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1.
Saudi Med J ; 43(1): 61-66, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622886

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the emotional responses and coping strategies of medical students during the lockdown and social distancing measures implemented during the coronavirus disease -19 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: This cross­sectional study is based on data collected from undergraduate medical students at the College of Medicine, Alfaisal University Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, during the fall semester of academic year 2020-2021. All the participants completed a self-administered online questionnaire consisting of 3 parts: demographic information, emotional response scale, and 14-item, adapted brief coping orientation to problems experienced inventory to determine the use of avoidant or approach coping strategies. Coping and emotional response scores were compared using t-test. Linear regression analysis was also performed. RESULTS: A total of 261 students from all years were included. Overall scores were higher for avoidant coping strategies. The use of avoidant coping strategies was significantly higher in females (p=0.03) and in preclinical students (p<0.001). Preclinical students had a higher mean score for anger (p=0.002). Conversely, students in the clinical phase had higher scores for anxiety (p=0.005) and sadness (p=0.027). The regression analysis of emotional responses and coping strategies suggests that avoidant coping is a predictor of anger (p=0.003) and sadness (p=0.005). CONCLUSION: Interventions to train medical students in the use of more productive and effective coping strategies may reduce negative emotional responses linked to the present COVID-19 pandemic and in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Medical , Adaptation, Psychological , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Emotions , Female , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Curr Opin Psychiatry ; 35(1): 73-77, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608059

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The COVID-19 pandemic has tested people's coping and resilience. This article reviews research and scholarly work aiming to shed more light on personality-based factors that account for adjustment to the pandemic situation. RECENT FINDINGS: Most studies relied on a cross-sectional design and were conducted using personality dimensions based on the Big Five personality model. Findings suggest that high levels of neuroticism constitute a risk for pandemic-induced distress and poor overall coping. People with prominent extraversion, conscientiousness or agreeableness have generally demonstrated a good adjustment to the pandemic, including compliance with containment and mitigation measures imposed by the authorities to limit the spread of COVID-19. A few studies of individuals with borderline personality disorder identified social isolation as the most destabilising factor for them. Poor compliance with containment and mitigation measures has been strongly associated with various antisocial personality traits. SUMMARY: Personality-based factors account for some individual differences in coping with both COVID-19-related threat and distress and requirements to comply with containment and mitigation measures. Better understanding of these factors could contribute to a more effective adjustment to the challenges of future public health crises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adaptation, Psychological , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Personality , SARS-CoV-2
4.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 530, 2021 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594206

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An increasing number of undergraduate students in China have been reported to have psychological problems. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, a series of preventive and control measures were implemented, which undoubtedly worsened their psychological health. Coping style and social support were probably important factors that affected the psychological well-being of undergraduate students during the pandemic. This study aimed to explore the effects of coping style and perceived social support on the psychological well-being of college students and relevant risk factors. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed in February and March of 2020 by distributing an online questionnaire among undergraduate students from seven geographical regions across China. The questionnaire included sociodemographic information; the 21-item Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21); the Perceived Social Support Scale (PSSS); and the Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire (SCSQ). For the analyses, t-tests, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), the Kruskal-Wallis test and multiple linear regression were utilized. The level of significance was set at P < 0.05. RESULTS: Among 3113 college students, the rates of anxiety, depression and stress symptoms were 13.3, 15.4 and 6.8%, respectively. Increased rates of current smoking and drinking (5.5 and 25.2%, respectively) among undergraduates were identified. The results indicated that the PSSS subscales and SCSQ subscales were significantly associated with DASS-21 scores (P < 0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that active coping style and family support were protective factors while passive coping style could aggravate psychological problems among participants (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: A remarkable number of college students adopted passive coping strategies to cope with negative feelings, such as smoking and drinking, which were detrimental to their mental health. In contrast, active coping strategies helped improve their psychological well-being. Moreover, family support was particularly important for maintaining their mental health and ameliorating mental health challenges in this major health crisis. Consequently, suitable psychointervention, routine screening for risk behaviors, and provision of further social support are needed for undergraduate students in the COVID-19 pandemic or other emergency public health events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adaptation, Psychological , Anxiety/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
Med Lav ; 112(6): 496-505, 2021 Dec 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595733

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the psychological state of healthcare workers (HCWs) in the field of rehabilitation during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Cross-sectional observational study. Sample of 334 HCWs including: nurses, medical doctors, therapists, scientists, and clerical workers working at the IRCCS San Raffaele Roma rehabilitation hospital during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Anonymous web-based questionnaire included 14-item Resilience Scale, Brief-COPE, Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, Fear of COVID-19 Scale. Occupational and sociodemographic characteristics. RESULTS: High levels of resilience, low levels of anxiety, depression, and fear were observed in the study population; the most frequently used coping strategies in the Brief-COPE were acceptance, planning, and active coping. Specifically, 87% of the participants reported a moderate to high level of resilience, with the highest level observed in nurses while physicians show the lowest level. HCWs showed symptoms of anxiety (29%), depressive symptoms (10%), and fear caused by the COVID-19 pandemic (44%). Statistically significant differences were observed between different occupations for fear (p <0.05) and resilience (p <0.01). Levels of anxiety and fear appeared to be higher in female and younger workers. The latter group - who also reported higher levels of depression - showed lower levels of resilience. CONCLUSIONS: In our study hospital and non-hospital workers show different emotional, cognitive, and behavioural resources when facing stressful situations, like in the case of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemics. Our results support the role of resilience and the proper use of problem-focused and emotion-focused coping strategies as protective factors from psychological distress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adaptation, Psychological , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
7.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 851, 2021 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594954

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infectious outbreaks are known to cause fear and panic. Exploration of pregnant individuals' psychosocial condition using a qualitative lens during an infectious outbreak is limited. In this study we explore pregnant individuals' lived experiences as well as their psychological and behavioural responses during COVID-19 with the goal of providing useful strategies from the patient's perspective to enable health care providers to help pregnant patients navigate this and future pandemics. METHODS: Pregnant individuals between 20-weeks gestation and 3 months postpartum who received maternity care from an urban academic interprofessional teaching unit in Toronto, Canada were invited to participate. Semi-structured 60 min interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analyzed using descriptive thematic analysis. Interview questions probed psychological responses to the pandemic, behavioural and lifestyle changes, strategies to mitigate distress while pregnant during COVID-19 and advice for other patients and the healthcare team. RESULTS: There were 12 participants, mean age 35 years (range 30-43 years), all 1 to 6 months postpartum. Six main themes emerged: 1) Childbearing-related challenges to everyday life; 2) Increased worry, uncertainty and fear; 3) Pervasive sense of loss; 4) Challenges accessing care; 5) Strategies for coping with pandemic stress; 6) Reflections and advice to other pregnant people and health care professionals. Pregnant individuals described lack of social support due to COVID-19 pandemic restrictions and a profound sense of loss of what they thought their pregnancy and postpartum period should have been. Advice to healthcare providers included providing mental health support, clear and up to date communication as well as more postpartum and breastfeeding support. CONCLUSIONS: These participants described experiencing psychosocial distress during their pregnancies and postpartum. In a stressful situation such as a global pandemic, health care providers need to play a pivotal role to ensure pregnant individuals feel supported and receive consistent care throughout the pregnancy and postpartum period. The health care provider should ensure that mental health concerns are addressed and provide postpartum and breastfeeding support. Without addressing this need for support, parental mental health, relationships, parent-infant bonding, and infant development may be negatively impacted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Postpartum Period/psychology , Pregnancy/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , Canada/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Maternal Health Services/standards , Mental Health , Psychological Distress , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support
9.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 620, 2021 Dec 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582076

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The unfolding of the COVID-19 pandemic during spring 2020 has disrupted medical education worldwide. The University of Geneva decided to shift on-site classwork to online learning; many exams were transformed from summative to formative evaluations and most clinical activities were suspended. We aimed to investigate the perceived impact of those adaptations by the students at the Faculty of Medicine. METHODS: We sent an online self-administered survey to medical students from years 2 to 6 of the University of Geneva, three months after the beginning of the pandemic. The survey explored students' main activities during the first three months of the pandemic, the impact of the crisis on their personal life, on their training and on their professional identity, the level of stress they experienced and which coping strategies they developed. The survey consisted of open-ended and closed questions and was administered in French. RESULTS: A total of 58.8% of students responded (n = 467) and were homogeneously distributed across gender. At the time of the survey, two thirds of the participants were involved in COVID-19-related activities; 72.5% voluntarily participated, mainly fueled by a desire to help and feel useful. Many participants (58.8%) reported a feeling of isolation encountered since the start of the pandemic. Main coping strategies reported were physical activity and increased telecommunications with their loved ones. Most students described a negative impact of the imposed restrictions on their training, reporting decreased motivation and concentration in an unusual or distraction-prone study environment at home and missing interactions with peers and teachers. Students recruited to help at the hospital in the context of increasing staff needs reported a positive impact due to the enriched clinical exposure. Perceived stress levels were manageable across the surveyed population. If changed, the crisis had a largely positive impact on students' professional identity; most highlighted the importance of the health care profession for society and confirmed their career choice. CONCLUSION: Through this comprehensive picture, our study describes the perceived impact of the pandemic on University of Geneva medical students, their training and their professional identity three months after the start of the pandemic. These results allowed us to gain valuable insight that reinforced the relevance of assessing the evolution of the situation in the long run and the importance of developing institutional support tools for medical students throughout their studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Medical , Adaptation, Psychological , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Front Public Health ; 9: 739068, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581125

ABSTRACT

Background: Positive affect (PA) is crucial for individuals to cope with the current pandemic and buffer the lingering fears after it, especially for patients with substance-use disorders (SUDs). The current study aimed to explore PA and its related factors during the COVID-19 pandemic in male patients with the heroin-use disorder (HUD) and patients with the methamphetamine-use disorder (MAUD), respectively. Methods: A total of 325 male patients with SUDs (106 with HUD and 219 with MAUD, all were single-substance users) in a compulsory rehabilitation center underwent semi-structured interviews during the pandemic. The demographic information, drug-use characteristics, active coping styles (ACSs, by Simple Coping Style Questionnaire), and PA (by the Positive and Negative Affect Scale) of participants were collected and recorded. Results: There were significant differences between the two groups in age, the proportion of full-time workers before the epidemic, duration of drug use, the proportion of patients with long-term withdrawal during the epidemic, cravings, ACS, and PA. Correlation and multiple linear regression analysis showed that duration of drug use, ACS, and stable jobs were significant predictive factors for PA in patients with HUD, while long-term withdrawal, ACS, and stable jobs during the epidemic were significant predictive factors for PA in patients with MAUD. Conclusions: Our study demonstrated the factors for PA in patients with HUD and MAUD during the pandemic. The results provided a basis for the comprehensive understanding of the PA of patients with SUDs and the development of targeted treatments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Methamphetamine , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Adaptation, Psychological , Heroin , Humans , Male , Methamphetamine/adverse effects , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2021 Dec 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580857

ABSTRACT

The current study evaluated the impact of psychological wellbeing on sleep quality during the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. A novel empirical model tested variables that mediate and moderate this impact. First, a relationship was established between psychological wellbeing during the COVID-19 pandemic and sleep quality. Second, resilience-based coping associated with the COVID-19 pandemic was tested as a mediator of the impact of psychological wellbeing on sleep quality. Third, dispositional rumination, mindfulness, and worry were compared as moderators of the impact of psychological wellbeing on sleep quality. Fourth, a moderated mediated model was tested for each moderator. Online survey data was collected from 153 adults in the United States. Results demonstrated that coping with the COVID-19 pandemic partially mediated the impact of psychological wellbeing on sleep quality. Worry, but not rumination or mindfulness, moderated the impact. A moderated mediation model failed to demonstrate significance, indicating that the data are best represented by distinct mediation and moderation models. Thus, interventions aimed at improving sleep quality should prioritize concurrent reduction in worry and increase in resilience-based coping strategies. This study provides practical and theoretical contribution to the literature by demonstrating relationships between key variables and contextualizing how the model can be used for assessments and interventions during widespread crises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2021 Dec 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580823

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Working during the COVID-19 pandemic is a particular challenge for nurses because, while performing their daily routines, they are exposed to physical and social consequences of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which is accompanied by intensified stress. The aim of this study was to assess the intensity of stress and coping strategies applied by nurses working with both infected and non-infected patients with SARS-CoV-2 virus during the COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted between January and March 2021. Due to the epidemiological situation, the questionnaire was posted on Facebook in nurses' groups and sent out via the "Messenger" and "WhatsApp" applications. Stress intensity was assessed by means of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), whereas coping strategies were assessed using the Mini-COPE stress coping inventory. RESULTS: Among 151 surveyed nurses, more than half (52.3%) worked with infected patients and the remaining ones (47.7%) worked with non-infected patients. The level of stress perceived by nurses working with infected patients was higher than among nurses working with patients without SARS-CoV-2 infection (22.22 ± 5.94 vs. 20.21 ± 5.68, p = 0.03). The nurses working with infected patients were most likely to choose coping strategies focused on the problem (2.00 ± 0.62) and emotions (2.01 ± 0.69), whereas those working with non-infected patients usually chose strategies focused only on the problem (2.11 ± 0.58). CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, nurses working with SARS-CoV-2 patients experienced more intense stress than those working with non-infected patients. Nurses working with SARS-CoV-2 patients tended to cope with stress using strategies focused on the problem and on emotions, while those working with non-infected patients were more likely to choose strategies focused only on the problem.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nurses , Adaptation, Psychological , Emotions , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2021 12 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580799

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has significantly limited social contacts, thus contributing to deepening isolation. Therefore, SARS-CoV-2 exerted on humanity not only a physical impact but also a psychological one, often increasing the feeling of stress. The long-term effects of such a state could include the management of depression, so our study aimed to analyze groups of medical students in different periods of the pandemic (at the beginning of the pandemic, after half a year of the pandemic, after one year of the pandemic) in order to assess the impact of this situation on coping with stress. The impact of the pandemic on the development of stress factors such as alcohol consumption and smoking was also studied. The level of physical activity in the context of coping with an uncertain situation was also assessed. The impact of the above-mentioned factors on the behavior of students, including the Mini-COPE questionnaire, AUDIT test, the Fagerström test and the IPAQ questionnaire was analyzed. It has been shown that as the pandemic and the lockdown progressed, patients consumed more often or larger amounts of alcohol, smoked more cigarettes, and levels of physical activity decreased. All these factors may have had some impact on the deterioration of coping with stress among the respondents, which would indicate that the COVID-19 pandemic significantly contributed to an increase in the sense of stress among the students.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cigarette Smoking , Students, Medical , Adaptation, Psychological , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Exercise , Humans , Pandemics , Poland/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2021 Dec 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580797

ABSTRACT

The spread of COVID-19 and its related confinement measures were important stressors for a large part of the global population, with massive effects on both physical and mental health. Assessing how individuals coped with such a stressor and which strategies were effective is one of the main challenges for psychological research. In this study, we aimed to investigate the coping strategies implied during the COVID-19 lockdown and their effectiveness. We recruited 374 Italian participants through convenience sampling during the first pandemic wave (April 2020). We administered to our participants an online battery of questionnaires including the Brief COPE, the use of alternative coping strategies proposed by the WHO to help people facing lockdown stress, and a range of psychological symptoms. An exploratory factor analysis conducted on the subscales of the Brief COPE revealed a three-factor structure. Following the previous literature, we named these factors engagement, disengagement, and help-seeking coping styles. In the pandemic scenario, the engagement and disengagement styles revealed the typical correlation patterns with psychological symptoms (i.e., the engagement was adaptive while the disengagement was maladaptive). Instead, contrary to previous literature, help-seeking was positively related to psychological symptoms, suggesting a mismatch between searching for help and finding it during the lockdown. This result supports the importance of evaluating the effectiveness of coping strategies in the pandemic scenario, to give more compelling and precise advice to the population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adaptation, Psychological , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580735

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, hospital medical staff (HMS) have faced significant personal, workplace, and financial disruption. Many have experienced psychosocial burden, exceeding already concerning baseline levels. This study examines the types and predictors of coping strategies and help-seeking behaviours utilised by Australian junior and senior HMS during the first year of the pandemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey of Australian frontline healthcare workers was conducted between 27 August and 23 October 2020. Data collected included demographics, personal and workplace disruptions, self-reported and validated mental health symptoms, coping strategies, and help-seeking. RESULTS: The 9518 participants included 1966 hospital medical staff (62.1% senior, 37.9% junior). Both groups experienced a high burden of anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and burnout. Coping strategies varied by seniority, with maintaining exercise the most common strategy for both groups. Adverse mental health was associated with increased alcohol consumption. Engagement with professional support, although more frequent among junior staff, was uncommon in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Junior and senior staff utilised different coping and help-seeking behaviours. Despite recognition of symptoms, very few HMS engaged formal support. The varied predictors of coping and help-seeking identified may inform targeted interventions to support these cohorts in current and future crises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Help-Seeking Behavior , Adaptation, Psychological , Australia/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Psychiatr Danub ; 33(4): 651-655, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1579386

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To investigate the current situation of anxiety and coping style of college students during COVID-19 epidemic. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In February, 2021, 620 college students studying at home were investigated by online questionnaire, and the data were collected by self-rating anxiety scale and simple coping style questionnaire. RESULTS: Some students had behavioral reactions and somatization symptoms such as panic, anxiety, depression, boredom and depression. There are differences in coping styles among college students of different genders and grades, and some coping styles are related to anxiety. The better the knowledge of epidemic prevention or the more active the coping style, the lower the anxiety level. The more negative the coping style, the higher the anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: During COVID-19 epidemic, there are differences in coping styles among college students of different genders and grades, and some coping styles are related to anxiety. Schools and society should pay attention to the coping style and mental health counseling of candidates while preventing and controlling the epidemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adaptation, Psychological , Anxiety/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Students
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24400, 2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585787

ABSTRACT

Coping style represents the cognitive and behavioral patterns to manage particular demands appraised as taxing the resources of individuals. Studies report associations between certain coping styles and levels of adjustment of anxious symptomatology and emotional distress. The main objective of this study was to analyze behavioral co-occurrent patterns and relationships in the coping strategies used to deal with psychological distress displayed by the Spanish adult population during the first State of Emergency and lockdown of the COVID-19 pandemic. This is a cross-sectional study that uses selective methodology complemented with an indirect observational methodology, with a nomothetic/punctual/unidimensional design. We collected 996 surveys from 19 out of the 22 autonomous regions in Spain. We focused the analysis on sociodemographic variables, cumulative incidence of the COVID-19 disease and psychological distress variables. We performed two different inferential analyses: Lag sequential analysis to define the participant coping patterns, and polar coordinate analysis to study the interrelationship of the focal behavior with conditioned behaviors. We found behavioral co-occurrent patterns of coping strategies with problem avoidance being found as the coping strategy most frequently engaged by participants. Interestingly, the problem avoidance strategy was not associated with lower anxious symptomatology. By contrast, emotion-focused strategies such as express emotions and social support were associated with higher anxious symptomatology. Our findings underscore the importance of furthering our understanding of coping as a way to aid psychological distress during global public health emergencies.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19/epidemiology , Psychological Distress , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Emotions , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Social Support , Spain/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
18.
Front Public Health ; 9: 767517, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572342

ABSTRACT

Background: The spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) throughout the world leads to a series of modifications of several National Health Service organizations, with a potential series of psychological consequences among nurses. Methods: This study was undertaken to assess the psychological stress, anxiety factors, and coping mechanisms of critical care unit nurses during the COVID-19 outbreak. A cross-sectional research design was employed, and the convenience sample consisted of 469 nurses working at several hospitals in Saudi Arabia during the period from July to September 2020. This study used the Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Coping Mechanism, and Nursing Stress scale. Results: Interestingly, more than one-third and one-quarter of the studied nurses had severe and moderate anxiety levels, respectively. In addition, the most anxiety-causing factors included providing care for their infected colleagues and worrying about infecting their families. More than one-quarter and slightly less than half of the studied nurses had high and moderate stress levels, respectively. Furthermore, more than half of the participants had low coping mechanisms and one-quarter had moderate coping mechanisms. In addition, there was a strong positive correlation between anxiety and stress levels, and there was a strong negative correlation between coping mechanisms and stress and anxiety levels. Conclusions: Collectively, this study explored the psychological stress, anxiety factors, and coping mechanisms among critical care unit nurses during the COVID-19 outbreak in Saudi Arabia. Continuous educational programs for nurses on using coping mechanisms should be developed in combination with teaching preventive measures for defining a psychological intervention plan within a mandatory occupational health surveillance program. This study recommends that constructive planning and necessary provision of supportive measures by the legal authorities and policymakers protect nurses and minimize their psychological stress to fulfill high-quality nursing care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adaptation, Psychological , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders , Critical Care , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , State Medicine , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
19.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 826, 2021 Dec 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571747

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Postpartum depression affects a significant proportion of women of childbearing age. The birth of a newborn baby is normally considered a joyful event, inhibiting mothers from expressing their depressive feelings. If the condition is not well understood and managed, mothers with postpartum depression are likely to experience suicidal ideation or even commit suicide. This study explored lived experiences of women who had recovered from a clinical diagnosis of postpartum depression in southwestern Uganda. METHODS: This phenomenological study adopted the explorative approach through in-depth interviews as guided by the biopsychosocial model of depression. It was conducted in Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital, Bwizibwera Health Centre IV and Kinoni Health Centre IV located in Mbarara and Rwampara districts, southwestern Uganda. Data were collected from 30 postpartum mothers who were purposively selected, between 9th December 2019 and 25th September 2020. We analyzed this work using thematic data analysis and this was steered by the Colaizzi's six-step phenomenological approach of inquiry. RESULTS: The findings were summarized into five major themes: 1) somatic experiences including insomnia and headache, breast pain, poor breast milk production, weight loss and lack of energy; 2) difficulties in home and family life including overwhelming domestic chores, lack of social support from other family members, fighting at home and financial constraints due to COVID-19 pandemic; 3) negative emotions including anger, self-blame, despondency and feelings of loneliness and regrets of conceiving or marriage; 4) feelings of suicide, homicide and self-harm including suicidal ideation and attempt, homicidal ideations and attempt and feelings of self-harm and 5) coping with postpartum depression including spirituality, termination of or attempt to leave their marital relationships, acceptance, counselling and seeking medical treatment, perseverance. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Suicidal and homicidal thoughts are important parts of the postpartum depression experience, and these may put the lives of the mothers, their spouses and their babies at a great risk. Poor relationship quality, intimate partner violence and lack of financial resources contribute significantly to the negative emotional experiences of mothers with PPD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression, Postpartum , Financial Stress , Marriage/psychology , Physical Distancing , Stress, Psychological , Suicidal Ideation , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Depression, Postpartum/diagnosis , Depression, Postpartum/physiopathology , Depression, Postpartum/psychology , Female , Financial Stress/etiology , Financial Stress/psychology , Humans , Models, Biopsychosocial , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support/psychology , Stress, Psychological/complications , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Stress, Psychological/physiopathology , Uganda/epidemiology
20.
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