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1.
Molecules ; 28(11)2023 May 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238682

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) induces a severe cytokine storm that may cause acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) with high clinical morbidity and mortality in infected individuals. Cepharanthine (CEP) is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid isolated and extracted from Stephania cepharantha Hayata. It exhibits various pharmacological effects, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, anti-tumor, and antiviral activities. The low oral bioavailability of CEP can be attributed to its poor water solubility. In this study, we utilized the freeze-drying method to prepare dry powder inhalers (DPI) for the treatment of acute lung injury (ALI) in rats via pulmonary administration. According to the powder properties study, the aerodynamic median diameter (Da) of the DPIs was 3.2 µm, and the in vitro lung deposition rate was 30.26; thus, meeting the Chinese Pharmacopoeia standard for pulmonary inhalation administration. We established an ALI rat model by intratracheal injection of hydrochloric acid (1.2 mL/kg, pH = 1.25). At 1 h after the model's establishment, CEP dry powder inhalers (CEP DPIs) (30 mg/kg) were sprayed into the lungs of rats with ALI via the trachea. Compared with the model group, the treatment group exhibited a reduced pulmonary edema and hemorrhage, and significantly reduced content of inflammatory factors (TNF-α, IL-6 and total protein) in their lungs (p < 0.01), indicating that the main mechanism of CEP underlying the treatment of ALI is anti-inflammation. Overall, the dry powder inhaler can deliver the drug directly to the site of the disease, increasing the intrapulmonary utilization of CEP and improving its efficacy, making it a promising inhalable formulation for the treatment of ALI.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , Benzylisoquinolines , COVID-19 , Rats , Animals , Administration, Inhalation , Dry Powder Inhalers , COVID-19/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Respiratory Aerosols and Droplets , Lung/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Benzylisoquinolines/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/analysis , Particle Size , Powders/analysis
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(9)2023 Apr 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316764

ABSTRACT

Acute lung injury (ALI), caused by intrapulmonary or extrapulmonary factors such as pneumonia, shock, and sepsis, eventually disrupts the alveolar-capillary barrier, resulting in diffuse pulmonary oedema and microatasis, manifested by refractory hypoxemia, and respiratory distress. Not only is ALI highly lethal, but even if a patient survives, there are also multiple sequelae. Currently, there is no better treatment than supportive care, and we urgently need to find new targets to improve ALI. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are epigenetically important enzymes that, together with histone acetylases (HATs), regulate the acetylation levels of histones and non-histones. While HDAC inhibitors (HDACis) play a therapeutic role in cancer, inflammatory, and neurodegenerative diseases, there is also a large body of evidence suggesting the potential of HDACs as therapeutic targets in ALI. This review explores the unique mechanisms of HDACs in different cell types of ALI, including macrophages, pulmonary vascular endothelial cells (VECs), alveolar epithelial cells (AECs), and neutrophils.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , Endothelial Cells , Humans , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Histone Deacetylases/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors/metabolism
3.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 163: 114752, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2293358

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a worldwide health threat that has long-term effects on the patients and there is currently no efficient cure prescribed for the treatment and the prolonging effects. Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) have been reported to exert therapeutic effect against COVID-19. In this study, the therapeutic effects of Jing Si herbal tea (JSHT) against COVID-19 infection and associated long-term effects were evaluated in different in vitro and in vivo models. The anti-inflammatory effects of JSHT were studied in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and in Omicron pseudotyped virus-induced acute lung injury model. The effect of JSHT on cellular stress was determined in HK-2 proximal tubular cells and H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. The therapeutic benefits of JSHT on anhedonia and depression symptoms associated with long COVID were evaluated in mice models for unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS). JSHT inhibited the NF-ƙB activities, and significantly reduced LPS-induced expression of TNFα, COX-2, NLRP3 inflammasome, and HMGB1. JSHT was also found to significantly suppress the production of NO by reducing iNOS expression in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Further, the protective effects of JSHT on lung tissue were confirmed based on mitigation of lung injury, repression in TMRRSS2 and HMGB-1 expression and reduction of cytokine storm in the Omicron pseudotyped virus-induced acute lung injury model. JSHT treatment in UCMS models also relieved chronic stress and combated depression symptoms. The results therefore show that JSHT attenuates the cytokine storm by repressing NF-κB cascades and provides the protective functions against symptoms associated with long COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , COVID-19 , Mice , Humans , Animals , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Lipopolysaccharides/adverse effects , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Cytokines/metabolism , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism
4.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 119: 110177, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2300914

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Acute lung injury (ALI) poses a serious threat to human health globally, particularly with the Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Excessive recruitment and infiltration of neutrophils is the major etiopathogenesis of ALI. Esculin, also known as 6,7-dihydroxycoumarin, is a remarkable compound derived from traditional Chinese medicine Cortex fraxini. Accumulated evidence indicates that esculin has potent anti-inflammatory effects, but its pharmaceutical effect against ALI and potential mechanisms are still unclear. METHODS: This study evaluated the protective effect of esculin against ALI by histopathological observation and biochemical analysis of lung tissues and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged ALI mice in vivo. The effects of esculin on N-formyl-met-leu-phe (fMLP)-induced neutrophil migration and chemotaxis were quantitatively assessed using a Transwell assay and an automated cell imaging system equipped with a Zigmond chamber, respectively. The drug affinity responsive target stability (DARTS) assay, in vitro protein binding assay and molecular docking were performed to identify the potential therapeutic target of esculin and the potential binding sites and pattern. RESULTS: Esculin significantly attenuated LPS-induced lung pathological injury, reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in both BALF and lung, and suppressed the activation of NF-κB signaling. Esculin also significantly reduced the number of total cells and neutrophils as well as myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in the BALF. Esculin impaired neutrophil migration and chemotaxis as evidenced by the reduced migration distance and velocity. Furthermore, esculin remarkably inhibited Vav1 phosphorylation, suppressed Rac1 activation and the PAK1/LIMK1/cofilin signaling axis. Mechanistically, esculin could interact with ß2 integrin and then diminish its ligand affinity with intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). CONCLUSIONS: Esculin inhibits ß2 integrin-dependent neutrophil migration and chemotaxis, blocks the cytoskeletal remodeling process required for neutrophil recruitment, thereby contributing to its protective effect against ALI. This study demonstrates the new therapeutic potential of esculin as a novel lead compound.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , COVID-19 , Mice , Humans , Animals , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Esculin/metabolism , Esculin/pharmacology , Esculin/therapeutic use , Neutrophil Infiltration , Molecular Docking Simulation , COVID-19/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/chemically induced , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Lung/pathology , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Integrins/metabolism , Lim Kinases/metabolism
5.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 161: 114530, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288953

ABSTRACT

Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are life-threatening symptoms in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Xuanfei Baidu Decoction (XFBD) is a recommend first-line traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula therapeutic strategy for COVID-19 patients. Prior studies demonstrated the pharmacological roles and mechanisms of XFBD and its derived effective components against inflammation and infections through multiple model systems, which provided the biological explanations for its clinical use. Our previous work revealed that XFBD inhibited macrophages and neutrophils infiltration via PD-1/IL17A signaling pathway. However, the subsequent biological processes are not well elucidated. Here, we proposed a hypothesis that XFBD can regulate the neutrophils-mediated immune responses, including neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) formation and the generation of platelet-neutrophil aggregates (PNAs) after XFBD administration in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI mice. The mechanism behind it was also firstly explained, that is XFBD regulated NETs formation via CXCL2/CXCR2 axis. Altogether, our findings demonstrated the sequential immune responses of XFBD after inhibiting neutrophils infiltration, as well as shedding light on exploiting the therapy of XFBD targeting neutrophils to ameliorate ALI during the clinical course.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , COVID-19 , Extracellular Traps , Animals , Mice , COVID-19/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Neutrophils , Signal Transduction
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(6)2023 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288759

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) threatens the survival of critically ill patients, the mechanisms of which are still unclear. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) released by activated neutrophils play a critical role in inflammatory injury. We investigated the role of NETs and the underlying mechanism involved in acute lung injury (ALI). We found a higher expression of NETs and cyclic GMP-AMP synthase-stimulator of interferon genes (cGAS-STING) in the airways, which was reduced by Deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I) in ALI. The administration of the STING inhibitor H-151 also significantly relieved inflammatory lung injury, but failed to affect the high expression of NETs in ALI. We isolated murine neutrophils from bone marrow and acquired human neutrophils by inducing HL-60 to differentiate. After the PMA interventions, exogenous NETs were obtained from such extracted neutrophils. Exogenous NETs intervention in vitro and in vivo resulted in airway injury, and such inflammatory lung injury was reversed upon degrading NETs with or inhibiting cGAS-STING with H-151 as well as siRNA STING. In conclusion, cGAS-STING participates in regulating NETs-mediated inflammatory pulmonary injury, which is expected to be a new therapeutic target for ARDS/ALI.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , Extracellular Traps , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Mice , Animals , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Neutrophils/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/metabolism , Nucleotidyltransferases/genetics , Nucleotidyltransferases/metabolism
7.
Immun Inflamm Dis ; 11(3): e809, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287510

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute lung injury (ALI) is a severe and fatal respiratory disease. SIRT6 exerts pivotal activities in the process of lung diseases, but whether SIRT6 impacts ALI has not been covered. METHODS: Lentivirus recombinant expressing vector SIRT6 gene (Lent-SIRT6) was constructed in mice, and there were control, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), LPS + Vehicle, and LPS + Lent SIRT6 groups. RT-qPCR and western blot detected SIRT6 expression in lung tissues. HE staining observed pathological alternations in lung tissues. Wet-to-dry ratio of the lungs was then measured. The cell count of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was evaluated. Serum inflammation was examined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), and western blot were to measure apoptosis. Western blot tested the expression of ACE2/STAT3/PIM1 signaling-associated factors. At the cellular level, LPS was used to induce lung epithelial cells BEAS-2B to establish cell injury models. SIRT6 was overexpressed and ACE2 expression was inhibited by cell transfection, and the mechanism of SIRT6 in LPS-induced lung injury model was further explored by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), western blot, quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, TUNEL, and other techniques. RESULTS: The results of animal experiments showed that SIRT6 overexpression could reduce LPS-induced lung pathological injury, pulmonary edema, and BALF cell ratio and attenuate LPS-induced inflammatory response and cell apoptosis. In the above process, ACE2, STAT3, p-STAT3, and PIM1 expression were affected. In cell experiments, SIRT6 expression was reduced in LPS-induced BEAS-2B cells. Inhibition of ACE2 expression could reverse the inhibitory effect of SIRT6 overexpression on ACE2/STAT3/PIM1 pathway, and cellular inflammatory response and apoptosis. CONCLUSION: SIRT6 eased LPS-evoked inflammation and apoptosis of lung epithelial cells in ALI through ACE2/STAT3/PIM1 signaling.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , Sirtuins , Animals , Mice , Acute Lung Injury/chemically induced , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Apoptosis , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Inflammation/genetics , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Lung/pathology , Sirtuins/genetics , Sirtuins/metabolism
8.
Inflammopharmacology ; 31(3): 1437-1447, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2258075

ABSTRACT

Acute lung injury (ALI) is a life-threatening condition usually associated with poor therapeutic outcomes and a high mortality rate. Since 2019, the situation has worsened due to the COVID-19 pandemic. ALI had approximately 40% of deaths before COVID-19, mainly due to the dysfunction of the blood-gas barrier that led to lung edema, failure of gas exchange, and dyspnea. Many strategies have been taken to mitigate the disease condition, such as diuretics, surfactants, antioxidants, glucocorticoids, heparin, and ventilators with concomitant sedatives. However, until now, there is no available effective therapy for ALI. Thus, we are presenting a new compound termed Arabincoside B (AR-B), recently isolated from Caralluma arabica, to be tested in such conditions. For that, the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mice model was used to investigate the capability of the AR-B compound to control the ALI compared to standard dexamethasone. The results showed that AR-B had a significant effect on retrieving ALI. A further mechanistic study carried out in the serum, lung homogenate, histological, and immunohistochemistry sections revealed that the AR-B either in 50 mg/kg or 75 mg/kg dose inhibited pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, IL-13, NF-κB, TNFα, and NO and stimulated regulatory cytokines IL-10. Moreover, AR-B showed a considerable potential to protect the pulmonary tissue against oxidative stress by decreasing MDA and increasing catalase and Nrf2. Also, the AR-B exhibited an anti-apoptotic effect on the lung epithelium, confirmed by reducing COX and BAX expression and upregulating Bcl-2 expression. These results pave its clinical application for ALI.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , Apocynaceae , COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Mice , Animals , Humans , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Signal Transduction , Pandemics , COVID-19/metabolism , Lung , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Pneumonia/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Apocynaceae/metabolism
9.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 311: 116423, 2023 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2270017

ABSTRACT

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Jingfang granules (JF), one famous traditional Chinese formula in "She Sheng Zhong Miao Fang" written by Shi-Che Zhang during the Ming Dynasty era, has been widely used to prevent epidemic diseases in history and now was recommended for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China. However, the roles of JF against acute lung injury and its mechanisms remain unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: Acute lung injury (ALI) and its progressive acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are a continuum of lung inflammatory disease with high morbidity and mortality in clinic, especially in COVID-19 patients. The present study aims to investigate the effect of JF on ALI and clarify its underlying mechanisms for clinical application in COVID-19 control. METHODS: Bleomycin-induced ALI mice were given oral gavage daily for seven days with or without Jingfang granules (2, 4 g/kg). The body weight, lung wet/dry weight ratios, lung appearance and tissue histopathology were evaluated. Quantitative real-time PCR, biochemical bronchoalveolar lavage fluids analysis was used to determine the gene expression of proinflammation factor and infiltrated inflammatory cells in lung. Immunofluorescence image and western blot were used to detect the markers of alveolar macrophages (AMs), endothelial cell apoptosis and changes of CD200-CD200R pathway. RESULTS: Firstly, histopathological analysis showed that JF significantly attenuated pulmonary injury and inflammatory response in ALI mice. Then, cytokine detection, inflammatory cells assay, and JNKs and p38 pathway analysis indicated that the recruitment and activation of alveolar macrophages was the main reason to cause ALI and JF could reverse this variation. Next, immunofluorescence staining and TUNEL assay showed that JF upregulated the expression of CD200 and suppressed the apoptosis of alveolar endothelial cells. Finally, double immunofluorescence staining of CD200 and CD11c indicated that the seriously damaged tissue had the lower CD200 while more AMs infiltration, which was confirmed by RT-PCR analysis of CD200/CD200R. CONCLUSIONS: Jingfang granules can protect lung from acu te injury and mitigate the recruitment and overactive AMs-induced inflammation via CD200-CD200R immunoregulatory signal axis, which will provide an experimental basis for Jingfang granules clinical applications in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , COVID-19 , Female , Mice , Animals , Bleomycin/toxicity , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/chemically induced , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Lipopolysaccharides
10.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 13: 1134511, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2268706

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Inflammation play important roles in the initiation and progression of acute lung injury (ALI), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), septic shock, clotting dysfunction, or even death associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, the pathogenic mechanisms underlying SARS-CoV-2-induced hyperinflammation are still largely unknown. Methods: The animal model of septic shock and ALI was established after LPS intraperitoneal injection or intratracheal instillation. Bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) from WT and BPOZ-2 KO mouse strains were harvested from the femurs and tibias of mice. Immunohistology staining, ELISA assay, coimmunoprecipitation, and immunoblot analysis were used to detect the histopathological changes of lung tissues and the expression of inflammatory factors and protein interaction. Results and conclusions: We show a distinct mechanism by which the SARS-CoV-2 N (SARS-2-N) protein targets Bood POZ-containing gene type 2 (BPOZ-2), a scaffold protein for the E3 ubiquitin ligase Cullin 3 that we identified as a negative regulator of inflammatory responses, to promote NLRP3 inflammasome activation. We first demonstrated that BPOZ-2 knockout (BPOZ-2 KO) mice were more susceptible to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced septic shock and ALI and showed increased serum IL-1ß levels. In addition, BMDMs isolated from BPOZ-2 KO mice showed increased IL-1ß production in response to NLRP3 stimuli. Mechanistically, BPOZ-2 interacted with NLRP3 and mediated its degradation by recruiting Cullin 3. In particular, the expression of BPOZ-2 was significantly reduced in lung tissues from mice infected with SARS-CoV-2 and in cells overexpressing SARS-2-N. Importantly, proinflammatory responses triggered by the SARS-2-N were significantly blocked by BPOZ-2 reintroduction. Thus, we concluded that BPOZ-2 is a negative regulator of the NLPR3 inflammasome that likely contributes to SARS-CoV-2-induced hyperinflammation.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , COVID-19 , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , Nuclear Proteins , Shock, Septic , Animals , Mice , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Cullin Proteins , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Mice, Inbred C57BL , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Nuclear Proteins/genetics , Nuclear Proteins/metabolism
11.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 190: 247-263, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2269132

ABSTRACT

Clinical studies have shown a significant positive correlation between age and the likelihood of being infected with SARS-CoV-2. This increased susceptibility is positively correlated with chronic inflammation and compromised neurocognitive functions. Postmortem analyses suggest that acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), with systemic and lung hyperinflammation, can cause significant morbidity and mortality in COVID-19 patients. Supraphysiological supplemental oxygen, also known as hyperoxia, is commonly used to treat decreased blood oxygen saturation in COVID-19 patients. However, prolonged exposure to hyperoxia alone can cause oxygen toxicity, due to an excessive increase in the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can overwhelm the cellular antioxidant capacity. Subsequently, this causes oxidative cellular damage and increased levels of aging biomarkers, such as telomere shortening and inflammaging. The oxidative stress in the lungs and brain can compromise innate immunity, resulting in an increased susceptibility to secondary lung infections, impaired neurocognitive functions, and dysregulated hyperinflammation, which can lead to ALI/ARDS, and even death. Studies indicate that lung inflammation is regulated by the central nervous system, notably, the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAIP), which is innervated by the vagus nerve and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChRs) on lung cells, particularly lung macrophages. The activation of α7nAChRs attenuates oxygen toxicity in the lungs and improves clinical outcomes by restoring hyperoxia-compromised innate immunity. Mechanistically, α7nAChR agonist (e.g., GAT 107 and GTS-21) can regulate redox signaling by 1) activating Nrf2, a master regulator of the antioxidant response and a cytoprotective defense system, which can decrease cellular damage caused by ROS and 2) inhibiting the activation of the NF-κB-mediated inflammatory response. Notably, GTS-21 has been shown to be safe and it improves neurocognitive functions in humans. Therefore, targeting the α7nAChR may represent a viable therapeutic approach for attenuating dysregulated hyperinflammation-mediated ARDS and sepsis in COVID-19 patients receiving prolonged oxygen therapy.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , COVID-19 , Hyperoxia , Pneumonia , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Aging , Antioxidants/metabolism , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Hyperoxia/complications , Hyperoxia/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Oxygen/metabolism , Pneumonia/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor/metabolism
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(3): e2216458120, 2023 01 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2243078

ABSTRACT

The lack of techniques for noninvasive imaging of inflammation has challenged precision medicine management of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Here, we determined the potential of positron emission tomography (PET) of chemokine-like receptor-1 (CMKLR1) to monitor lung inflammation in a murine model of lipopolysaccharide-induced injury. Lung uptake of a CMKLR1-targeting radiotracer, [64Cu]NODAGA-CG34, was significantly increased in lipopolysaccharide-induced injury, correlated with the expression of multiple inflammatory markers, and reduced by dexamethasone treatment. Monocyte-derived macrophages, followed by interstitial macrophages and monocytes were the major CMKLR1-expressing leukocytes contributing to the increased tracer uptake throughout the first week of lipopolysaccharide-induced injury. The clinical relevance of CMKLR1 as a biomarker of lung inflammation in ARDS was confirmed using single-nuclei RNA-sequencing datasets which showed significant increases in CMKLR1 expression among transcriptionally distinct subsets of lung monocytes and macrophages in COVID-19 patients vs. controls. CMKLR1-targeted PET is a promising strategy to monitor the dynamics of lung inflammation and response to anti-inflammatory treatment in ARDS.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Mice , Animals , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Acute Lung Injury/chemically induced , Acute Lung Injury/diagnostic imaging , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/metabolism , Chemokines/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Molecular Imaging , Receptors, Chemokine
13.
Phytomedicine ; 109: 154551, 2023 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2182294

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The significant clinical efficacy of Xuanfei Baidu Decoction (XFBD) is proven in the treatment of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China. However, the mechanisms of XFBD against acute lung injury (ALI) are still poorly understood. METHODS: In vivo, the mouse model of ALI was induced by IgG immune complexes (IgG-IC), and then XFBD (4g/kg, 8g/kg) were administered by gavage respectively. 24 h after inducing ALI, the lungs were collected for histological and molecular analysis. In vitro, alveolar macrophages inflammation models induced by IgG-IC were performed and treated with different dosage of XFBD-containing serum to investigate the protective role and molecular mechanisms of XFBD. RESULTS: The results revealed that XFBD mitigated lung injury and significantly downregulated the production of pro-inflammatory mediators in lung tissues and macrophages upon IgG-IC stimulation. Notably, XFBD attenuated C3a and C5a generation, inhibited the expression of C3aR and C5aR and suppressed the activation of JAK2/STAT3/SOCS3 and NF-κB signaling pathway in lung tissues and macrophages induced by IgG-IC. Moreover, in vitro experiments, we verified that Colivelin TFA (CAF, STAT3 activator) and C5a treatment markedly elevated the IgG-IC-triggered inflammatory responses in macrophages and XFBD weakened the effects of CAF or C5a. CONCLUSION: XFBD suppressed complement overactivation and ameliorated IgG immune complex-induced acute lung injury by inhibiting JAK2/STAT3/SOCS3 and NF-κB signaling pathway. These data contribute to understanding the mechanisms of XFBD in COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , COVID-19 , Animals , Humans , Mice , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Antigen-Antibody Complex/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Immunoglobulin G , Janus Kinase 2/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides , Lung/pathology , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 3 Protein/metabolism , Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling Proteins/metabolism
14.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 115: 109671, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2170546

ABSTRACT

Acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by acute systemic inflammatory responses that may lead to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The clinical course of ALI/ARDS is variable; however, it has been reported that lipopolysaccharides (LPS) play a role in its development. The fragile chromosomal site gene WWOX is highly sensitive to genotoxic stress induced by environmental exposure and is an important candidate gene for exposure-related lung disease research. However, the expression of WWOX and its role in LPS-induced ALI still remain unidentified. This study investigated the expression of WWOX in mouse lung and epithelial cells and explored the role of WWOX in LPS-induced ALI model in vitro and in vivo. In addition, we explored one of the possible mechanisms by which WWOX alleviates ALI from the perspective of autophagy. Here, we observed that LPS stimulation reduced the expression of WWOX and the autophagy marker microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3ß-II (MAP1LC3B/LC3B) in mouse lung epithelial and human epithelial (H292) cells. Overexpression of WWOX led to the activation of autophagy and inhibited inflammatory responses in LPS-induced ALI cells and mouse model. More importantly, we found that WWOX interacts with mechanistic target of rapamycin [serine/threonine kinase] (mTOR) and regulates mTOR and ULK-1 signaling-mediated autophagy. Thus, reduced WWOX levels were associated with LPS-induced ALI. WWOX can activate autophagy in lung epithelial cells and protect against LPS-induced ALI, which is partly related to the mTOR-ULK1 signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Mice , Animals , Humans , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/chemically induced , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/metabolism , Autophagy , WW Domain-Containing Oxidoreductase/genetics , WW Domain-Containing Oxidoreductase/metabolism , Tumor Suppressor Proteins/genetics , Tumor Suppressor Proteins/metabolism
15.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 135(20): 2417-2426, 2022 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2190862

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which are characterized by excessive inflammation and accompanied by diffuse injury of alveoli, can result in severe respiratory failures. The morbidity and mortality of patients remain high because the major treatments for ALI/ARDS are mainly supportive due to the lack of effective therapies. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the aggravation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) leads to severe pneumonia and even ARDS. Pyroptosis, a biological process identified as a type of programed cell death, is mainly triggered by inflammatory caspase activation and is directly meditated by the gasdermin protein family, as well as being associated with the secretion and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Clinical and experimental evidence corroborates that pyroptosis of various cells in the lung, such as immune cells and structural cells, may play an important role in the pathogenesis of "cytokine storms" in ALI/ARDS, including those induced by COVID-19. Here, with a focus on ALI/ARDS and COVID-19, we summarized the recent advances in this field and proposed the theory of an inflammatory cascade in pyroptosis to identify new targets and pave the way for new approaches to treat these diseases.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Pyroptosis , COVID-19/complications , Lung/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy
16.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 301: 115833, 2023 Jan 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2131464

ABSTRACT

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Acute lung injury (ALI) is a common manifestation of COVID-19. Xuanfei Baidu Formula(XFBD) is used in China to treat mild or common damp-toxin obstructive pulmonary syndrome in COVID-19 patients. However, the active ingredients of XFBD have not been extensively studied, and its mechanism of action in the treatment of ALI is not well understood. AIM OF THE STUDY: The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of action of XFBD in treating ALI in rats, by evaluating its active components. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Firstly, the chemical composition of XFBD was identified using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The potential targets of XFBD for ALI treatment were predicted using network pharmacological analysis. Finally, the molecular mechanism of XFBD was validated using a RAW264.7 cell inflammation model and a mouse ALI model. RESULTS: A total of 113 compounds were identified in XFBD. Network pharmacology revealed 34 hub targets between the 113 compounds and ALI. The results of Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and gene ontology analyses indicated that the NF-κB signaling pathway was the main pathway for XFBD in the treatment of ALI. We found that XFBD reduced proinflammatory factor levels in LPS-induced cellular models. By examining the lung wet/dry weight ratio and pathological sections in vivo, XFBD was found that XFBD could alleviate ALI. Immunohistochemistry results showed that XFBD inhibited ALI-induced increases in p-IKK, p-NF-κB p65, and iNOS proteins. In vitro experiments demonstrated that XFBD inhibited LPS-induced activation of the NF-κB pathway. CONCLUSION: This study identified the potential practical components of XFBD, combined with network pharmacology and experimental validation to demonstrate that XFBD can alleviate lung injury caused by ALI by inhibiting the NF-κB signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , COVID-19 , Mice , Rats , Animals , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Acute Lung Injury/chemically induced , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Lung/pathology , Disease Models, Animal
17.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 301: 115763, 2023 Jan 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105340

ABSTRACT

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Acute lung injury (ALI) is one of the fatal complications of respiratory virus infections such as influenza virus and coronavirus, which has high clinical morbidity and mortality. Jinhua Qinggan granules (JHQG) has been approved by China Food and Drug Administration in the treatment of H1N1 influenza and mild or moderate novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is an herbal formula developed based on Maxingshigan decoction and Yinqiao powder that have been used to respiratory diseases in China for thousands of years. However, the underlying mechanism of JHQG in treating infectious diseases remains unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study investigated the effects of JHQG on neutrophil apoptosis and key signaling pathways in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -induced ALI mice in order to explore its mechanism of anti-inflammation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effect of JHQG on survival rate was observed in septic mouse model by intraperitoneal injection of LPS (20 mg/kg). To better pharmacological evaluation, the mice received an intratracheal injection of 5 mg/kg LPS. Lung histopathological changes, wet-to-dry ratio of the lungs, and MPO activity in the lungs and total protein concentration, total cells number, TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, and MIP-2 levels in BALF were assessed. Neutrophil apoptosis rate was detected by Ly6G-APC/Annexin V-FITC staining. Key proteins associated with apoptosis including caspase 3/7 activity, Bcl-xL and Mcl-1 were measured by flow cytometry and confocal microscope, respectively. TLR4 receptor and its downstream signaling were analyzed by Western blot assay and immunofluorescence, respectively. RESULTS: JHQG treatment at either 6 or 12 g/kg/day resulted in 20% increase of survival in 20 mg/kg LPS-induced mice. In the model of 5 mg/kg LPS-induced mice, JHQG obviously decreased the total protein concentration in BALF, wet-to-dry ratio of the lungs, and lung histological damage. It also attenuated the MPO activity and the proportion of Ly6G staining positive neutrophils in the lungs, as well as the MIP-2 levels in BALF were reduced. JHQG inhibited the expression of Mcl-1 and Bcl-xL and enhanced caspase-3/7 activity, indicating that JHQG partially acted in promoting neutrophil apoptosis via intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. The levels of TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6 were significantly declined in LPS-induced mice treated with JHQG. Furthermore, JHQG reduced the protein expression of TLR4, MyD88, p-p65 and the proportion of nuclei p65, suggesting that JHQG treatment inhibited TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB pathway. CONCLUSION: JHQG reduced pulmonary inflammation and protected mice from LPS-induced ALI by promoting neutrophil apoptosis and inhibition of TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB pathway, suggesting that JHQG may be a promising drug for treatment of ALI.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Mice , Animals , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/metabolism , Neutrophils , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Myeloid Cell Leukemia Sequence 1 Protein/metabolism , Myeloid Cell Leukemia Sequence 1 Protein/therapeutic use , Acute Lung Injury/chemically induced , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Apoptosis
18.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 3510423, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2020494

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Aurantiamide acetate (AA) is a dipeptide derivative with complex pharmacological activities and remarkable effects on preventing and treating various diseases. In the current study, we aimed to investigate whether AA can exert protective effects in a mouse model of ALI induced by LPS. Materials and Methods: In this model, mice were given intranasal LPS for 3 days prior to receiving AA (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg) via oral gavage. An assessment of histopathological changes was performed by hematoxylin and eosin (HE). Proinflammatory cytokines were detected in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALFs) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). The effects of AA on protein expression of NF-κB and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways were determined by Western blot. In addition, lung wet/dry (W/D) weight ratio, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, cell counts, and protein content were also measured. Results: According to results, AA pretreatment significantly reduced lung pathological changes, W/D ratio, MPO activity, and protein content. Additionally, AA resulted in a significant reduction in the number of total cells, neutrophils, and proinflammatory cytokines in the BALF after LPS stimulation. The subsequent study revealed that pretreatment with AA dose dependently suppressed LPS-induced activation of NF-κB as well as PI3K/AKT phosphorylation. Conclusion: The results indicated that the AA had a protective effect on LPS-induced ALI in mice and could be a potential drug for ALI.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , Pneumonia , Acute Lung Injury/chemically induced , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Animals , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/chemistry , Cytokines/metabolism , Dipeptides/pharmacology , Lipopolysaccharides/adverse effects , Lung/pathology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Pneumonia/pathology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism
19.
Inflamm Res ; 71(10-11): 1327-1345, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1990592

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Acute lung injury (ALI)/ acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was increasingly recognized as one of the most severe acute hyperimmune response of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Clofazimine (CFZ) has attracted attention due to its anti-inflammatory property in immune diseases as well as infectious diseases. However, the role and potential molecular mechanism of CFZ in anti-inflammatory responses remain unclear. METHODS: We analyze the protein expression profiles of CFZ and LPS from Raw264.7 macrophages using quantitative proteomics. Next, the protective effect of CFZ on LPS-induced inflammatory model is assessed, and its underlying mechanism is validated by molecular biology analysis. RESULTS: LC-MS/MS-based shotgun proteomics analysis identified 4746 (LPS) and 4766 (CFZ) proteins with quantitative information. The key proteins and their critical signal transduction pathways including TLR4/NF-κB/HIF-1α signaling was highlighted, which was involved in multiple inflammatory processes. A further analysis of molecular biology revealed that CFZ could significantly inhibit the proliferation of Raw264.7 macrophages, decrease the levels of TNF-α and IL-1ß, alleviate lung histological changes and pulmonary edema, improve the survival rate, and down-regulate TLR4/NF-κB/HIF-1α signaling in LPS model. CONCLUSION: This study can provide significant insight into the proteomics-guided pharmacological mechanism study of CFZ and suggest potential therapeutic strategies for infectious disease.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Animals , Mice , Acute Lung Injury/chemically induced , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Chromatography, Liquid , Clofazimine , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Lung/pathology , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Proteomics , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism
20.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(14): 5285-5296, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1975730

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an inflammatory lung disease that has a high rate of morbidity and mortality. It's an acute diffusive lung injury caused by the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines into the lungs. Specific microRNAs have been identified to play a crucial role in the renin-angiotensin system signaling pathways the main pathophysiological pathway responsible for ARDS. Since the ARDS life-threatening complication associated with COVID-19 is an ongoing challenge, this current study aimed to investigate the potential efficacy of xanthenone in the treatment of ARDS induced with LPS in mice through ACE2 activation and modulation of miR-200 and ACE2/Ang 1-7 pathways. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mice were categorized into three groups randomly. The first set of mice served as the normal control group. The ARDS group was injected with LPS (15 mg/kg; i.p.). The last group was treated with xanthenone (2 mg/kg/day; p.o.) for one week before the LPS injection. RESULTS: Xanthenone treatment resulted in a significant down-regulation of miRNA-200 expression, leading to the activation of ACE2 accompanied with marked inhibition of Angiotensin II as well as increases the levels of Ang 1-7 and SP-A. CONCLUSIONS: Xanthenone has the potential to be a promising therapeutic drug for the treatment of ARDS COVID-19 complication through activation of ACE2/Ang 1-7 pathways.https://www.europeanreview.org/wp/wp-content/uploads/Graphical_abstract.tif.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , MicroRNAs , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Lipopolysaccharides/adverse effects , Mice , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Signal Transduction
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