEA were able to counteract poly-(I:C)-induced IL-6 release, as well as to revert TGF-ß-induced EMT. In addition, PEA was able to produce an "entourage" effect on the levels of the two endocannabinoids AEA and 2-AG, while PEA-OXA only increased PEA endogenous levels, in poly-(I:C)-stimulated A549 cells. These results evidence for the first time the superiority of PEA-OXA over PEA in exerting protective effects and point to PEA-OXA as a new promising candidate in the management of acute lung injury.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , COVID-19 , Humans , Interleukin-6 , SARS-CoV-2 , Transforming Growth Factor beta , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy
11.
Mol Med ; 28(1): 27, 2022 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2224124

ABSTRACT

Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome, which is a more severe form of ALI, are life-threatening clinical syndromes observed in critically ill patients. Treatment methods to alleviate the pathogenesis of ALI have improved to a great extent at present. Although the efficacy of these therapies is limited, their relevance has increased remarkably with the ongoing pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which causes severe respiratory distress syndrome. Several studies have demonstrated the preventive and therapeutic effects of molecular hydrogen in the various diseases. The biological effects of molecular hydrogen mainly involve anti-inflammation, antioxidation, and autophagy and cell death modulation. This review focuses on the potential therapeutic effects of molecular hydrogen on ALI and its underlying mechanisms and aims to provide a theoretical basis for the clinical treatment of ALI and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Hydrogen/pharmacology , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Acute Lung Injury/physiopathology , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Humans , Sepsis/drug therapy , Sepsis/physiopathology
12.
Mol Biol Rep ; 49(11): 11169-11176, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2174666

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a current global illness triggered by severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) leading to acute viral pneumonia, acute lung injury (ALI), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and cytokine storm in severe cases. In the COVID-19 era, different unexpected old drugs are repurposed to find out effective and cheap therapies against SARS-CoV-2. One of these elected drugs is nitazoxanide (NTZ) which is an anti-parasitic drug with potent antiviral activity. It is effectively used in the treatment of protozoa and various types of helminths in addition to various viral infections. Thus, we aimed to elucidate the probable effect of NTZ on SARS-CoV-2 infections. Findings of the present study illustrated that NTZ can reduce SARS-CoV-2-induced inflammatory reactions through activation of interferon (IFN), restoration of innate immunity, inhibition of the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, suppression of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and induction of autophagic cell death. Moreover, it can inhibit the induction of oxidative stress which causes cytokine storm and is associated with ALI, ARDS, and multi-organ damage (MOD). This study concluded that NTZ has important anti-inflammatory and immunological properties that may mitigate SARS-CoV-2 infection-induced inflammatory disorders. Despite broad-spectrum antiviral properties of NTZ, the direct anti-SARS-CoV-2 effect was not evident and documented in recent studies. Then, in silico and in vitro studies in addition to clinical trials and prospective studies are needed to confirm the beneficial impact of NTZ on the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Cytokine Release Syndrome , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Cytokines/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy
13.
Wiley Interdiscip Rev Nanomed Nanobiotechnol ; 14(2): e1763, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2173486

ABSTRACT

Pneumonia is a common but serious infectious disease, and is the sixth leading cause for death. The foreign pathogens such as viruses, fungi, and bacteria establish an inflammation response after interaction with lung, leading to the filling of bronchioles and alveoli with fluids. Although the pharmacotherapies have shown their great effectiveness to combat pathogens, advanced methods are under developing to treat complicated cases such as virus-infection and lung inflammation or acute lung injury (ALI). The inflammation modulation nanoparticles (NPs) can effectively suppress immune cells and inhibit inflammatory molecules in the lung site, and thereby alleviate pneumonia and ALI. In this review, the pathological inflammatory microenvironments in pneumonia, which are instructive for the design of biomaterials therapy, are summarized. The focus is then paid to the inflammation-modulating NPs that modulate the inflammatory cells, cytokines and chemokines, and microenvironments of pneumonia for better therapeutic effects. This article is categorized under: Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Nanomedicine for Respiratory Disease.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , Nanoparticles , Pneumonia , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Acute Lung Injury/pathology , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Lung , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Pneumonia/pathology
14.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 115: 109671, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2170546

ABSTRACT

Acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by acute systemic inflammatory responses that may lead to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The clinical course of ALI/ARDS is variable; however, it has been reported that lipopolysaccharides (LPS) play a role in its development. The fragile chromosomal site gene WWOX is highly sensitive to genotoxic stress induced by environmental exposure and is an important candidate gene for exposure-related lung disease research. However, the expression of WWOX and its role in LPS-induced ALI still remain unidentified. This study investigated the expression of WWOX in mouse lung and epithelial cells and explored the role of WWOX in LPS-induced ALI model in vitro and in vivo. In addition, we explored one of the possible mechanisms by which WWOX alleviates ALI from the perspective of autophagy. Here, we observed that LPS stimulation reduced the expression of WWOX and the autophagy marker microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3ß-II (MAP1LC3B/LC3B) in mouse lung epithelial and human epithelial (H292) cells. Overexpression of WWOX led to the activation of autophagy and inhibited inflammatory responses in LPS-induced ALI cells and mouse model. More importantly, we found that WWOX interacts with mechanistic target of rapamycin [serine/threonine kinase] (mTOR) and regulates mTOR and ULK-1 signaling-mediated autophagy. Thus, reduced WWOX levels were associated with LPS-induced ALI. WWOX can activate autophagy in lung epithelial cells and protect against LPS-induced ALI, which is partly related to the mTOR-ULK1 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Mice , Animals , Humans , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/chemically induced , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/metabolism , Autophagy , WW Domain-Containing Oxidoreductase/genetics , WW Domain-Containing Oxidoreductase/metabolism , Tumor Suppressor Proteins/genetics , Tumor Suppressor Proteins/metabolism
15.
Phytomedicine ; 109: 154551, 2023 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2182294

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The significant clinical efficacy of Xuanfei Baidu Decoction (XFBD) is proven in the treatment of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China. However, the mechanisms of XFBD against acute lung injury (ALI) are still poorly understood. METHODS: In vivo, the mouse model of ALI was induced by IgG immune complexes (IgG-IC), and then XFBD (4g/kg, 8g/kg) were administered by gavage respectively. 24 h after inducing ALI, the lungs were collected for histological and molecular analysis. In vitro, alveolar macrophages inflammation models induced by IgG-IC were performed and treated with different dosage of XFBD-containing serum to investigate the protective role and molecular mechanisms of XFBD. RESULTS: The results revealed that XFBD mitigated lung injury and significantly downregulated the production of pro-inflammatory mediators in lung tissues and macrophages upon IgG-IC stimulation. Notably, XFBD attenuated C3a and C5a generation, inhibited the expression of C3aR and C5aR and suppressed the activation of JAK2/STAT3/SOCS3 and NF-κB signaling pathway in lung tissues and macrophages induced by IgG-IC. Moreover, in vitro experiments, we verified that Colivelin TFA (CAF, STAT3 activator) and C5a treatment markedly elevated the IgG-IC-triggered inflammatory responses in macrophages and XFBD weakened the effects of CAF or C5a. CONCLUSION: XFBD suppressed complement overactivation and ameliorated IgG immune complex-induced acute lung injury by inhibiting JAK2/STAT3/SOCS3 and NF-κB signaling pathway. These data contribute to understanding the mechanisms of XFBD in COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , COVID-19 , Animals , Humans , Mice , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Antigen-Antibody Complex/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Immunoglobulin G , Janus Kinase 2/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides , Lung/pathology , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 3 Protein/metabolism , Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling Proteins/metabolism
16.
Cells ; 11(20)2022 10 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154904

ABSTRACT

Acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) is a devastating disease that can be caused by a variety of conditions including pneumonia, sepsis, trauma, and most recently, COVID-19. Although our understanding of the mechanisms of ALI/ARDS pathogenesis and resolution has considerably increased in recent years, the mortality rate remains unacceptably high (~40%), primarily due to the lack of effective therapies for ALI/ARDS. Dysregulated inflammation, as characterized by massive infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) into the airspace and the associated damage of the capillary-alveolar barrier leading to pulmonary edema and hypoxemia, is a major hallmark of ALI/ARDS. Endothelial cells (ECs), the inner lining of blood vessels, are important cellular orchestrators of PMN infiltration in the lung. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) plays an essential role in rendering the endothelium permissive for PMN adhesion and transmigration to reach the inflammatory site. Thus, targeting NF-κB in the endothelium provides an attractive approach to mitigate PMN-mediated vascular injury, not only in ALI/ARDS, but in other inflammatory diseases as well in which EC dysfunction is a major pathogenic mechanism. This review discusses the role and regulation of NF-κB in the context of EC inflammation and evaluates the potential and problems of targeting it as a therapy for ALI/ARDS.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , NF-kappa B , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Acute Lung Injury/pathology , Inflammation
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(22)2022 Nov 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143227

ABSTRACT

An acute lung injury (ALI) is a serious lung disease with a high mortality rate, warranting the development of novel therapies. Previously, we reported that 1,2,3,4,6-O-pentagalloylglucose (PGG) could afford protection against ALI, however, the PGG-mediated protective effects remain elusive. Herein, PGG (60 and 30 mg/kg) markedly inhibited the lung wet/drug weight ratio and attenuated histological changes in the lungs (p < 0.05). A pretreatment with PGG (60 and 30 mg/kg) reduced the number of total leukocytes and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-1ß in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (p < 0.05). In addition, PGG (60 and 30 mg/kg) also attenuated oxidative stress by reducing the formation of formation and the depletion of superoxide dismutase to treat an ALI (p < 0.05). To further explore the PGG-induced mechanism against an ALI, we screened the PGG pathway using immunohistochemical analysis, immunofluorescence assays, and Western blotting (WB). WB revealed that the expression levels of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase phosphorylation (p-AMPK), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B phosphorylation (P-Akt), and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) were significantly higher in the PGG group (60 and 30 mg/kg) than in the lipopolysaccharide group (p < 0.05); these findings were confirmed by the immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence results. Accordingly, PGG could be effective against an ALI by inhibiting inflammation and oxidative stress via AMPK/PI3K/Akt/Nrf2 signaling, allowing for the potential development of this as a natural drug against an ALI.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Humans , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Acute Lung Injury/prevention & control , Acute Lung Injury/chemically induced , GA-Binding Protein Transcription Factor
18.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 301: 115833, 2023 Jan 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2131464

ABSTRACT

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Acute lung injury (ALI) is a common manifestation of COVID-19. Xuanfei Baidu Formula(XFBD) is used in China to treat mild or common damp-toxin obstructive pulmonary syndrome in COVID-19 patients. However, the active ingredients of XFBD have not been extensively studied, and its mechanism of action in the treatment of ALI is not well understood. AIM OF THE STUDY: The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of action of XFBD in treating ALI in rats, by evaluating its active components. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Firstly, the chemical composition of XFBD was identified using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The potential targets of XFBD for ALI treatment were predicted using network pharmacological analysis. Finally, the molecular mechanism of XFBD was validated using a RAW264.7 cell inflammation model and a mouse ALI model. RESULTS: A total of 113 compounds were identified in XFBD. Network pharmacology revealed 34 hub targets between the 113 compounds and ALI. The results of Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and gene ontology analyses indicated that the NF-κB signaling pathway was the main pathway for XFBD in the treatment of ALI. We found that XFBD reduced proinflammatory factor levels in LPS-induced cellular models. By examining the lung wet/dry weight ratio and pathological sections in vivo, XFBD was found that XFBD could alleviate ALI. Immunohistochemistry results showed that XFBD inhibited ALI-induced increases in p-IKK, p-NF-κB p65, and iNOS proteins. In vitro experiments demonstrated that XFBD inhibited LPS-induced activation of the NF-κB pathway. CONCLUSION: This study identified the potential practical components of XFBD, combined with network pharmacology and experimental validation to demonstrate that XFBD can alleviate lung injury caused by ALI by inhibiting the NF-κB signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , COVID-19 , Mice , Rats , Animals , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Acute Lung Injury/chemically induced , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Lung/pathology , Disease Models, Animal
19.
Molecules ; 27(23)2022 Nov 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143394

ABSTRACT

Humanity has suffered from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic over the past two years, which has left behind millions of deaths. Azithromycin (AZ), an antibiotic used for the treatment of several bacterial infections, has shown antiviral activity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) as well as against the dengue, Zika, Ebola, and influenza viruses. Additionally, AZ has shown beneficial effects in non-infective diseases such as cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis. However, the systemic use of AZ in several diseases showed low efficacy and potential cardiac toxicity. The application of nanotechnology to formulate a lung delivery system of AZ could prove to be one of the solutions to overcome these drawbacks. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the attenuation of acute lung injury in mice via the local delivery of an AZ nanoformulation. The hot emulsification-ultrasonication method was used to prepare nanostructured lipid carrier of AZ (AZ-NLC) pulmonary delivery systems. The developed formulation was evaluated and characterized in vitro and in vivo. The efficacy of the prepared formulation was tested in the bleomycin (BLM) -mice model for acute lung injury. AZ-NLC was given by the intratracheal (IT) route for 6 days at a dose of about one-eighth oral dose of AZ suspension. Samples of lung tissues were taken at the end of the experiment for immunological and histological assessments. AZ-NLC showed an average particle size of 453 nm, polydispersity index of 0.228 ± 0.07, zeta potential of -30 ± 0.21 mV, and a sustained release pattern after the initial 50% drug release within the first 2 h. BLM successfully induced a marked increase in pro-inflammatory markers and also induced histological changes in pulmonary tissues. All these alterations were significantly reversed by the concomitant administration of AZ-NLC (IT). Pulmonary delivery of AZ-NLC offered delivery of the drug locally to lung tissues. Its attenuation of lung tissue inflammation and histological injury induced by bleomycin was likely through the downregulation of the p53 gene and the modulation of Bcl-2 expression. This novel strategy could eventually improve the effectiveness and diminish the adverse drug reactions of AZ. Lung delivery could be a promising treatment for acute lung injury regardless of its cause. However, further work is needed to explore the stability of the formulation, its pharmacokinetics, and its safety.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , COVID-19 , Nanostructures , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Mice , Animals , Drug Carriers/pharmacokinetics , Lipids , Azithromycin/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Particle Size , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Zika Virus/metabolism , Drug Delivery Systems/methods
20.
Phytomedicine ; 109: 154549, 2023 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2120476

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute lung injury (ALI) is a common complication of sepsis with poor effective interventions. Huashibaidu formula (HSBD) showed good therapeutic effects in treating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. PURPOSE: This study was designed to investigate the therapeutic potential and precise mechanism of HSBD against sepsis-induced ALI based on network pharmacology and animal experiments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Network pharmacology was used to predict the possible mechanism of HSBD against sepsis. Next, a sepsis-induced ALI rat model via intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was constructed to evaluate the level of inflammatory cytokines and the degree of lung injury. The expression of inflammation-related signaling pathways, including TLR4/NF-κB and PI3K/Akt was determined by western blot. RESULTS: Network pharmacology analysis indicated that HSBD might have a therapeutic effect on sepsis mainly by affecting inflammatory and immune responses. Animal experiments demonstrated that HSBD protected the lung tissue from LPS-induced injury, and inhibited the levels of inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1ß, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in the serum and IL-1ß, IL-5, IL-6, IL-18, GM-CSF, IFN-γ and TNF-α in the lung tissue. Western blot results revealed that HSBD downregulated the expression of TLR4/NF-κB and upregulated the expression of PI3K/Akt. CONCLUSION: The therapeutic mechanism of HSBD against sepsis-induced ALI mainly involved suppressing cytokine storms and relieving inflammatory symptoms by regulating the expression of TLR4/NF-κB and PI3K/Akt. Our study provides a scientific basis for the mechanistic investigation and clinical application of HSBD in the treatment of sepsis and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Sepsis , Animals , Rats , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Acute Lung Injury/etiology , COVID-19 , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Cytokines/metabolism , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Sepsis/complications , Sepsis/drug therapy , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
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