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1.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 22(6): 791-801, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984271

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 vaccines have proven highly effective among individuals without a previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, but their effectiveness in preventing symptomatic infection and severe outcomes among individuals with previous infection is less clear. We aimed to estimate the effectiveness of four COVID-19 vaccines against symptomatic infection, hospitalisation, and death for individuals with laboratory-confirmed previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: Using national COVID-19 notification, hospitalisation, and vaccination datasets from Brazil, we did a test-negative, case-control study to assess the effectiveness of four vaccines (CoronaVac [Sinovac], ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 [AstraZeneca], Ad26.COV2.S [Janssen], and BNT162b2 [Pfizer-BioNtech]) for individuals with laboratory-confirmed previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. We matched cases with RT-PCR positive, symptomatic COVID-19 with up to ten controls with negative RT-PCR tests who presented with symptomatic illnesses, restricting both groups to tests done at least 90 days after an initial infection. We used multivariable conditional logistic regression to compare the odds of test positivity and the odds of hospitalisation or death due to COVID-19, according to vaccination status and time since first or second dose of vaccines. FINDINGS: Between Feb 24, 2020, and Nov 11, 2021, we identified 213 457 individuals who had a subsequent, symptomatic illness with RT-PCR testing done at least 90 days after their initial SARS-CoV-2 infection and after the vaccination programme started. Among these, 30 910 (14·5%) had a positive RT-PCR test consistent with reinfection, and we matched 22 566 of these cases with 145 055 negative RT-PCR tests from 68 426 individuals as controls. Among individuals with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, vaccine effectiveness against symptomatic infection 14 or more days from vaccine series completion was 39·4% (95% CI 36·1-42·6) for CoronaVac, 56·0% (51·4-60·2) for ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, 44·0% (31·5-54·2) for Ad26.COV2.S, and 64·8% (54·9-72·4) for BNT162b2. For the two-dose vaccine series (CoronaVac, ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, and BNT162b2), effectiveness against symptomatic infection was significantly greater after the second dose than after the first dose. Effectiveness against hospitalisation or death 14 or more days from vaccine series completion was 81·3% (75·3-85·8) for CoronaVac, 89·9% (83·5-93·8) for ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, 57·7% (-2·6 to 82·5) for Ad26.COV2.S, and 89·7% (54·3-97·7) for BNT162b2. INTERPRETATION: All four vaccines conferred additional protection against symptomatic infections and severe outcomes among individuals with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. The provision of a full vaccine series to individuals after recovery from COVID-19 might reduce morbidity and mortality. FUNDING: Brazilian National Research Council, Fundação Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, JBS, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation, and Generalitat de Catalunya.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Ad26COVS1 , BNT162 Vaccine , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Case-Control Studies , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD015021, 2022 08 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1981526

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: High efficacy in terms of protection from severe COVID-19 has been demonstrated for several SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. However, patients with compromised immune status develop a weaker and less stable immune response to vaccination. Strong immune response may not always translate into clinical benefit, therefore it is important to synthesise evidence on modified schemes and types of vaccination in these population subgroups for guiding health decisions. As the literature on COVID-19 vaccines continues to expand, we aimed to scope the literature on multiple subgroups to subsequently decide on the most relevant research questions to be answered by systematic reviews. OBJECTIVES: To provide an overview of the availability of existing literature on immune response and long-term clinical outcomes after COVID-19 vaccination, and to map this evidence according to the examined populations, specific vaccines, immunity parameters, and their way of determining relevant long-term outcomes and the availability of mapping between immune reactivity and relevant outcomes. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane COVID-19 Study Register, the Web of Science Core Collection, and the World Health Organization COVID-19 Global literature on coronavirus disease on 6 December 2021.  SELECTION CRITERIA: We included studies that published results on immunity outcomes after vaccination with BNT162b2, mRNA-1273, AZD1222, Ad26.COV2.S, Sputnik V or Sputnik Light, BBIBP-CorV, or CoronaVac on predefined vulnerable subgroups such as people with malignancies, transplant recipients, people undergoing renal replacement therapy, and people with immune disorders, as well as pregnant and breastfeeding women, and children. We included studies if they had at least 100 participants (not considering healthy control groups); we excluded case studies and case series. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We extracted data independently and in duplicate onto an online data extraction form. Data were represented as tables and as online maps to show the frequency of studies for each item. We mapped the data according to study design, country of participant origin, patient comorbidity subgroup, intervention, outcome domains (clinical, safety, immunogenicity), and outcomes.  MAIN RESULTS: Out of 25,452 identified records, 318 studies with a total of more than 5 million participants met our eligibility criteria and were included in the review. Participants were recruited mainly from high-income countries between January 2020 and 31 October 2021 (282/318); the majority of studies included adult participants (297/318).  Haematological malignancies were the most commonly examined comorbidity group (N = 54), followed by solid tumours (N = 47), dialysis (N = 48), kidney transplant (N = 43), and rheumatic diseases (N = 28, 17, and 15 for mixed diseases, multiple sclerosis, and inflammatory bowel disease, respectively). Thirty-one studies included pregnant or breastfeeding women. The most commonly administered vaccine was BNT162b2 (N = 283), followed by mRNA-1273 (N = 153), AZD1222 (N = 66), Ad26.COV2.S (N = 42), BBIBP-CorV (N = 15), CoronaVac (N = 14), and Sputnik V (N = 5; no studies were identified for Sputnik Light). Most studies reported outcomes after regular vaccination scheme.  The majority of studies focused on immunogenicity outcomes, especially seroconversion based on binding antibody measurements and immunoglobulin G (IgG) titres (N = 179 and 175, respectively). Adverse events and serious adverse events were reported in 126 and 54 studies, whilst SARS-CoV-2 infection irrespective of severity was reported in 80 studies. Mortality due to SARS-CoV-2 infection was reported in 36 studies. Please refer to our evidence gap maps for more detailed information. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Up to 6 December 2021, the majority of studies examined data on mRNA vaccines administered as standard vaccination schemes (two doses approximately four to eight weeks apart) that report on immunogenicity parameters or adverse events. Clinical outcomes were less commonly reported, and if so, were often reported as a secondary outcome observed in seroconversion or immunoglobulin titre studies. As informed by this scoping review, two effectiveness reviews (on haematological malignancies and kidney transplant recipients) are currently being conducted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematologic Neoplasms , Vaccines , Ad26COVS1 , Adult , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Child , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(8): e2226335, 2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1981507

ABSTRACT

Importance: Antibody responses elicited by current messenger RNA (mRNA) COVID-19 vaccines decline rapidly and require repeated boosting. Objective: To evaluate the immunogenicity and durability of heterologous and homologous prime-boost regimens involving the adenovirus vector vaccine Ad26.COV2.S and the mRNA vaccine BNT162b2. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cohort study at a single clinical site in Boston, Massachusetts, 68 individuals who were vaccinated at least 6 months previously with 2 immunizations of BNT162b2 were boosted with either Ad26.COV2.S or BNT162b2. Enrollment of participants occurred from August 12, 2021, to October 25, 2021, and this study involved 4 months of follow-up. Data analysis was performed from November 2021 to February 2022. Exposures: Participants who were previously vaccinated with BNT162b2 received a boost with either Ad26.COV2.S or BNT162b2. Main Outcomes and Measures: Humoral immune responses were assessed by neutralizing, binding, and functional antibody responses for 16 weeks following the boost. CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell responses were evaluated by intracellular cytokine staining assays. Results: Among 68 participants who were originally vaccinated with BNT162b2 and boosted with Ad26.COV2.S (41 participants; median [range] age, 36 [23-84] years) or BNT162b2 (27 participants; median [range] age, 35 [23-76] years), 56 participants (82%) were female, 7 (10%) were Asian, 4 (6%) were Black, 4 (6%) were Hispanic or Latino, 3 (4%) were more than 1 race, and 53 (78%) were White. Both vaccines were found to be associated with increased humoral and cellular immune responses, including against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. BNT162b2 boosting was associated with a rapid increase of Omicron neutralizing antibodies that peaked at a median (IQR) titer of 1018 (699-1646) at week 2 and declined by 6.9-fold to a median (IQR) titer of 148 (95-266) by week 16. Ad26.COV2.S boosting was associated with increased Omicron neutralizing antibodies titers that peaked at a median (IQR) of 859 (467-1838) week 4 and declined by 2.1-fold to a median (IQR) of 403 (208-1130) by week 16. Conclusions and Relevance: Heterologous Ad26.COV2.S boosting was associated with durable humoral and cellular immune responses in individuals who originally received the BNT162b2 vaccine. These data suggest potential benefits of heterologous prime-boost vaccine regimens for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Ad26COVS1 , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
4.
Elife ; 112022 07 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1975325

ABSTRACT

ChAdOx1 nCov-19 and Ad26.COV2.S are approved vaccines inducing protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans by expressing the Spike protein of SARS-CoV-2. We analyzed protein content and protein composition of ChAdOx1 nCov-19 and Ad26.COV2.S by biochemical methods and by mass spectrometry. Four out of four tested lots of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 contained significantly higher than expected levels of host cell proteins (HCPs) and of free viral proteins. The most abundant contaminating HCPs belonged to the heat-shock protein and cytoskeletal protein families. The HCP content exceeded the 400 ng specification limit per vaccine dose, as set by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) for this vaccine, by at least 25-fold and the manufacturer's batch-release data in some of the lots by several hundred-fold. In contrast, three tested lots of the Ad26.COV2.S vaccine contained only very low amounts of HCPs. As shown for Ad26.COV2.S production of clinical grade adenovirus vaccines of high purity is feasible at an industrial scale. Correspondingly, purification procedures of the ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccine should be modified to remove protein impurities as good as possible. Our data also indicate that standard quality assays, as they are used in the manufacturing of proteins, have to be adapted for vectored vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Ad26COVS1 , COVID-19/prevention & control , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Humans
6.
PLoS Biol ; 20(5): e3001609, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962969

ABSTRACT

Despite the rapid creation of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines, the precise correlates of immunity against severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) are still unknown. Neutralizing antibodies represent a robust surrogate of protection in early Phase III studies, but vaccines provide protection prior to the evolution of neutralization, vaccines provide protection against variants that evade neutralization, and vaccines continue to provide protection against disease severity in the setting of waning neutralizing titers. Thus, in this study, using an Ad26.CoV2.S dose-down approach in nonhuman primates (NHPs), the role of neutralization, Fc effector function, and T-cell immunity were collectively probed against infection as well as against viral control. While dosing-down minimally impacted neutralizing and binding antibody titers, Fc receptor binding and functional antibody levels were induced in a highly dose-dependent manner. Neutralizing antibody and Fc receptor binding titers, but minimally T cells, were linked to the prevention of transmission. Conversely, Fc receptor binding/function and T cells were linked to antiviral control, with a minimal role for neutralization. These data point to dichotomous roles of neutralization and T-cell function in protection against transmission and disease severity and a continuous role for Fc effector function as a correlate of immunity key to halting and controlling SARS-CoV-2 and emerging variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ad26COVS1 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Primates , Receptors, Fc , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
7.
Front Public Health ; 10: 896343, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952855

ABSTRACT

Healthcare workers were prioritized in vaccination campaigns globally because they are exposed to the highest risk of contamination by SARS-CoV-2. This study evaluated the self-reported post-vaccination side effects of inactivated (BBIBP-CorV and CoronaVac) and adenoviral vector-based (AZD1222, Gam-COVID-Vac and Ad26.COV2.S) vaccines among Algerian healthcare workers using a validated questionnaire. The final analysis included 721 healthcare workers, with a predominance of females (59.1%) and younger individuals 20-30 years old (39.4%). Less than half (49.1%) of the respondents reported at least one local side effect, while 53.8% reported at least one systemic side effect. These side effects were more prevalent among viral vector vaccinees than inactivated virus vaccinees. The most common local side effects were injection site pain (39%) and arm pain (25.4%), while fatigue (34.4%), fever (28.4%), headache (24.8%) and myalgia (22.7%) were the most prevalent systemic side effects. The side effects appeared earlier among inactivated virus vaccines recipients and generally lasted for 2 to 3 days for the two vaccinated groups. The risk factors associated with a higher prevalence of side effects included female gender, allergic individuals, individuals with regular medication, those who contracted the COVID-19 disease and those who received two doses for both inactivated and viral-based vaccines groups. Despite the higher prevalence of post-vaccination side effects among adenoviral vector vaccines recipients, both vaccines groups were equally effective in preventing symptomatic infections, and no life-threatening side effects were reported in either vaccine group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Ad26COVS1 , Adult , Algeria/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Pain , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
8.
Front Immunol ; 13: 833085, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952321

ABSTRACT

In the COVID-19 pandemic year 2021, several countries have implemented a vaccine certificate policy, the "Green Pass Policy" (GPP), to reduce virus spread and to allow safe relaxation of COVID-19 restrictions and reopening of social and economic activities. The rationale for the GPP is based on the assumption that vaccinated people should maintain a certain degree of immunity to SARS-CoV-2. Here we describe and compare, for the first time, the humoral immune response to mRNA-1273, BNT162b2, Ad26.COV2.S, and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccines in terms of antibody titer elicited, neutralizing activity, and epitope reactogenicity among 369 individuals aged 19 to 94 years. In parallel, we also considered the use of a rapid test for the determination of neutralizing antibodies as a tool to guide policymakers in defining booster vaccination strategies and eligibility for Green Pass. Our analysis demonstrates that the titer of antibodies directed towards the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 Spike is significantly associated with age and vaccine type. Moreover, natural COVID-19 infection combined with vaccination results, on average, in higher antibody titer and higher neutralizing activity as compared to fully vaccinated individuals without prior COVID-19. We also found that levels of anti-Spike RBD antibodies are not always strictly associated with the extent of inhibition of RBD-ACE2 binding, as we could observe different neutralizing activities in sera with similar anti-RBD concentrations. Finally, we evaluated the reactivity to four synthetic peptides derived from Spike protein on a randomly selected serum sample and observed that similar to SARS-CoV-2 infection, vaccination elicits a heterogeneous antibody response with qualitative individual features. On the basis of our results, the use of rapid devices to detect the presence of neutralizing antibodies, even on a large scale and repeatedly over time, appears helpful in determining the duration of the humoral protection elicited by vaccination. These aspects and their implications for the GPP are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Ad26COVS1 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Pandemics , Policy , SARS-CoV-2
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 439, 2022 May 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951078

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The temporal evolution of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine efficacy and effectiveness (VE) against infection, symptomatic, and severe COVID-19 is incompletely defined. The temporal evolution of VE could be dependent on age, vaccine types, variants of the virus, and geographic region. We aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the duration of VE against SARS-CoV-2 infection, symptomatic COVID-19 and severe COVID-19. METHODS: MEDLINE, Scopus, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the World Health Organization Global Literature on Coronavirus Disease, and CoronaCentral databases were searched and studies were selected. Independent reviewers selected randomized controlled trials and cohort studies with the outcome of interest. Independent reviewers extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias. Meta-analysis was performed with the DerSimonian-Laird random-effects model with Hartung-Knapp-Sidik-Jonkman variance correction. The GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) approach was used to assess certainty (quality) of the evidence. Primary outcomes included VE as a function of time against SARS-CoV-2 infection, symptomatic and severe COVID-19. RESULTS: Eighteen studies were included representing nearly 7 million individuals. VE against all SARS-CoV-2 infections declined from 83% in the first month after completion of the original vaccination series to 22% at 5 months or longer. Similarly, VE against symptomatic COVID-19 declined from 94% in the first month after vaccination to 64% by the fourth month. VE against severe COVID-19 for all ages was high overall, with the level being 90% (95% CI, 87-92%) at five months or longer after being fully vaccinated. VE against severe COVID-19 was lower in individuals ≥ 65 years and those who received Ad26.COV2.S. CONCLUSIONS: VE against SARS-CoV-2 infection and symptomatic COVID-19 waned over time but protection remained high against severe COVID-19. These data can be used to inform public health decisions around the need for booster vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Ad26COVS1 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccine Efficacy
10.
Clin Nucl Med ; 47(7): 575-582, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1948622

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Vaccination against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is currently under worldwide deployment. The consequences of this vaccination can be seen in radiology and nuclear medicine explorations with visualization of axillary lymph nodes (LNs), as observed on ultrasonography, MRI, or 18F-FDG PET/CT.We aimed to evaluate on PET/CT the incidence of vaccine-related LNs and their characteristics after COVID-19 vaccination, using several radiopharmaceuticals different from 18F-FDG. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between February and July 2021, all consecutive patients undergoing a whole-body PET/CT for any indication using a different radiopharmaceutical from 18F-FDG were eligible for inclusion if they had received at least 1 dose of the COVID-19 vaccine. The radiopharmaceutical administered and vaccine type were recorded for each patient. The incidence of positive vaccine-related axillary and supraclavicular LNs on PET/CT was our primary finding, along with the nodes characteristics. Statistical analyses were performed for patients with prostate cancer (PCa) to determine certain interaction factors that were associated with the detection of vaccine-related LNs. RESULTS: Of the 226 patients in our cohort study, 120 patients underwent an 18F-fluorocholine PET/CT, 79 a 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT, 6 an 18F-FDOPA PET/CT, and 21 a 68Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT. A total of 67.3% of patients (152/226) received BNT162b2mRNA (Pfizer-BioNTech), 26.5% (60/226) ChAdOx1-S (AstraZeneca), 4.9% (11/226) mRNA-1273 (Moderna), and 1.3% (3/226) Ad26.COV2.S (Janssen). The incidence of positive vaccine-related axillary and supraclavicular LNs was 42.5% (51/120 patients) on PET/CT using 18F-fluorocholine and 12.7% (10/79 patients) with 68Ga-PSMA-11. None of our patients undergoing 18F-FDOPA or 68Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT presented any vaccine-related lymphadenopathy. Vaccine-related LNs were statistically associated with the nature of the radiopharmaceutical (P < 10-4), with the number of vaccine doses received (P = 0.041), with a short delay between vaccination and PET/CT realization (P < 10-5), and with a higher prostate-specific antigen level for patients with PCa (P = 0.032), but not with age or vaccine type. The vaccine-related nodes appeared in 85% of the cases, in the 30 days after vaccine injection, were limited in size and uptake, and were most often limited to the axilla level 1 area. CONCLUSIONS: Detecting positive LNs after COVID-19 vaccination is not an exclusive 18F-FDG PET/CT pattern but is common on 18F-fluorocholine and possible on 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT. Confronting PET/CT findings with clinical data (such as date and site of injection) seems essential in the current pandemic context, just as it does for the radiopharmaceuticals used in PCa to avoid PET/CT misinterpretation and incorrect patient treatment. For 18F-FDOPA or 68Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT, this seems to have a lesser impact.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Prostatic Neoplasms , Ad26COVS1 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Choline/analogs & derivatives , Cohort Studies , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Gallium Isotopes , Gallium Radioisotopes , Humans , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Male , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Prostatic Neoplasms/pathology , Radiopharmaceuticals , Vaccination
11.
Front Immunol ; 13: 907615, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933693

ABSTRACT

Background: Due to the waning humoral response after a two-dose SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination, a third booster was recommended in hemodialyis patients. Data on a heterologous mRNA-vector regimen, which might improve immunogenicity, are very limited. Methods: In this observational study 36 chronic hemodialysis patients (mean (SD) age 66.9 (15.9) years, 33.3% females) were followed up for 13 months. All patients were vaccinated twice using the mRNA-BNT162b2 vaccine, followed by a 3rd dose of the vector vaccine Ad26COVS1 eight months later. We assessed the humoral response by quantifying the anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG antibody and neutralizing antibody concentrations. The cellular immune response was evaluated via SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-specific interferon-γ release assay. Results: The seroconversion rate was 47.2%, 100%, 69.4% and 100% one month after the 1st dose, one and six months after the 2nd dose and four months after the heterologous 3rd dose. The median (Q1, Q3) anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG concentrations at the same time were 28.7 (13.2, 69.4) BAU/ml, 1130.0 (594.5, 1735.0) BAU/ml, 89.7 (26.4, 203.8) BAU/ml, and 2080.0 (1062.5, 2080.0) BAU/ml. The percentage of patients with neutralizing antibodies was 58.3% after the 2nd dose and improved to 100% after the 3rd dose (P <0.001). A positive T-cell response was found in 50% of patients after the 3rd dose. Conclusions: A third heterologous booster dose helped to sustain humoral immunity in almost all hemodialysis patients and induced a significant T-cellular response in half of them. Stimulating the immune response against SARS-CoV-2 by two different vaccine platforms seems to be a promising approach.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Ad26COVS1 , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Male , RNA, Messenger , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccination
12.
Front Immunol ; 13: 898192, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933688

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a threat to the health of the global population. As the result of a global effort in the determination of origin, structure, and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 and its variants, particularly such the variant of concern as Delta Variant and Omicron Variant, the understanding of SARS-CoV-2 are deepening and the development of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 are ongoing. Currently, AstraZeneca-Vaxzevria/SII-Covishield vaccine, Janssen-Ad26.COV2.S vaccine, Moderna-mRNA-1273 vaccine, Pfizer BioNTech-Comirnaty vaccine and Sinovac-CoronaVac vaccine have been listed as WHO Emergency Use Listing (EUL) Qualified Vaccines by WHO. Because of the antigen escape caused by the mutation in variants, the effectiveness of vaccines, which are currently the main means of prevention and treatment, has been affected by varying degrees. Herein, we review the current status of mutations of SARS-CoV-2 variants, the different approaches used in the development of COVID-19 vaccines, and COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Ad26COVS1 , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
13.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(27): e210, 2022 Jul 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933612

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues, there are concerns regarding waning immunity and the emergence of viral variants. The immunogenicity of Ad26.COV2.S against wild-type (WT) and variants of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) needs to be evaluated. METHOD: This prospective cohort study was conducted between June 2021 and January 2022 at two university hospitals in South Korea. Healthy adults who were scheduled to be vaccinated with Ad26.COV2.S were enrolled in this study. The main outcomes included anti-spike (S) IgG antibody and neutralizing antibody responses, S-specific T-cell responses (interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunospot assay), solicited adverse events (AEs), and serious AEs. RESULTS: Fifty participants aged ≥ 19 years were included in the study. Geometric mean titers (GMTs) of anti-S IgG were 0.4 U/mL at baseline, 5.2 ± 3.0 U/mL at 3-4 weeks, 55.7 ± 2.4 U/mL at 5-8 weeks, and 81.3 ± 2.5 U/mL at 10-12 weeks after vaccination. GMTs of 50% neutralizing dilution (ND50) against WT SARS-CoV-2 were 164.6 ± 4.6 at 3-4 weeks, 313.9 ± 3.6 at 5-8 weeks, and 124.4 ± 2.6 at 10-12 weeks after vaccination. As for the S-specific T-cell responses, the median number of spot-forming units/106 peripheral blood mononuclear cell was 25.0 (5.0-29.2) at baseline, 60.0 (23.3-178.3) at 5-8 weeks, and 35.0 (13.3-71.7) at 10-12 weeks after vaccination. Compared to WT SARS-CoV-2, ND50 against Delta and Omicron variants was attenuated by 3.6-fold and 8.2-fold, respectively. The most frequent AE was injection site pain (82%), followed by myalgia (80%), fatigue (70%), and fever (50%). Most AEs were grade 1-2, and resolved within two days. CONCLUSION: Single-dose Ad26.COV2.S was safe and immunogenic. NAb titer and S-specific T-cell immunity peak at 5-8 weeks and rather decrease at 10-12 weeks after vaccination. Cross-reactive neutralizing activity against the Omicron variant was negligible.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Ad26COVS1 , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Prospective Studies
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 610, 2022 Jul 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928162

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Assessing immune responses after vaccination is part of the evaluation package of vaccine effectiveness in the real world. Regarding SARS-CoV-2, neutralizing antibody levels has been shown to be a good indicator of antibody immune response boosting. So far, limited data have been reported from Africa including in Central Africa. The objective of this study was to provide data on anti-S1 spike total IgG and neutralizing antibodies in vaccinated and non-vaccinated including naturally infected Congolese population during B.1.214.1 and B.1.617.2 variant waves. METHODS: Recruited patients were divided into 4 groups: (1) Naturally infected by the B.1.214.1 variant on January 2021 and followed up until September 2021. These patients have been vaccinated at month 07 and then followed up for 2 months post vaccination; (2) Naturally infected by the B.1.617.2 variant from June 2021; (3) unvaccinated SARS-CoV-2 individuals with no history of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection; (4) fully vaccinated individuals with sinopharm/BBIP-CorV or Janssen/Ad26.COV2.S. SARS-CoV-2 was detected by qRT-PCR and sequenced using Next-Generation Sequencing. ELISA method was used for detecting IgG, and neutralizing Antibody against SARS-CoV-2 antigens using commercial neutralizing assay. RESULTS: Individuals infected by the B.1214.1 variant elicited consistently high IgG titers at 02, 03 and 06 months. Two months post vaccination with BBIP-CorV, participants showed a significant increase by × 2.5 fold (p < 0.0001) of total IgG and X1.5 fold for neutralizing antibody capacity. This study showed that natural infection with B1.617.2 (delta) variant was more immunogenic compared to those being infected with B1.214.2 variant. We found a significantly higher concentration in anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG (p < 0.0002) and antibodies neutralization capacity (P < 0.0001) in fully vaccinated compared to unvaccinated participants. Two months post vaccination, individuals who received Janssen/Ad26.COV2.S presented higher (p = 0.01) total IgG to spike protein compared to BBIP-CorV. CONCLUSION: Both natural infection and vaccination with BBIP-CorV and Janssen/Ad26.COV2.S induced antibody response in Congolese population. In addition, Janssen/Ad26.COV2.S was more immunogenic than Sinopharm/BBIP-CorV. There is a need to investigate the duration of these antibodies both in previously infected and naive vaccinated Congolese to allow public heath stakeholders to make evidence-based decision on vaccine schedule for the Congolese population.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation , COVID-19 , Ad26COVS1 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
15.
J Exp Med ; 219(8)2022 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1922149

ABSTRACT

The single-dose Ad.26.COV.2 (Janssen) vaccine elicits lower levels of neutralizing antibodies and shows more limited efficacy in protection against infection than either of the two available mRNA vaccines. In addition, Ad.26.COV.2 has been less effective in protection against severe disease during the Omicron surge. Here, we examined the memory B cell response to single-dose Ad.26.COV.2 vaccination. Compared with mRNA vaccines, Ad.26.COV.2 recipients had significantly lower numbers of RBD-specific memory B cells 1.5 or 6 mo after vaccination. Despite the lower numbers, the overall quality of the memory B cell responses appears to be similar, such that memory antibodies elicited by both vaccine types show comparable neutralizing potency against SARS-CoV-2 Wuhan-Hu-1, Delta, and Omicron BA.1 variants. The data help explain why boosting Ad.26.COV.2 vaccine recipients with mRNA vaccines is effective and why the Ad26.COV2.S vaccine can maintain some protective efficacy against severe disease during the Omicron surge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Ad26COVS1 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , mRNA Vaccines
16.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(7): e2220385, 2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1919176

ABSTRACT

Importance: The number of SARS-CoV-2 infections and COVID-19-associated hospitalizations and deaths prevented among vaccinated persons, independent of the effect of reduced transmission, is a key measure of vaccine impact. Objective: To estimate the number of SARS-CoV-2 infections and COVID-19-associated hospitalizations and deaths prevented among vaccinated adults in the US. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this modeling study, a multiplier model was used to extrapolate the number of SARS-CoV-2 infections and COVID-19-associated deaths from data on the number of COVID-19-associated hospitalizations stratified by state, month, and age group (18-49, 50-64, and ≥65 years) in the US from December 1, 2020, to September 30, 2021. These estimates were combined with data on vaccine coverage and effectiveness to estimate the risks of infections, hospitalizations, and deaths. Risks were applied to the US population 18 years or older to estimate the expected burden in that population without vaccination. The estimated burden in the US population 18 years or older given observed levels of vaccination was subtracted from the expected burden in the US population 18 years or older without vaccination (ie, counterfactual) to estimate the impact of vaccination among vaccinated persons. Exposures: Completion of the COVID-19 vaccination course, defined as 2 doses of messenger RNA (BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273) vaccines or 1 dose of JNJ-78436735 vaccine. Main Outcomes and Measures: Monthly numbers and percentages of SARS-CoV-2 infections and COVID-19-associated hospitalizations and deaths prevented were estimated among those who have been vaccinated in the US. Results: COVID-19 vaccination was estimated to prevent approximately 27 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI], 22 million to 34 million) infections, 1.6 million (95% UI, 1.4 million to 1.8 million) hospitalizations, and 235 000 (95% UI, 175 000-305 000) deaths in the US from December 1, 2020, to September 30, 2021, among vaccinated adults 18 years or older. From September 1 to September 30, 2021, vaccination was estimated to prevent 52% (95% UI, 45%-62%) of expected infections, 56% (95% UI, 52%-62%) of expected hospitalizations, and 58% (95% UI, 53%-63%) of expected deaths in adults 18 years or older. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings indicate that the US COVID-19 vaccination program prevented a substantial burden of morbidity and mortality through direct protection of vaccinated individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Ad26COVS1 , Adult , Aged , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Hospitalization , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 3571, 2022 06 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908170

ABSTRACT

The availability of three COVID-19 vaccines in the United States provides an unprecedented opportunity to examine how vaccine platforms and timing of vaccination in pregnancy impact maternal and neonatal immunity. Here, we characterize the antibody profile after Ad26.COV2.S, mRNA-1273 or BNT162b2 vaccination in 158 pregnant individuals and evaluate transplacental antibody transfer by profiling maternal and umbilical cord blood in 175 maternal-neonatal dyads. These analyses reveal lower vaccine-induced functions and Fc receptor-binding after Ad26.COV2.S compared to mRNA vaccination and subtle advantages in titer and function with mRNA-1273 versus BN162b2. mRNA vaccines have higher titers and functions against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. First and third trimester vaccination results in enhanced maternal antibody-dependent NK-cell activation, cellular and neutrophil phagocytosis, and complement deposition relative to second trimester. Higher transplacental transfer ratios following first and second trimester vaccination may reflect placental compensation for waning maternal titers. These results provide novel insight into the impact of platform and trimester of vaccination on maternal humoral immune response and transplacental antibody transfer.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Ad26COVS1 , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Immunity , Infant, Newborn , Placenta , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , Vaccination/methods
18.
PLoS Med ; 19(6): e1004024, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902610

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Real-world evaluation of the safety profile of vaccines after licensure is crucial to accurately characterise safety beyond clinical trials, support continued use, and thereby improve public confidence. The Sisonke study aimed to assess the safety and effectiveness of the Janssen Ad26.COV2.S vaccine among healthcare workers (HCWs) in South Africa. Here, we present the safety data. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this open-label phase 3b implementation study among all eligible HCWs in South Africa registered in the national Electronic Vaccination Data System (EVDS), we monitored adverse events (AEs) at vaccination sites through self-reporting triggered by text messages after vaccination, healthcare provider reports, and active case finding. The frequency and incidence rate of non-serious and serious AEs were evaluated from the day of first vaccination (17 February 2021) until 28 days after the final vaccination in the study (15 June 2021). COVID-19 breakthrough infections, hospitalisations, and deaths were ascertained via linkage of the electronic vaccination register with existing national databases. Among 477,234 participants, 10,279 AEs were reported, of which 138 (1.3%) were serious AEs (SAEs) or AEs of special interest. Women reported more AEs than men (2.3% versus 1.6%). AE reports decreased with increasing age (3.2% for age 18-30 years, 2.1% for age 31-45 years, 1.8% for age 46-55 years, and 1.5% for age > 55 years). Participants with previous COVID-19 infection reported slightly more AEs (2.6% versus 2.1%). The most common reactogenicity events were headache (n = 4,923) and body aches (n = 4,483), followed by injection site pain (n = 2,767) and fever (n = 2,731), and most occurred within 48 hours of vaccination. Two cases of thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome and 4 cases of Guillain-Barré Syndrome were reported post-vaccination. Most SAEs and AEs of special interest (n = 138) occurred at lower than the expected population rates. Vascular (n = 37; 39.1/100,000 person-years) and nervous system disorders (n = 31; 31.7/100,000 person-years), immune system disorders (n = 24; 24.3/100,000 person-years), and infections and infestations (n = 19; 20.1/100,000 person-years) were the most common reported SAE categories. A limitation of the study was the single-arm design, with limited routinely collected morbidity comparator data in the study setting. CONCLUSIONS: We observed similar patterns of AEs as in phase 3 trials. AEs were mostly expected reactogenicity signs and symptoms. Furthermore, most SAEs occurred below expected rates. The single-dose Ad26.COV2.S vaccine demonstrated an acceptable safety profile, supporting the continued use of this vaccine in this setting. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04838795; Pan African Clinical Trials Registry PACTR202102855526180.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Ad26COVS1 , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , South Africa/epidemiology , Young Adult
19.
J Clin Virol ; 153: 105196, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1899895

ABSTRACT

Children and adolescents form a large proportion of societies and play an important role in the transmission of COVID-19. On the other hand, their education, mental and physical wellness, and safety are compromised which makes vaccination a crucial step to return to normal life. In the current systematic review, the COVID-19 vaccination was evaluated in a total of 50,148 children and adolescents in 22 published studies and 5,279 participants in two ongoing clinical trials. The study was registered in the PROSPERO with the ID# CRD42022303615. Data were collected about multiple vaccines including BNT162b2 (Pfizer), mRNA-1273 (Moderna), JNJ-78436735 (Johnson and Johnson), CoronaVac (Sinovac), BBIBP-CorV (Sinopharm), adenovirus type-5-vectored vaccine, ZyCov-D, and BBV152 (COVAXIN). The immune response and efficacy of such vaccines were 96% - 100% in healthy children and adolescents and were also acceptable in those with underlying diseases and suppressed immune systems. The current systematic review revealed favorable safety profiles of employed vaccines in children and adolescents; however, adverse reactions such as myocarditis and myopericarditis were reported which were transient and resolved entirely. Consequently, vaccinating children and adolescents aged 2 - 21 years old is beneficial to abort the COVID-19 pandemic. Moreover, the risk-benefit assessments revealed favorable results for vaccinating children and adolescents, especially those with underlying diseases and immunosuppressed conditions, alongside adults to prevent transmission, severe infection, negative outcomes, and new variants formation. Also, according to the meta-analysis, the efficacy and immune response of vaccines after the first and second doses were 91% and 92%, respectively. Meanwhile, overall immune response for all vaccines was 95% and 91% for Pfizer vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Ad26COVS1 , Adolescent , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Myocarditis/chemically induced , Pandemics/prevention & control , Young Adult
20.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(7): 100679, 2022 07 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895507

ABSTRACT

The Omicron variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) exhibits reduced susceptibility to vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies, requiring a boost to generate protective immunity. We assess the magnitude and short-term durability of neutralizing antibodies after homologous and heterologous boosting with mRNA and Ad26.COV2.S vaccines. All prime-boost combinations substantially increase the neutralization titers to Omicron, although the boosted titers decline rapidly within 2 months from the peak response compared with boosted titers against the prototypic D614G variant. Boosted Omicron neutralization titers are substantially higher for homologous mRNA vaccine boosting, and for heterologous mRNA and Ad26.COV2.S vaccine boosting, compared with homologous Ad26.COV2.S boosting. Homologous mRNA vaccine boosting generates nearly equivalent neutralizing activity against Omicron sublineages BA.1, BA.2, and BA.3 but modestly reduced neutralizing activity against BA.2.12.1 and BA.4/BA.5 compared with BA.1. These results have implications for boosting requirements to protect against Omicron and future variants of SARS-CoV-2. This trial was conducted under ClincalTrials.gov: NCT04889209.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Ad26COVS1 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
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