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1.
Nat Immunol ; 24(1): 186-199, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244916

ABSTRACT

Most studies of adaptive immunity to SARS-CoV-2 infection focus on peripheral blood, which may not fully reflect immune responses at the site of infection. Using samples from 110 children undergoing tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy during the COVID-19 pandemic, we identified 24 samples with evidence of previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, including neutralizing antibodies in serum and SARS-CoV-2-specific germinal center and memory B cells in the tonsils and adenoids. Single-cell B cell receptor (BCR) sequencing indicated virus-specific BCRs were class-switched and somatically hypermutated, with overlapping clones in the two tissues. Expanded T cell clonotypes were found in tonsils, adenoids and blood post-COVID-19, some with CDR3 sequences identical to previously reported SARS-CoV-2-reactive T cell receptors (TCRs). Pharyngeal tissues from COVID-19-convalescent children showed persistent expansion of germinal center and antiviral lymphocyte populations associated with interferon (IFN)-γ-type responses, particularly in the adenoids, and viral RNA in both tissues. Our results provide evidence for persistent tissue-specific immunity to SARS-CoV-2 in the upper respiratory tract of children after infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Child , Pandemics , Adaptive Immunity , Palatine Tonsil , Antibodies, Viral
2.
J Infect Public Health ; 16(8): 1262-1268, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243403

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies comparing SARS-CoV-2 reinfection outcomes among individuals with previous infection (natural immunity) and previous infection plus vaccination (hybrid immunity) are limited. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study comparing SARS-CoV-2 reinfection among patients with hybrid immunity (cases) and natural immunity (controls) from March 2020 to February 2022. Reinfection was defined as positive PCR> 90 days after initial laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Outcomes included time to reinfection, symptom severity, COVID-19-related hospitalization, critical COVID-19 illness (need for intensive care unit, invasive mechanical ventilation, or death), length of stay (LOS). RESULTS: A total of 773 (42%) vaccinated and 1073 (58%) unvaccinated patients with reinfection were included. Most patients (62.7%) were asymptomatic. Median time to reinfection was longer with hybrid immunity (391 [311-440] vs 294 [229-406] days, p < 0.001). Cases were less likely to be symptomatic (34.1% vs 39.6%, p = 0.001) or develop critical COVID-19 (2.3% vs 4.3%, p = 0.023). However, there was no significant difference in rates of COVID-19-related hospitalization (2.6% vs 3.8%, p = 0.142) or LOS (5 [2-9] vs 5 [3-10] days, p = 0.446). Boosted patients had longer time to reinfection (439 [IQR 372-467] vs 324 [IQR 256-414] days, p < 0.001) and were less likely to be symptomatic (26.8% vs 38%, p = 0.002) compared to unboosted patients. Rates of hospitalization, progression to critical illness and LOS were not significantly different between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Natural and hybrid immunity provided protection against SARS-CoV-2 reinfection and hospitalization. However, hybrid immunity conferred stronger protection against symptomatic disease and progression to critical illness and was associated with longer time to reinfection. The stronger protection conferred by hybrid immunity against severe outcomes due to COVID-19 should be emphasized with the public to further the vaccination effort, especially in high-risk individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Reinfection/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Adaptive Immunity
3.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1159326, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242832

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), has affected all countries worldwide. Although some symptoms are relatively mild, others are still associated with severe and even fatal clinical outcomes. Innate and adaptive immunity are important for the control of SARS-CoV-2 infections, whereas a comprehensive characterization of the innate and adaptive immune response to COVID-19 is still lacking and the mechanisms underlying immune pathogenesis and host predisposing factors are still a matter of scientific debate. Here, the specific functions and kinetics of innate and adaptive immunity involved in SARS-CoV-2 recognition and resultant pathogenesis are discussed, as well as their immune memory for vaccinations, viral-mediated immune evasion, and the current and future immunotherapeutic agents. We also highlight host factors that contribute to infection, which may deepen the understanding of viral pathogenesis and help identify targeted therapies that attenuate severe disease and infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Adaptive Immunity , Causality
4.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1053437, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327439

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been a global pandemic, caused by a novel coronavirus strain with strong infectivity, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). With the in-depth research, the close relationship between COVID-19 and immune system has been dug out. During the infection, macrophages, dendritic cells, natural killer cells, CD8+ T cells, Th1, Th17, Tfh cells and effector B cells are all involved in the anti-SARS-CoV-2 responses, however, the dysfunctional immune responses will ultimately lead to the excessive inflammation, acute lung injury, even other organ failure. Thus, a detailed understanding of pertinent immune response during COVID-19 will provide insights in predicting disease outcomes and developing appropriate therapeutic approaches. In this review, we mainly clarify the role of immune cells in COVID-19 and the target-vaccine development and treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Pandemics , Adaptive Immunity
5.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1117825, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323918

ABSTRACT

The large majority of lymphocytes belong to the adaptive immune system, which are made up of B2 B cells and the αß T cells; these are the effectors in an adaptive immune response. A multitudinous group of lymphoid lineage cells does not fit the conventional lymphocyte paradigm; it is the unconventional lymphocytes. Unconventional lymphocytes-here called innate/innate-like lymphocytes, include those that express rearranged antigen receptor genes and those that do not. Even though the innate/innate-like lymphocytes express rearranged, adaptive antigen-specific receptors, they behave like innate immune cells, which allows them to integrate sensory signals from the innate immune system and relay that umwelt to downstream innate and adaptive effector responses. Here, we review natural killer T cells and mucosal-associated invariant T cells-two prototypic innate-like T lymphocytes, which sense their local environment and relay that umwelt to downstream innate and adaptive effector cells to actuate an appropriate host response that confers immunity to infectious agents.


Subject(s)
Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells , Natural Killer T-Cells , Immunity, Innate , Lymphocytes , Adaptive Immunity
6.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1001198, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2326316

ABSTRACT

Background: There is evidence that the adaptive or acquired immune system is one of the crucial variables in differentiating the course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This work aimed to analyze the immunopathological aspects of adaptive immunity that are involved in the progression of this disease. Methods: This is a systematic review based on articles that included experimental evidence from in vitro assays, cohort studies, reviews, cross-sectional and case-control studies from PubMed, SciELO, MEDLINE, and Lilacs databases in English, Portuguese, or Spanish between January 2020 and July 2022. Results: Fifty-six articles were finalized for this review. CD4+ T cells were the most resolutive in the health-disease process compared with B cells and CD8+ T lymphocytes. The predominant subpopulations of T helper lymphocytes (Th) in critically ill patients are Th1, Th2, Th17 (without their main characteristics) and regulatory T cells (Treg), while in mild cases there is an influx of Th1, Th2, Th17 and follicular T helper cells (Tfh). These cells are responsible for the secretion of cytokines, including interleukin (IL) - 6, IL-4, IL-10, IL-7, IL-22, IL-21, IL-15, IL-1α, IL-23, IL-5, IL-13, IL-2, IL-17, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), CXC motivating ligand (CXCL) 8, CXCL9 and tumor growth factor beta (TGF-ß), with the abovementioned first 8 inflammatory mediators related to clinical benefits, while the others to a poor prognosis. Some CD8+ T lymphocyte markers are associated with the severity of the disease, such as human leukocyte antigen (HLA-DR) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1). Among the antibodies produced by SARS-CoV-2, Immunoglobulin (Ig) A stood out due to its potent release associated with a more severe clinical form. Conclusions: It is concluded that through this study it is possible to have a brief overview of the main immunological biomarkers and their function during SARS-CoV-2 infection in particular cell types. In critically ill individuals, adaptive immunity is varied, aberrantly compromised, and late. In particular, the T-cell response is also an essential and necessary component in immunological memory and therefore should be addressed in vaccine formulation strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor , SARS-CoV-2 , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-15 , Interleukin-17 , Interleukin-13 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Cross-Sectional Studies , Critical Illness , Ligands , Interleukin-2 , Interleukin-4 , Interleukin-5 , Interleukin-7 , Adaptive Immunity , HLA-DR Antigens , Interleukin-23 , Inflammation Mediators , Transforming Growth Factor beta , Immunoglobulins
7.
Math Biosci Eng ; 20(6): 10909-10953, 2023 Apr 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313997

ABSTRACT

We carried out a theoretical and numerical analysis for an epidemic model to analyze the dynamics of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant and the impact of vaccination campaigns in the United States. The model proposed here includes asymptomatic and hospitalized compartments, vaccination with booster doses, and the waning of natural and vaccine-acquired immunity. We also consider the influence of face mask usage and efficiency. We found that enhancing booster doses and using N95 face masks are associated with a reduction in the number of new infections, hospitalizations and deaths. We highly recommend the use of surgical face masks as well, if usage of N95 is not a possibility due to the price range. Our simulations show that there might be two upcoming Omicron waves (in mid-2022 and late 2022), caused by natural and acquired immunity waning with respect to time. The magnitude of these waves will be 53% and 25% lower than the peak in January 2022, respectively. Hence, we recommend continuing to use face masks to decrease the peak of the upcoming COVID-19 waves.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , United States/epidemiology , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Adaptive Immunity , Vaccination
8.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1046639, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318764

ABSTRACT

Cellular immune responses are of pivotal importance to understand SARS-CoV-2 pathogenicity. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISpot) interferon-γ release assay with wild-type spike, membrane and nucleocapsid peptide pools, we longitudinally characterized functional SARS-CoV-2 specific T-cell responses in a cohort of patients with mild, moderate and severe COVID-19. All patients were included before emergence of the Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant. Our most important finding was an impaired development of early IFN-γ-secreting virus-specific T-cells in severe patients compared to patients with moderate disease, indicating that absence of virus-specific cellular responses in the acute phase may act as a prognostic factor for severe disease. Remarkably, in addition to reactivity against the spike protein, a substantial proportion of the SARS-CoV-2 specific T-cell response was directed against the conserved membrane protein. This may be relevant for diagnostics and vaccine design, especially considering new variants with heavily mutated spike proteins. Our data further strengthen the hypothesis that dysregulated adaptive immunity plays a central role in COVID-19 immunopathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , T-Lymphocytes , Adaptive Immunity , Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins , Interferon-gamma
9.
Int J Surg ; 109(4): 1052-1053, 2023 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2289790
10.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 23(7): 764-765, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2289365
11.
Rev Alerg Mex ; 67(4): 338-349, 2020.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2293749

ABSTRACT

The clinical manifestations of COVID-19 are reminiscent of those of acute respiratory distress syndrome induced by cytokine release syndrome and secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis that is observed in patients with other coronaviruses such as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. Neurologists face the challenge of assessing patients with pre-existing neurological diseases who have contracted SARS-CoV-2, patients with COVID-19 who present neurological emergencies, and patients who are carriers of the virus and have developed secondary neurological complications, either during the course of the disease or after it. Some authors and recent literature reports suggest that the presence of neurological manifestations in patients who are carriers of SARS-CoV-2 may be associated with a greater severity of the disease.


Las manifestaciones clínicas de COVID-19 recuerdan las del síndrome de insuficiencia respiratoria aguda inducido por el síndrome de liberación de citocinas y la linfohistiocitosis hemofagocitica observada en pacientes con otros coronavirus como SARS-CoV y MERS-CoV. Los neurólogos tienen el reto de evaluar pacientes con enfermedades neurológicas preexistentes que contraen SARS-CoV-2, pacientes con COVID-19 que presentan emergencias neurológicas y pacientes portadores del virus que desarrollan complicaciones neurológicas secundarias, durante el curso de la enfermedad o posterior a la misma. Algunos autores y reportes en la literatura recientes sugieren que las manifestaciones neurológicas en pacientes portadores de SARS-CoV-2 pueden asociarse con mayor gravedad de la enfermedad.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adaptive Immunity , Anosmia/etiology , Blood-Brain Barrier , Brain Ischemia/etiology , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Encephalitis, Viral/etiology , Headache/etiology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Leukocytes/immunology , Organ Specificity , Viral Tropism
12.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 2048, 2023 04 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2291445

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) Delta and Omicron spread globally during mid and late 2021, respectively. In this study, we compare the dissemination dynamics of these VOCs in the Amazonas state, one of Brazil's most heavily affected regions. We sequenced the virus genome from 4128 patients collected in Amazonas between July 1st, 2021, and January 31st, 2022, and investigated the viral dynamics using a phylodynamic approach. The VOCs Delta and Omicron BA.1 displayed similar patterns of phylogeographic spread but different epidemic dynamics. The replacement of Gamma by Delta was gradual and occurred without an upsurge of COVID-19 cases, while the rise of Omicron BA.1 was extremely fast and fueled a sharp increase in cases. Thus, the dissemination dynamics and population-level impact of new SARS-CoV-2 variants introduced in the Amazonian population after mid-2021, a setting with high levels of acquired immunity, greatly vary according to their viral phenotype.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Brazil , Adaptive Immunity
13.
Cell Death Dis ; 14(4): 276, 2023 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2298782

ABSTRACT

Omicron variants of SARS-CoV-2 have spread rapidly worldwide; however, most infected patients have mild or no symptoms. This study aimed to understand the host response to Omicron infections by performing metabolomic profiling of plasma. We observed that Omicron infections triggered an inflammatory response and innate immune, and adaptive immunity was suppressed, including reduced T-cell response and immunoglobulin antibody production. Similar to the original SARS-CoV-2 strain circulating in 2019, the host developed an anti-inflammatory response and accelerated energy metabolism in response to Omicron infection. However, differential regulation of macrophage polarization and reduced neutrophil function has been observed in Omicron infections. Interferon-induced antiviral immunity was not as strong in Omicron infections as in the original SARS-CoV-2 infections. The host response to Omicron infections increased antioxidant capacity and liver detoxification more than in the original strain. Hence, these findings suggest that Omicron infections cause weaker inflammatory alterations and immune responses than the original SARS-CoV-2 strain.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Adaptive Immunity , Antibodies
14.
Lancet Microbe ; 4(7): e495-e505, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295418

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although most children and adolescents have had a previous SARS-CoV-2 infection and many continue to receive COVID-19 vaccinations, studies of the effectiveness of hybrid immunity against reinfection with the omicron (B.1.1.529) variant are scarce. We aimed to examine the effectiveness of vaccination in convalescent children and adolescents against reinfection with the delta (B.1.617.2) variant and the BA.1 and BA.2 and BA.4 and BA.5 omicron subvariants. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was devised to emulate a target randomised control trial using a retrospective dataset of anonymised health records of children (5-11 years old) and adolescents (12-16 years old) who were members of the Maccabi Healthcare Services, Israel. The design emulated 91 randomised trials by devising a series of multiple nested trials, compiling the results into a single dataset, and fitting Cox proportional hazards models to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs of each measured outcome. The primary aim was to assess the protection from reinfection with the delta variant and the BA.1 and BA.2 and BA.4 and BA.5 omicron subvariants associated with hybrid immunity as a result of a previous SARS-CoV-2 infection followed by vaccination with the BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccine. FINDINGS: Data from between from March 1, 2020, to July 31, 2022, for 163 812 individuals (120 721 children [59 404 girls and 61 317 boys], median age 8·0 years [IQR 6·7 to 10·2]; and 43 091 adolescents [21 239 girls and 21 852 boys], median age 13·5 years [12·6 to 14·8]) were included in at least one trial. A single dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine in convalescent children and adolescents confers statistically significant protection against the delta variant (78% [95% CI 72 to 83] in adolescents and 64% [3 to 87] in children) and the omicron BA.1 and BA.2 subvariants (54% [50 to 57] in adolescents and 71% [67 to 73] in children) compared with children who had a previous infection but were unvaccinated. However, the vaccine was not found to confer statistically significant protection against the BA.4 and BA.5 omicron subvariants in adolescents (8% [-18 to 29]) and children (12% [-6 to 27]). INTERPRETATION: Decision makers in BA.4 and BA.5 dominant regions should re-examine whether convalescent individuals aged 5-16 years should receive the BNT162b2 vaccine to prevent future reinfection, especially in light of reports that show that most children and adolescents have already been infected with SARS-CoV-2. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Male , Female , Humans , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , BNT162 Vaccine , Retrospective Studies , Reinfection/prevention & control , Adaptive Immunity
15.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1146059, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2300320

ABSTRACT

Background: With the widespread transmission of the Omicron SARS-CoV-2 variant, reinfections have become increasingly common. Here, we explored the role of immunity, primary infection severity, and variant predominance in the risk of reinfection and severe COVID-19 during Omicron predominance in Mexico. Methods: We analyzed reinfections in Mexico in individuals with a primary infection separated by at least 90 days from reinfection using a national surveillance registry of SARS-CoV-2 cases from March 3rd, 2020, to August 13th, 2022. Immunity-generating events included primary infection, partial or complete vaccination, and booster vaccines. Reinfections were matched by age and sex with controls with primary SARS-CoV-2 infection and negative RT-PCR or antigen test at least 90 days after primary infection to explore reinfection and severe disease risk factors. We also compared the protective efficacy of heterologous and homologous vaccine boosters against reinfection. Results: We detected 231,202 SARS-CoV-2 reinfections in Mexico, most occurring in unvaccinated individuals (41.55%). Over 207,623 reinfections occurred during periods of Omicron (89.8%), BA.1 (36.74%), and BA.5 (33.67%) subvariant predominance and a case-fatality rate of 0.22%. Vaccination protected against reinfection, without significant influence of the order of immunity-generating events and provided >90% protection against severe reinfections. Heterologous booster schedules were associated with ~11% and ~ 54% lower risk for reinfection and reinfection-associated severe COVID-19, respectively, modified by time-elapsed since the last immunity-generating event, when compared against complete primary schedules. Conclusion: SARS-CoV-2 reinfections increased during Omicron predominance. Hybrid immunity provides protection against reinfection and associated severe COVID-19, with potential benefit from heterologous booster schedules.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Reinfection/epidemiology , Mexico/epidemiology , Adaptive Immunity
16.
Lancet Healthy Longev ; 3(10): e715-e721, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2250596

ABSTRACT

Both myeloid cells, which contribute to innate immunity, and lymphoid cells, which dominate adaptive immunity, partake in defending against SARS-CoV-2. In response to the virus, the otherwise slow haematopoietic production supply chain quickly unleashes its preconfigured myeloid element, which largely resists a bullwhip-like effect. By contrast, the lymphoid element risks a bullwhip-like effect when it produces T cells and B cells that are specifically designed to clear the virus. As T-cell production is telomere-length dependent and telomeres shorten with age, older adults are at higher risk of a T-cell shortfall when contracting SARS-CoV-2 than are younger adults. A poorly calibrated adaptive immune response, stemming from a bullwhip-like effect, compounded by a T-cell deficit, might thus contribute to the propensity of people with inherently short T-cell telomeres to develop severe COVID-19. The immune systems of these individuals might also generate an inadequate T-cell response to anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adaptive Immunity , Aged , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , T-Lymphocytes , Telomere/genetics
17.
Med Hypotheses ; 142: 109814, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2277430

ABSTRACT

Copper (Cu) is an essential micronutrient for both pathogens and the hosts during viral infection. Cu is involved in the functions of critical immune cells such as T helper cells, B cells, neutrophils natural killer (NK) cells, and macrophages. These blood cells are involved in the killing of infectious microbes, in cell-mediated immunity and the production of specific antibodies against the pathogens. Cu-deficient humans show an exceptional susceptibility to infections due to the decreased number and function of these blood cells. Besides, Cu can kill several infectious viruses such as bronchitis virus, poliovirus, human immunodeficiency virus type 1(HIV-1), other enveloped or nonenveloped, single- or double-stranded DNA and RNA viruses. Moreover, Cu has the potent capacity of contact killing of several viruses, including SARS-CoV-2. Since the current outbreak of the COVID-19 continues to develop, and there is no vaccine or drugs are currently available, the critical option is now to make the immune system competent to fight against the SARS-CoV-2. Based on available data, we hypothesize that enrichment of plasma copper levels will boost both the innate and adaptive immunity in people. Moreover, owing to its potent antiviral activities, Cu may also act as a preventive and therapeutic regime against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Copper/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adaptive Immunity , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Humans , Immune System , Immunity, Innate , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , COVID-19 Drug Treatment
19.
Wiley Interdiscip Rev Nanomed Nanobiotechnol ; 15(4): e1880, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2284722

ABSTRACT

Nanoparticle vaccines are a diverse category of vaccines for the prophylaxis or treatment of various diseases. Several strategies have been employed for their optimization, especially to enhance vaccine immunogenicity and generate potent B-cell responses. Two major modalities utilized for particulate antigen vaccines include using nanoscale structures for antigen delivery and nanoparticles that are themselves vaccines due to antigen display or scaffolding-the latter of which we will define as "nanovaccines." Multimeric antigen display has a variety of immunological benefits compared to monomeric vaccines mediated through potentiating antigen-presenting cell presentation and enhancing antigen-specific B-cell responses through B-cell activation. The majority of nanovaccine assembly is done in vitro using cell lines. However, in vivo assembly of scaffolded vaccines potentiated using nucleic acids or viral vectors is a burgeoning modality of nanovaccine delivery. Several advantages to in vivo assembly exist, including lower costs of production, fewer production barriers, as well as more rapid development of novel vaccine candidates for emerging diseases such as SARS-CoV-2. This review will characterize the methods for de novo assembly of nanovaccines in the host using methods of gene delivery including nucleic acid and viral vectored vaccines. This article is categorized under: Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Nanomedicine for Infectious Disease Biology-Inspired Nanomaterials > Nucleic Acid-Based Structures Biology-Inspired Nanomaterials > Protein and Virus-Based Structures Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Emerging Technologies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Antigens , Adaptive Immunity , Nanoparticles/chemistry
20.
J Infect Dis ; 227(6): 773-779, 2023 03 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2281211

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immune protection against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can be induced by natural infection or vaccination or both. Interaction between vaccine-induced immunity and naturally acquired immunity at the population level has been understudied. METHODS: We used regression models to evaluate whether the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines differed across states with different levels of naturally acquired immunity from March 2021 to April 2022 in the United States. Analysis was conducted for 3 evaluation periods separately (Alpha, Delta, and Omicron waves). As a proxy for the proportion of the population with naturally acquired immunity, we used either the reported seroprevalence or the estimated proportion of the population ever infected in each state. RESULTS: COVID-19 mortality decreased as coverage of ≥1 dose increased among people ≥65 years of age, and this effect did not vary by seroprevalence or proportion of the total population ever infected. Seroprevalence and proportion ever infected were not associated with COVID-19 mortality, after controlling for vaccine coverage. These findings were consistent in all evaluation periods. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 vaccination was associated with a sustained reduction in mortality at state level during the Alpha, Delta, and Omicron periods. The effect did not vary by naturally acquired immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Seroepidemiologic Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Adaptive Immunity , Vaccination
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