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1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 947724, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141980

ABSTRACT

Background: Asthma patients potentially have impaired adaptive immunity to virus infection. The levels of SARS-CoV-2-specific adaptive immunity between COVID-19 survivors with and without asthma are presently unclear. Methods: COVID-19 survivors (patients with asthma n=11, with allergies n=8, and COVID-19 only n=17) and non-COVID-19 individuals (asthmatic patients n=10 and healthy controls n=9) were included. The COVID-19 patients were followed up at about 8 months and 16 months after discharge. The clinical characteristics, lymphocyte subsets, memory T cells, and humoral immunity including SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies, SARS-CoV-2 pseudotyped virus neutralization assay, and memory B cells were analyzed in these subjects. Results: The strength of virus-specific T cell response in COVID-19 survivors was positively correlated with the percentage of blood eosinophils and Treg cells (r=0.4007, p=0.0188; and r=0.4435, p=0.0086 respectively) at 8-month follow-up. There were no statistical differences in the levels of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell response between the COVID-19 survivors with, and without, asthma. Compared to those without asthma, the COVID-19 with asthma survivors had higher levels of SARS-CoV-2-specific neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) at the 8-month follow-up (p<0.05). Moreover, the level of NAbs in COVID-19 survivors was positively correlated with the percentage of Treg and cTfh2 cells (r=0.5037, p=0.002; and r=0.4846, p=0.0141), and negatively correlated with the percentage of Th1 and Th17 cells (r=-0.5701, p=0.0003; and r=-0.3656, p=0.0308), the ratio of Th1/Th2, Th17/Treg, and cTfh1/cTfh2 cell (r=-0.5356, r=-0.5947, r=-0.4485; all p<0.05). The decay rate of NAbs in the COVID-19 survivors with asthma was not significantly different from that of those without asthma at 16-month follow-up. Conclusion: The level of SARS-CoV-2-specific NAbs in COVID-19 survivors with asthma was higher than that of those without asthma at 8-month follow-up. The SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell immunity was associated with blood eosinophils and Treg percentages. The SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral immunity was closely associated with cTfh2/cTfh1 imbalance and Treg/Th17 ratio. According to the findings, asthmatic patients in COVID-19 convalescent period may benefit from an enhanced specific humoral immunity, which associates with skewed Th2/Th1 and Treg/Th17 immune.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Adaptive Immunity , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors
2.
Front Immunol ; 13: 964976, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123414

ABSTRACT

Amid the ongoing Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, vaccination and early therapeutic interventions are the most effective means to combat and control the severity of the disease. Host immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 and its variants, particularly adaptive immune responses, should be fully understood to develop improved strategies to implement these measures. Single-cell multi-omic technologies, including flow cytometry, single-cell transcriptomics, and single-cell T-cell receptor (TCR) and B-cell receptor (BCR) profiling, offer a better solution to examine the protective or pathological immune responses and molecular mechanisms associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, thus providing crucial support for the development of vaccines and therapeutics for COVID-19. Recent reviews have revealed the overall immune landscape of natural SARS-CoV-2 infection, and this review will focus on adaptive immune responses (including T cells and B cells) to SARS-CoV-2 revealed by single-cell multi-omics technologies. In addition, we explore how the single-cell analyses disclose the critical components of immune protection and pathogenesis during SARS-CoV-2 infection through the comparison between the adaptive immune responses induced by natural infection and by vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adaptive Immunity , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell , SARS-CoV-2 , Single-Cell Analysis , Vaccination
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(22)2022 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110133

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus causes various conditions, from asymptomatic infection to the fatal coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). An intact immune system can overcome SARS-CoV-2 and other viral infections. Defective natural, mainly interferon I- and III-dependent, responses may lead to the spread of the virus to multiple organs. Adaptive B- and T-cell responses, including memory, highly influence the severity and outcome of COVID-19. With respect to B-cell immunity, germinal centre formation is delayed or even absent in the most severe cases. Extrafollicular low-affinity anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody production will occur instead of specific, high-affinity antibodies. Helper and CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells become hyperactivated and then exhausted, leading to ineffective viral clearance from the body. The dysregulation of neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages, as well as lymphocyte hyperreactivity, might lead to the robust production of inflammatory mediators, also known as cytokine storm. Eventually, the disruption of this complex network of immune cells and mediators leads to severe, sometimes fatal COVID-19 or another viral disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Virus Diseases , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Adaptive Immunity , Antibodies, Viral
4.
Front Immunol ; 13: 960709, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109764

ABSTRACT

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a highly contagious disease that affects the global pig industry. To understand mechanisms of susceptibility/resistance to PRRSV, this study profiled the time-serial white blood cells transcriptomic and serum metabolomic responses to PRRSV in piglets from a crossbred population of PRRSV-resistant Tongcheng pigs and PRRSV-susceptible Large White pigs. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) illustrated that PRRSV infection up-regulated the expression levels of marker genes of dendritic cells, monocytes and neutrophils and inflammatory response, but down-regulated T cells, B cells and NK cells markers. CIBERSORT analysis confirmed the higher T cells proportion in resistant pigs during PRRSV infection. Resistant pigs showed a significantly higher level of T cell activation and lower expression levels of monocyte surface signatures post infection than susceptible pigs, corresponding to more severe suppression of T cell immunity and inflammatory response in susceptible pigs. Differentially expressed genes between resistant/susceptible pigs during the course of infection were significantly enriched in oxidative stress, innate immunity and humoral immunity, cell cycle, biotic stimulated cellular response, wounding response and behavior related pathways. Fourteen of these genes were distributed in 5 different QTL regions associated with PRRSV-related traits. Chemokine CXCL10 levels post PRRSV infection were differentially expressed between resistant pigs and susceptible pigs and can be a promising marker for susceptibility/resistance to PRRSV. Furthermore, the metabolomics dataset indicated differences in amino acid pathways and lipid metabolism between pre-infection/post-infection and resistant/susceptible pigs. The majority of metabolites levels were also down-regulated after PRRSV infection and were significantly positively correlated to the expression levels of marker genes in adaptive immune response. The integration of transcriptome and metabolome revealed concerted molecular events triggered by the infection, notably involving inflammatory response, adaptive immunity and G protein-coupled receptor downstream signaling. This study has increased our knowledge of the immune response differences induced by PRRSV infection and susceptibility differences at the transcriptomic and metabolomic levels, providing the basis for the PRRSV resistance mechanism and effective PRRS control.


Subject(s)
Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome , Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus , Animals , Swine , Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus/genetics , Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome/genetics , Transcriptome , Immunity, Humoral , Adaptive Immunity/genetics
5.
Lancet Healthy Longev ; 3(10): e715-e721, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106237

ABSTRACT

Both myeloid cells, which contribute to innate immunity, and lymphoid cells, which dominate adaptive immunity, partake in defending against SARS-CoV-2. In response to the virus, the otherwise slow haematopoietic production supply chain quickly unleashes its preconfigured myeloid element, which largely resists a bullwhip-like effect. By contrast, the lymphoid element risks a bullwhip-like effect when it produces T cells and B cells that are specifically designed to clear the virus. As T-cell production is telomere-length dependent and telomeres shorten with age, older adults are at higher risk of a T-cell shortfall when contracting SARS-CoV-2 than are younger adults. A poorly calibrated adaptive immune response, stemming from a bullwhip-like effect, compounded by a T-cell deficit, might thus contribute to the propensity of people with inherently short T-cell telomeres to develop severe COVID-19. The immune systems of these individuals might also generate an inadequate T-cell response to anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adaptive Immunity , Aged , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , T-Lymphocytes , Telomere/genetics
6.
Cells ; 11(21)2022 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099367

ABSTRACT

The cGAS-STING pathway displays important functions in the regulation of innate and adaptive immunity following the detection of microbial and host-derived DNA. Here, we briefly summarize biological functions of STING and review recent literature highlighting its important contribution in the context of respiratory diseases. Over the last years, tremendous progress has been made in our understanding of STING activation, which has favored the development of STING agonists or antagonists with potential therapeutic benefits. Antagonists might alleviate STING-associated chronic inflammation and autoimmunity. Furthermore, pharmacological activation of STING displays strong antiviral properties, as recently shown in the context of SARS-CoV-2 infection. STING agonists also elicit potent stimulatory activities when used as an adjuvant promoting antitumor responses and vaccines efficacy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Membrane Proteins , Humans , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Adaptive Immunity , Autoimmunity
7.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 79(11): 547, 2022 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2093246

ABSTRACT

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) comprise a class of highly conserved molecules that recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns and play a vital role in host defense against multiple viral infectious diseases. Although TLRs are highly expressed on innate immune cells and play indirect roles in regulating antiviral adaptive immune responses, intrinsic expression of TLRs in adaptive immune cells, including T cells and B cells, cannot be ignored. TLRs expressed in CD4 + and CD8 + T cells play roles in enhancing TCR signal-induced T-cell activation, proliferation, function, and survival, serving as costimulatory molecules. Gene knockout of TLR signaling molecules has been shown to diminish antiviral adaptive immune responses and affect viral clearance in multiple viral infectious animal models. These results have highlighted the critical role of TLRs in the long-term immunological control of viral infection. This review summarizes the expression and function of TLR signaling pathways in T and B cells, focusing on the in vitro and vivo mechanisms and effects of intrinsic TLR signaling in regulating T- and B-cell responses during viral infection. The potential clinical use of TLR-based immune regulatory drugs for viral infectious diseases is also explored.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern Molecules , Adaptive Immunity , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Immunity, Innate , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell , Toll-Like Receptors
9.
Front Immunol ; 13: 993754, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2055020

ABSTRACT

The adaptive immune response induced by SARS-CoV-2 plays a key role in the antiviral process and can protect the body from the threat of infection for a certain period of time. However, owing to the limitations of clinical studies, the antiviral mechanisms, protective thresholds, and persistence of the immune memory of adaptive immune responses remain unclear. This review summarizes existing research models for SARS-CoV-2 and elaborates on the advantages of animal models in simulating the clinical symptoms of COVID-19 in humans. In addition, we systematically summarize the research progress on the SARS-CoV-2 adaptive immune response and the remaining key issues, as well as the application and prospects of animal models in this field. This paper provides direction for in-depth analysis of the anti-SARS-CoV-2 mechanism of the adaptive immune response and lays the foundation for the development and application of vaccines and drugs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adaptive Immunity , Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Models, Animal
10.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0271305, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039368

ABSTRACT

Monovalent vaccines using mRNA or adenoviruses have provided substantial protection against the COVID-19 pandemic in many countries. However, viral mutations have hampered the efficacy of this approach. The Omicron variant, which appeared in Dec 2021, has caused a pandemic that has exerted pressure on the healthcare system worldwide. The COVID-19 vaccines are not very effective against this variant, resulting in an increased rate of infection and mortality. Owing to the rapidly increasing number of patients, few countries, such as Australia, New Zealand, and Taiwan, which aimed at zero-COVID cases, have discontinued their attempts to contain the spread of infection by imposing strict lockdowns, for example. Therefore, the administration of booster vaccinations has been initiated; however, there are concerns about their effectiveness, sustainability, and possible dangers. There is also the question of how a variant with such isolated mutations originated and whether this is likely to continue in the future. Here, we compare the mutations in the Omicron variant with others by direct PCA to consider questions pertaining to their evolution and characterisation. The Omicron variant, like the other variants, has mutated in humans. The accumulated mutations overwhelmed the acquired immunity and caused a pandemic. Similar mutations are likely to occur in the future. Additionally, the variants infecting animals were investigated; they rapidly mutated in animals and varied from the human strains. These animal-adapted strains are probably not highly infectious or pathogenic to humans. Hence, the possibility of using these strains as vaccines will be discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adaptive Immunity , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Mutation , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
11.
Immunity ; 55(10): 1779-1798, 2022 10 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031360

ABSTRACT

Immunocompromised individuals and particularly those with hematologic malignancies are at increased risk for SARS-CoV-2-associated morbidity and mortality due to immunologic deficits that limit prevention, treatment, and clearance of the virus. Understanding the natural history of viral infections in people with impaired immunity due to underlying conditions, immunosuppressive therapy, or a combination thereof has emerged as a critical area of investigation during the COVID-19 pandemic. Studies focused on these individuals have provided key insights into aspects of innate and adaptive immunity underlying both the antiviral immune response and excess inflammation in the setting of COVID-19. This review presents what is known about distinct states of immunologic vulnerability to SARS-CoV-2 and how this information can be harnessed to improve prevention and treatment strategies for immunologically high-risk populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adaptive Immunity , Antiviral Agents , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control
12.
Cell Commun Signal ; 20(1): 131, 2022 08 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021304

ABSTRACT

During SARS-CoV-2 infection, an effective immune response provides the first line of defense; however, excessive inflammatory innate immunity and impaired adaptive immunity may harm tissues. Soluble immune mediators are involved in the dynamic interaction of ligands with membrane-bound receptors to maintain and restore health after pathological events. In some cases, the dysregulation of their expression can lead to disease pathology. In this literature review, we described current knowledge of the basic features of soluble immune mediators and their dysregulation during SARS-CoV-2 infections and highlighted their contribution to disease severity and mortality. Video Abstract.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adaptive Immunity , Humans , Immune System , Immunity, Innate , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Mech Ageing Dev ; 204: 111672, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2015814

ABSTRACT

Ageing is associated with modified function of both innate and adaptive immunity. It is believed that changes occurring in ageing immune system are responsible for increased severity and deadliness of COVID-19 in the elderly. Although supported by statistics and epidemiology, these finding do not compute at the mechanistic level as depending solely on chronological and biological ageing. The phenomena describing changes in the aging immune system are immunosenescence and inflammageing, which develop in time depending on challenges to the individual immune system (immunobiography). Thus, "richer" immunobiography (in addition to other factors, including genetic, epigenetics or metabolic) may adversely affect the reactivity to the SARS-CoV-2 not only at later decades of life, but also earlier, in young and middle-aged individuals. On the other hand, infection with SARS-CoV-2 is affecting the function of both innate and adaptive branches of the immune system, adding to the individual immunobiography. Summarizing, immunosenescence and inflammaging may aggravate, but also may be aggravated by SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunosenescence , Adaptive Immunity , Aged , Aging , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Front Immunol ; 13: 856497, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009860

ABSTRACT

Allelic diversity of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II genes may help maintain humoral immunity against infectious diseases. In this study, we investigated germline genetic variation in classical HLA class II genes and employed a systematic, unbiased approach to explore the relative contribution of this genetic variation in the antibody repertoire to various common pathogens. We leveraged a well-defined cohort of 800 adults representing the general Arab population in which genetic material is shared because of the high frequency of consanguineous unions. By applying a high-throughput method for large-scale antibody profiling to this well-defined cohort, we were able to dissect the overall effect of zygosity for classical HLA class II genes, as well as the effects associated with specific HLA class II alleles, haplotypes and genotypes, on the antimicrobial antibody repertoire breadth and antibody specificity with unprecedented resolution. Our population genetic studies revealed that zygosity of the classical HLA class II genes is a strong predictor of antibody responses to common human pathogens, suggesting that classical HLA class II gene heterozygosity confers a selective advantage. Moreover, we demonstrated that multiple HLA class II alleles can have additive effects on the antibody repertoire to common pathogens. We also identified associations of HLA-DRB1 genotypes with specific antigens. Our findings suggest that HLA class II gene polymorphisms confer specific humoral immunity against common pathogens, which may have contributed to the genetic diversity of HLA class II loci during hominine evolution.


Subject(s)
Antibodies , Genes, MHC Class II , HLA Antigens , Adaptive Immunity/genetics , Adult , Alleles , Antibodies/genetics , Gene Frequency , Genes, MHC Class II/genetics , HLA Antigens/genetics , Haplotypes , Humans
15.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(Supplement_1): S24-S29, 2022 Aug 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1992141

ABSTRACT

Since the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic began 2 years ago, the scientific community has swiftly worked to understand the transmission, pathogenesis, and immune response of this virus to implement public health policies and ultimately project an end to the pandemic. In this perspective, we present our work identifying SARS-CoV-2 epitopes to quantify T-cell responses and review how T cells may help protect against severe disease. We examine our prior studies which demonstrate durable humoral and cell-mediated memory in natural infection and vaccination. We discuss how SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells from either natural infection or vaccination can recognize emerging variants of concern, suggesting that the currently approved vaccines may be sufficient. We also discuss how pre-existing cross-reactive T cells promote rapid development of immune memory to SARS-CoV-2. We finally posit how identifying SARS-CoV-2 epitopes can help us develop a pan-coronavirus vaccine to prepare for future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adaptive Immunity , COVID-19 Vaccines , Epitopes , Humans
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(34): e2201541119, 2022 08 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984598

ABSTRACT

Whereas pathogen-specific T and B cells are a primary focus of interest during infectious disease, we have used COVID-19 to ask whether their emergence comes at a cost of broader B cell and T cell repertoire disruption. We applied a genomic DNA-based approach to concurrently study the immunoglobulin-heavy (IGH) and T cell receptor (TCR) ß and δ chain loci of 95 individuals. Our approach detected anticipated repertoire focusing for the IGH repertoire, including expansions of clusters of related sequences temporally aligned with SARS-CoV-2-specific seroconversion, and enrichment of some shared SARS-CoV-2-associated sequences. No significant age-related or disease severity-related deficiencies were noted for the IGH repertoire. By contrast, whereas focusing occurred at the TCRß and TCRδ loci, including some TCRß sequence-sharing, disruptive repertoire narrowing was almost entirely limited to many patients aged older than 50 y. By temporarily reducing T cell diversity and by risking expansions of nonbeneficial T cells, these traits may constitute an age-related risk factor for COVID-19, including a vulnerability to new variants for which T cells may provide key protection.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity , COVID-19 , Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell , SARS-CoV-2 , Adaptive Immunity/genetics , Aged , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Genetic Loci , Humans , Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains/genetics , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/genetics , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Seroconversion , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
17.
Nat Rev Immunol ; 22(8): 465-470, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984394

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, much of the media focus has been on adaptive immunity, particularly antibody levels and memory T cells. However, immunologists have been striving to decipher how SARS-CoV-2 infection impacts our first line of defence, namely the innate immune system. In early 2022, Program staff from the NIAID at the NIH organized a workshop focusing on the innate immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection and during COVID-19, which was chaired by Ralph Baric, Jenny Ting and John Lambris. Following the meeting, Nature Reviews Immunology invited some of the organizers and speakers to share their thoughts on the key discussion points.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adaptive Immunity , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Ann Intern Med ; 175(5): 674-681, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1975317

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is insufficient evidence regarding the magnitude and durability of protection conferred by a combined effect of naturally acquired immunity after SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccine-induced immunity. OBJECTIVE: To compare the incidence rate of SARS-CoV-2 reinfection in previously infected persons to that of previously infected persons who subsequently received a single dose of BNT162b2 messenger RNA vaccine. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study emulating a randomized controlled target trial through a series of nested trials. SETTING: Nationally centralized database of Maccabi Healthcare Services, Israel. PARTICIPANTS: Persons with documented SARS-CoV-2 infection who did not receive subsequent SARS-CoV-2 vaccination were compared with persons with documented SARS-CoV-2 infection who received a single dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine at least 3 months after infection. INTERVENTION: Forty-one randomized controlled trials were emulated, in which 107 413 Maccabi Healthcare Services' members aged 16 years and older were eligible for at least 1 trial. MEASUREMENTS: SARS-CoV-2-related outcomes of infection, symptomatic disease, hospitalization, and death, between 2 March and 13 December 2021. RESULTS: A statistically significant decreased risk (hazard ratio, 0.18 [95% CI, 0.15 to 0.20]) for reinfection was found among persons who were previously infected and then vaccinated versus those who were previously infected but remained unvaccinated. In addition, there was a decreased risk for symptomatic disease (hazard ratio, 0.24 [CI, 0.20 to 0.29]) among previously infected and vaccinated persons compared with those who were not vaccinated after infection. No COVID-19-related mortality cases were found. LIMITATION: Hybrid protection against non-Delta variants could not be inferred. CONCLUSION: Persons previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 gained additional protection against reinfection and COVID-19 from a subsequent single dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine. Nonetheless, even without a subsequent vaccination, reinfection appeared relatively rare. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: None.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adaptive Immunity , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Incidence , Reinfection/epidemiology , Reinfection/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic
19.
Sci Adv ; 8(31): eabp9770, 2022 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1973775

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein (N) induces strong antibody (Ab) and T cell responses. Although considered to be localized in the cytosol, we readily detect N on the surface of live cells. N released by SARS-CoV-2-infected cells or N-expressing transfected cells binds to neighboring cells by electrostatic high-affinity binding to heparan sulfate and heparin, but not other sulfated glycosaminoglycans. N binds with high affinity to 11 human chemokines, including CXCL12ß, whose chemotaxis of leukocytes is inhibited by N from SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV-1, and MERS-CoV. Anti-N Abs bound to the surface of N-expressing cells activate Fc receptor-expressing cells. Our findings indicate that cell surface N manipulates innate immunity by sequestering chemokines and can be targeted by Fc-expressing innate immune cells. This, in combination with its conserved antigenicity among human CoVs, advances its candidacy for vaccines that induce cross-reactive B and T cell immunity to SARS-CoV-2 variants and other human CoVs, including novel zoonotic strains.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Adaptive Immunity , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Front Immunol ; 13: 848961, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963440

ABSTRACT

CoronaVac (Sinovac), an inactivated vaccine for SARS-CoV-2, has been widely used for immunization. However, analysis of the underlying molecular mechanisms driving CoronaVac-induced immunity is still limited. Here, we applied a systems biology approach to understand the mechanisms behind the adaptive immune response to CoronaVac in a cohort of 50 volunteers immunized with 2 doses of CoronaVac. Vaccination with CoronaVac led to an integrated immune response that included several effector arms of the adaptive immune system including specific IgM/IgG, humoral response and other immune response, as well as the innate immune system as shown by complement activation. Metabolites associated with immunity were also identified implicating the role of metabolites in the humoral response, complement activation and other immune response. Networks associated with the TCA cycle and amino acids metabolic pathways, such as phenylalanine metabolism, phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis, and glycine, serine and threonine metabolism were tightly coupled with immunity. Critically, we constructed a multifactorial response network (MRN) to analyze the underlying interactions and compared the signatures affected by CoronaVac immunization and SARS-CoV-2 infection to further identify immune signatures and related metabolic pathways altered by CoronaVac immunization. These results help us to understand the host response to vaccination of CoronaVac and highlight the utility of a systems biology approach in defining molecular correlates of protection to vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Adaptive Immunity , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Phenylalanine , Proteomics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Inactivated
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