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1.
Proc Biol Sci ; 289(1981): 20220065, 2022 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2037618

ABSTRACT

Transgenerational plasticity is a form of non-genetic inheritance that can reduce or enhance offspring fitness depending on parental stress. Yet, the adaptive value of such parental environmental effects and whether their expression varies among populations remain largely unknown. We used self-fertilized lines from climatically distinct populations of the crop wild relative Lupinus angustifolius. In the parental generation, full-siblings were grown in two contrasting watering environments. Then, to robustly separate the within-generation and transgenerational response to drought, we reciprocally assigned the offspring of parents to the same experimental treatments. We measured key functional traits and assessed lifetime reproductive fitness. Offspring of drought-stressed parents produced less reproductive biomass, but a similar number of lighter seeds, in dry soil compared to offspring of genetically identical, well-watered parents, an effect not mediated by differences in seed provisioning. Importantly, while the offspring of parents grown in the favourable environment responded to drought by slightly increasing individual seed mass, the pattern of plasticity of the offspring of drought-grown parents showed the opposite direction, and the negative effects of parental drought on seed mass were more pronounced in populations from cooler and moist habitats. Overall, our results show that parental effects may override immediate adaptive responses to drought and provide evidence of population-level variation in the expression of transgenerational plasticity.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Physiological , Droughts , Ecosystem , Seeds/physiology , Soil
2.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0262195, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1968840

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has had a devastating impact on the global economy and affected millions of people's work and personal lives across the world. The purpose of the present study was to better understand how individuals' work and personal goals have been affected by the pandemic and how they have adapted to these changes. We conducted qualitative semi-structured interviews (n = 48) and surveyed participants (n = 200) weekly for 5 weeks. Both methods revealed similar themes regarding the adaptation and pursuit of goals (social support, handling unpredictable situations, logistics, solving problems creatively, goal postponement, and no changes). Survey responses also showed that most individuals experienced their goals as more difficult (79%; 13% easier; 9% no change) and found that many had had to adapt or postpone their work and personal goals, often due to logistical difficulties. Businesses and governments should do more to help individuals adapt their goals to the new circumstances.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Goals , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Work Performance/organization & administration , Adaptation, Physiological , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Quarantine/psychology , Social Support , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
3.
Behav Brain Sci ; 45: e151, 2022 07 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960162

ABSTRACT

Extending Campbell's (1999) staying alive theory (SAT) beyond aggression, we reviewed evidence that females are more self-protective than males. Many commentators provided additional supporting data. Sex differences in life-history adaptations, in the optimal relation between survival and reproduction, and in the mechanisms underlying trade-offs involved with self-protection remain important topics with numerous opportunities for improved understanding.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Physiological , Reproduction , Female , Humans , Male
4.
Nature ; 607(7918): 249-255, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1947377

ABSTRACT

Our body has a remarkable ability to remember its past encounters with allergens, pathogens, wounds and irritants, and to react more quickly to the next experience. This accentuated sensitivity also helps us to cope with new threats. Despite maintaining a state of readiness and broadened resistance to subsequent pathogens, memories can also be maladaptive, leading to chronic inflammatory disorders and cancers. With the ever-increasing emergence of new pathogens, allergens and pollutants in our world, the urgency to unravel the molecular underpinnings of these phenomena has risen to new heights. Here we reflect on how the field of inflammatory memory has evolved, since 2007, when researchers realized that non-specific memory is contained in the nucleus and propagated at the epigenetic level. We review the flurry of recent discoveries revealing that memory is not just a privilege of the immune system but also extends to epithelia of the skin, lung, intestine and pancreas, and to neurons. Although still unfolding, epigenetic memories of inflammation have now been linked to possible brain disorders such as Alzheimer disease, and to an elevated risk of cancer. In this Review, we consider the consequences-good and bad-of these epigenetic memories and their implications for human health and disease.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Physiological , Epigenesis, Genetic , Health , Inflammation , Adaptation, Physiological/genetics , Alzheimer Disease/genetics , Humans , Immunologic Memory , Inflammation/genetics , Neoplasms/genetics
5.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 63(5): 29, 2022 05 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883370

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To examine perceptual adaptation when people wear spectacles that produce unequal retinal image magnification. Methods: Two groups of 15 participants (10 male; mean age 25.6 ± 4.9 years) wore spectacles with a 3.8% horizontal magnifier over one eye. The continuous-wear group wore the spectacles for 5 hours straight. The intermittent-wear group wore them for five 1-hour intervals. To measure slant and shape distortions produced by the spectacles, participants adjusted visual stimuli until they appeared frontoparallel or equiangular, respectively. Adaptation was quantified as the difference in responses at the beginning and end of wearing the spectacles. Aftereffects were quantified as the difference before and after removing the spectacles. We hypothesized that intermittent wear may lead to visual cue reweighting, so we fit a cue combination model to the data and examined changes in weights given to perspective and binocular disparity slant cues. Results: Both groups experienced significant shape adaptation and aftereffects. The continuous-wear group underwent significant slant adaptation and the intermittent group did not, but there was no significant difference between groups, suggesting that the difference in adaptation was negligible. There was no evidence for cue reweighting in the intermittent wear group, but unexpectedly, the weight given to binocular disparity cues for slant increased significantly in the continuous-wear group. Conclusions: We did not find strong evidence that adaptation to spatial distortions differed between the two groups. However, there may be differences in the cue weighting strategies employed when spectacles are worn intermittently or continuously.


Subject(s)
Cues , Vision Disparity , Adaptation, Physiological/physiology , Adult , Depth Perception/physiology , Eyeglasses , Humans , Male , Young Adult
7.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 3401566, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794376

ABSTRACT

Early in the COVID-19 pandemic, asymptomatic transmission represented an important challenge for controlling the spread of SARS-CoV-2 through the traditional public health strategies. Further understanding of the contribution of asymptomatic infections to SARS-CoV-2 transmission has been of crucial importance for pandemic control. We conducted a retrospective epidemiological study to characterize asymptomatic COVID-19 cases occurred in the Apulia region, Italy, during the first epidemic wave of COVID-19 outbreak (February 29-July 7, 2020). We analyzed data collected in a regional platform developed to manage surveillance activities, namely, investigation and follow-up of cases and contacts, contact tracing, and laboratory and clinical data collection. We included all asymptomatic cases that were laboratory-confirmed during the appropriate follow-up, defined as persons infected with SARS-CoV-2 who did not develop symptoms/clinical signs of the disease. Between February 29 and July 7, 2020, a total of 4,536 cases were diagnosed with COVID-19 among 193,757 tests performed. The group of persons with asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection consisted of 903 cases; the asymptomatic proportion was 19.9% (95% CI: 18.8-21.1%); this decreased with increasing age (OR: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.83-0.96; p = 0.001), in individuals with underlying comorbidities (OR: 0.55, 95% CI: 0.41-0.73; p < 0.001), and in males (OR: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.54-0.87; p = 0.002). The median asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 RNA positive period was 19 days (IQR: 14-31) and the cumulative proportion of persons with resolution of infection 14 days after the first positive PCR test was 74%. As the public health community is debating the question of whether asymptomatic and late spreaders could sustain virus transmission in the communities, such cases present unique opportunities to gain insight into SARS-CoV-2 adaptation to human host. This has important implications for future COVID-19 surveillance and prevention.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Carrier State/epidemiology , Adaptation, Physiological , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/transmission , Contact Tracing , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , RNA, Viral , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
8.
J Virol ; 96(5): e0218621, 2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736028

ABSTRACT

Recent emergence of SARS-CoV-1 variants demonstrates the potential of this virus for targeted evolution, despite its overall genomic stability. Here we show the dynamics and the mechanisms behind the rapid adaptation of SARS-CoV-2 to growth in Vero E6 cells. The selective advantage for growth in Vero E6 cells is due to increased cleavage efficiency by cathepsins at the mutated S1/S2 site. S1/S2 site also constitutes a heparan sulfate (HS) binding motif that influenced virus growth in Vero E6 cells, but HS antagonist did not inhibit virus adaptation in these cells. The entry of Vero E6-adapted virus into human cells is defective because the mutated spike variants are poorly processed by furin or TMPRSS2. Minor subpopulation that lack the furin cleavage motif in the spike protein rapidly become dominant upon passaging through Vero E6 cells, but wild type sequences are maintained at low percentage in the virus swarm and mediate a rapid reverse adaptation if the virus is passaged again on TMPRSS2+ human cells. Our data show that the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 can rapidly adapt itself to available proteases and argue for deep sequence surveillance to identify the emergence of novel variants. IMPORTANCE Recently emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants B.1.1.7 (alpha variant), B.1.617.2 (delta variant), and B.1.1.529 (omicron variant) harbor spike mutations and have been linked to increased virus pathogenesis. The emergence of these novel variants highlights coronavirus adaptation and evolution potential, despite the stable consensus genotype of clinical isolates. We show that subdominant variants maintained in the virus population enable the virus to rapidly adapt to selection pressure. Although these adaptations lead to genotype change, the change is not absolute and genomes with original genotype are maintained in the virus swarm. Thus, our results imply that the relative stability of SARS-CoV-2 in numerous independent clinical isolates belies its potential for rapid adaptation to new conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Furin/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Adaptation, Physiological , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral , Furin/genetics , HEK293 Cells , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vero Cells , Virus Replication
10.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(12): e1010174, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1624813

ABSTRACT

The mechanisms and consequences of genome evolution on viral fitness following host shifts are poorly understood. In addition, viral fitness -the ability of an organism to reproduce and survive- is multifactorial and thus difficult to quantify. Influenza A viruses (IAVs) circulate broadly among wild birds and have jumped into and become endemic in multiple mammalian hosts, including humans, pigs, dogs, seals, and horses. H3N8 equine influenza virus (EIV) is an endemic virus of horses that originated in birds and has been circulating uninterruptedly in equine populations since the early 1960s. Here, we used EIV to quantify changes in infection phenotype associated to viral fitness due to genome-wide changes acquired during long-term adaptation. We performed experimental infections of two mammalian cell lines and equine tracheal explants using the earliest H3N8 EIV isolated (A/equine/Uruguay/63 [EIV/63]), and A/equine/Ohio/2003 (EIV/2003), a monophyletic descendant of EIV/63 isolated 40 years after the emergence of H3N8 EIV. We show that EIV/2003 exhibits increased resistance to interferon, enhanced viral replication, and a more efficient cell-to-cell spread in cells and tissues. Transcriptomics analyses revealed virus-specific responses to each virus, mainly affecting host immunity and inflammation. Image analyses of infected equine respiratory explants showed that despite replicating at higher levels and spreading over larger areas of the respiratory epithelium, EIV/2003 induced milder lesions compared to EIV/63, suggesting that adaptation led to reduced tissue pathogenicity. Our results reveal previously unknown links between virus genotype and the host response to infection, providing new insights on the relationship between virus evolution and fitness.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Physiological/physiology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/physiology , Influenza A Virus, H3N8 Subtype/physiology , Influenza A Virus, H3N8 Subtype/pathogenicity , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/virology , Animals , Genetic Fitness/physiology , Horses
11.
Trends Immunol ; 43(2): 117-131, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654629

ABSTRACT

The mammalian immune system packs serious punch against infection but can also cause harm: for example, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) made headline news of the simultaneous power and peril of human immune responses. In principle, natural selection leads to exquisite adaptation and therefore cytokine responsiveness that optimally balances the benefits of defense against its costs (e.g., immunopathology suffered and resources expended). Here, we illustrate how evolutionary biology can predict such optima and also help to explain when/why individuals exhibit apparently maladaptive immunopathological responses. Ultimately, we argue that the evolutionary legacies of multicellularity and life-history strategy, in addition to our coevolution with symbionts and our demographic history, together explain human susceptibility to overzealous, pathology-inducing cytokine responses. Evolutionary insight thereby complements molecular/cellular mechanistic insights into immunopathology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adaptation, Physiological , Animals , Biological Evolution , Cytokines/genetics , Humans , Immune System , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Viruses ; 14(1)2022 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1631201

ABSTRACT

γδ T cells are innate cells able to quickly eliminate pathogens or infected/tumoral cells by their antiviral and adjuvancy activities. The role of γδ T cells during Dengue Viral Infection (DENV) infection is not fully elucidated. Nevertheless, human primary γδ T cells have been shown to kill in vitro DENV-infected cells, thus highlighting their possible antiviral function. The aim of this work was to characterize the phenotype and function of Vδ2 T cells in DENV patients. Fifteen DENV patients were enrolled for this study and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were used to analyze Vδ2-T-cell frequency, differentiation profile, activation/exhaustion status, and functionality by multiparametric flow cytometry. Our data demonstrated that DENV infection was able to significantly reduce Vδ2-T-cell frequency and to increase their activation (CD38 and HLA-DR) and exhaustion markers (PD-1 and TIM-3). Furthermore, Vδ2 T cells showed a reduced capability to produce IFN-γ after phosphoantigenic stimulation that can be associated to TIM-3 expression. Several studies are needed to depict the possible clinical impact of γδ-T-cell impairment on disease severity and to define the antiviral and immunoregulatory activities of γδ T cells in the first phases of infection.


Subject(s)
Dengue/immunology , Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 2/metabolism , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Intraepithelial Lymphocytes/immunology , Adaptation, Physiological , Adult , Flow Cytometry , Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 2/genetics , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology
13.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260767, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581773

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected health care systems worldwide. Multidisciplinary teams provide specialist palliative home care (SPHC) for patients with incurable, severe, progressive diseases. These patients are at the same time at high risk, if infected, highly constricted by containment measures, and dependent on support. AIM: To explore i) how German SPHC teams were affected by the pandemic during the first wave, ii) which challenges they faced, and iii) which strategies helped to handle the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic for providing good SPHC. METHOD: Four focus groups (with representatives of 18 SPHC teams) and five guided interviews with stakeholders were conducted and analysed using qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: Seven key categories emerged from the data. A category in the background describes dependence on organizational characteristics (e.g. sponsorship), which varied by regional factors. Information management was a challenge to SPHC teams, as they had to collect, interpret and adapt, and disseminate information. They reported a shift in patient care because of the COVID-19 pandemic, due to restricted home visits, visitation ban in nursing homes, and difficulties for hospital, hospice and nursing home admissions. Measures to reduce risk of infection impeded teamwork. Teams relied upon their local networks in crisis management, but felt often overlooked by local health authorities. Their respective SPHC state associations supported them in information management and exchange. DISCUSSION: The pandemic has severely impacted home care for especially vulnerable seriously ill and dying people. A good network with local health providers and authorities could help to harmonize local regulations and ensure quality care for all patient groups. SPHC teams could play an important role in caring for palliative patients with COVID-19 who are not admitted to a hospital due to preferences or resources.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adaptation, Physiological , Humans , Uncertainty
14.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(11): e1009560, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523396

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of COVID-19, is of zoonotic origin. Evolutionary analyses assessing whether coronaviruses similar to SARS-CoV-2 infected ancestral species of modern-day animal hosts could be useful in identifying additional reservoirs of potentially dangerous coronaviruses. We reasoned that if a clade of species has been repeatedly exposed to a virus, then their proteins relevant for viral entry may exhibit adaptations that affect host susceptibility or response. We perform comparative analyses across the mammalian phylogeny of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the cellular receptor for SARS-CoV-2, in order to uncover evidence for selection acting at its binding interface with the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. We uncover that in rodents there is evidence for adaptive amino acid substitutions at positions comprising the ACE2-spike interaction interface, whereas the variation within ACE2 proteins in primates and some other mammalian clades is not consistent with evolutionary adaptations. We also analyze aminopeptidase N (APN), the receptor for the human coronavirus 229E, a virus that causes the common cold, and find evidence for adaptation in primates. Altogether, our results suggest that the rodent and primate lineages may have had ancient exposures to viruses similar to SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-229E, respectively.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adaptation, Physiological/genetics , Amino Acid Substitution , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/physiology , Animals , CD13 Antigens/genetics , CD13 Antigens/physiology , Common Cold/genetics , Common Cold/virology , Computational Biology , Coronavirus 229E, Human/genetics , Coronavirus 229E, Human/physiology , Evolution, Molecular , Genomics , Host Microbial Interactions/genetics , Host Microbial Interactions/physiology , Host Specificity/genetics , Host Specificity/physiology , Humans , Mammals/genetics , Mammals/virology , Phylogeny , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs/genetics , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Selection, Genetic , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/physiology , Virus Internalization
15.
Math Biosci ; 343: 108732, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499017

ABSTRACT

Different virus families, like influenza or corona viruses, exhibit characteristic traits such as typical modes of transmission and replication as well as specific animal reservoirs in which each family of viruses circulate. These traits of genetically related groups of viruses influence how easily an animal virus can adapt to infect humans, how well novel human variants can spread in the population, and the risk of causing a global pandemic. Relating the traits of virus families to their risk of causing future pandemics, and identification of the key time scales within which public health interventions can control the spread of a new virus that could cause a pandemic, are obviously significant. We address these issues using a minimal model whose parameters are related to characteristic traits of different virus families. A key trait of viruses that "spillover" from animal reservoirs to infect humans is their ability to propagate infection through the human population (fitness). We find that the risk of pandemics emerging from virus families characterized by a wide distribution of the fitness of spillover strains is much higher than if such strains were characterized by narrow fitness distributions around the same mean. The dependences of the risk of a pandemic on various model parameters exhibit inflection points. We find that these inflection points define informative thresholds. For example, the inflection point in variation of pandemic risk with time after the spillover represents a threshold time beyond which global interventions would likely be too late to prevent a pandemic.


Subject(s)
Influenza A virus , Influenza, Human , Adaptation, Physiological , Animals , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics
16.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 78(24): 7967-7989, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499404

ABSTRACT

Since the emergence of the first case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), the viral genome has constantly undergone rapid mutations for better adaptation in the host system. These newer mutations have given rise to several lineages/ variants of the virus that have resulted in high transmission and virulence rates compared to the previously circulating variants. Owing to this, the overall caseload and related mortality have tremendously increased globally to > 233 million infections and > 4.7 million deaths as of Sept. 28th, 2021. SARS-CoV-2, Spike (S) protein binds to host cells by recognizing human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) receptor. The viral S protein contains S1 and S2 domains that constitute the binding and fusion machinery, respectively. Structural analysis of viral S protein reveals that the virus undergoes conformational flexibility and dynamicity to interact with the hACE2 receptor. The SARS-CoV-2 variants and mutations might be associated with affecting the conformational plasticity of S protein, potentially linked to its altered affinity, infectivity, and immunogenicity. This review focuses on the current circulating variants of SARS-CoV-2 and the structure-function analysis of key S protein mutations linked with increased affinity, higher infectivity, enhanced transmission rates, and immune escape against this infection.


Subject(s)
Immune Evasion/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adaptation, Physiological/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/transmission , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Protein Conformation , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(19)2021 09 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438621

ABSTRACT

As the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic continues, frontline nurses caring for COVID-19 patients are experiencing severe fatigue and mental stress. This study explored nurses' adaptation process in caring for COVID-19 patients and examined how nurses interact with the phenomenon using a grounded theory approach. The study aimed to develop a substantive theory and provide basic data with which to develop intervention programs that can support nurses caring for COVID-19 patients. Data were collected between 7 August and 31 October 2020, via face-to-face in-depth interviews with 23 nurses who had been caring for COVID-19 patients for six months or more at a nationally designated COVID-19 hospital. Sampling was started purposively and continued theoretically. Data analysis, performed using the method proposed by Strauss and Corbin, resulted in 13 main categories, the core one being "growing as a proficient nurse alongside comrades on the COVID-19 frontline". The study's results identify the nurses' adaptation process in caring for COVID-19 patients and their reactions to the circumstances around it. Ensuring that nurses can systematically cope with emerging infectious diseases requires regularly providing them with basic education on caring for patients with such diseases and strengthening professional education in order to develop nurses specializing in them. This study also recommends that a support system for work and childrearing be developed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nurses , Adaptation, Physiological , Grounded Theory , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Physiol Rep ; 9(18): e15044, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1436402

ABSTRACT

In humans, exercise-induced thermogenesis is a markedly variable component of total energy expenditure, which had been acutely affected worldwide by COVID-19 pandemic-related lockdowns. We hypothesized that dietary macronutrient composition may affect metabolic adaptation/fuel selection in response to an acute decrease in voluntary activity. Using mice fed short-term high-fat diet (HFD) compared to low-fat diet (LFD)-fed mice, we evaluated whole-body fuel utilization by metabolic cages before and 3 days after omitting a voluntary running wheel in the cage. Short-term (24-48 h) HFD was sufficient to increase energy intake, fat oxidation, and decrease carbohydrate oxidation. Running wheel omission did not change energy intake, but resulted in a significant 50% decrease in total activity and a ~20% in energy expenditure in the active phase (night-time), compared to the period with wheel, irrespective of the dietary composition, resulting in significant weight gain. Yet, while in LFD wheel omission significantly decreased active phase fat oxidation, thereby trending to increase respiratory exchange ratio (RER), in HFD it diminished active phase carbohydrate oxidation. In conclusion, acute decrease in voluntary activity resulted in positive energy balance in mice on both diets, and decreased oxidation of the minor energy (macronutrient) fuel source, demonstrating that dietary macronutrient composition determines fuel utilization choices under conditions of acute changes in energetic demand.


Subject(s)
Diet, Fat-Restricted , Diet, High-Fat , Dietary Fats/administration & dosage , Energy Metabolism , Adaptation, Physiological , Animal Feed , Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Animals , Dietary Fats/metabolism , Energy Intake , Male , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Nutritional Status , Nutritive Value , Running , Time Factors
20.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256695, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403301

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to examine to what extent the physical match performance of professional soccer players is both position and player specific. First, official match data from the 2019/20 German Bundesliga season was used to search for players that met the inclusion criteria of playing a minimum of four entire matches in at least two different playing positions. Overall, 25 players met the criteria prior to the COVID-19 induced break, playing a minimum of eight matches. Second, the physical match performance of these players was analyzed separately for each position they played. The following four parameters were captured: total distance, high-intensity distance, sprinting distance, and accelerations. Third, the 25 players' physical match performance data was then compared to normative data for each position they played to understand whether players adapted their physical performance (position dependent), or maintained their performance regardless of which position they were assigned to (position independent). When switching the position, the change in physical match performance of the respective players could be explained by 44-58% through the normative positional data. Moreover, there existed large individual differences in the way players adapted or maintained their performance when acting in different positions. Coaches and practitioners should be aware that some professional soccer players will likely incur differences in the composition of physical match performance when switching positions and therefore should pay special consideration for such differences in the training and recovery process of these players.


Subject(s)
Athletic Performance , Physical Functional Performance , Soccer , Adaptation, Physiological , Humans
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