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1.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 440, 2022 01 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1641960

ABSTRACT

Dysregulated immune responses against the SARS-CoV-2 virus are instrumental in severe COVID-19. However, the immune signatures associated with immunopathology are poorly understood. Here we use multi-omics single-cell analysis to probe the dynamic immune responses in hospitalized patients with stable or progressive course of COVID-19, explore V(D)J repertoires, and assess the cellular effects of tocilizumab. Coordinated profiling of gene expression and cell lineage protein markers shows that S100Ahi/HLA-DRlo classical monocytes and activated LAG-3hi T cells are hallmarks of progressive disease and highlights the abnormal MHC-II/LAG-3 interaction on myeloid and T cells, respectively. We also find skewed T cell receptor repertories in expanded effector CD8+ clones, unmutated IGHG+ B cell clones, and mutated B cell clones with stable somatic hypermutation frequency over time. In conclusion, our in-depth immune profiling reveals dyssynchrony of the innate and adaptive immune interaction in progressive COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Immunity, Innate/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Single-Cell Analysis/methods , Adaptive Immunity/drug effects , Adaptive Immunity/genetics , Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/genetics , Cells, Cultured , Female , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Gene Expression Regulation/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Male , RNA-Seq/methods , Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell/genetics , Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell/immunology , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/genetics , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
2.
Sci Immunol ; 6(66): eabf1152, 2021 Dec 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583226

ABSTRACT

Saponins are potent and safe vaccine adjuvants, but their mechanisms of action remain incompletely understood. Here, we explored the properties of several saponin formulations, including immune-stimulatory complexes (ISCOMs) formed by the self-assembly of saponin and phospholipids in the absence or presence of the Toll-like receptor 4 agonist monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA). We found that MPLA self-assembles with saponins to form particles physically resembling ISCOMs, which we termed saponin/MPLA nanoparticles (SMNP). Saponin-containing adjuvants exhibited distinctive mechanisms of action, altering lymph flow in a mast cell­dependent manner and promoting antigen entry into draining lymph nodes. SMNP was particularly effective, exhibiting even greater potency than the compositionally related adjuvant AS01B in mice, and primed robust germinal center B cell, TFH, and HIV tier 2 neutralizing antibodies in nonhuman primates. Together, these findings shed new light on mechanisms by which saponin adjuvants act to promote the immune response and suggest that SMNP may be a promising adjuvant in the setting of HIV, SARS-CoV-2, and other pathogens.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity/drug effects , Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Lymph/drug effects , Saponins/pharmacology , Toll-Like Receptors/agonists , Animals , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Female , Lymph/physiology , Macaca mulatta , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Nanoparticles , Rats , Rats, Wistar
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488614

ABSTRACT

Human Ezrin Peptides (HEPs) are inhibitors of expression of IL-6 and other inflammatory cytokines, amplifiers of adaptive B cell and T cell immunity and enhancers of tissue repair. The mutation stable C-terminus of HIV gp120, mimics 69% of the "Hep-receptor", a zipped α-helical structure in the middle of the α domain of human ezrin protein. Synthetic peptides homologous to the Hep-receptor of ezrin of five to fourteen amino acids, activate anti-viral immunity against a wide range of viruses (HIV, HCV, herpes, HPV, influenza and other human respiratory viruses). Human Ezrin Peptide One (HEP1) TEKKRRETVEREKE (brand name Gepon, registered for human use in Russia from 2001) is a successful treatment for opportunistic infections in HIV-infected patients. That treats HEP1and prevents mucosal candidiasis, herpes zoster outbreaks and infection-induced chronic diarrhea. There are clinical publications in Russian on the successful treatments of chronic recurrent vaginal candidiasis, acute and chronic enterocolitis and dysbacteriosis, which are accompanied by normalization of the mucosal microbiome, and the decline or disappearance of inflammation. HEP1 is also an effective treatment and prevention for recurrent inflammation and ulceration in the stomach, duodenum and colon. HEP1 and RepG3 GEKKRRETVEREGG (a derivative of HEP1) have been used successfully as an inhaled spray peptide solution to treat a small number of human volunteers with mild-to-moderate COVID, resulting from SARS-CoV-2 infection, based on earlier successes in treating acute viral respiratory disease with inflammatory complications. Ezrin peptides seem to correct a dysregulation of innate immune responses to SARS-CoV-2. They are also adjuvants of B cell adaptive immunity and increase antibody titres, resulting in protection from lethal virus infection of mice. In a clinical study in Moscow, orally administered HEP1 was shown to enhance antibody-titres produced in response to hepatitis-B vaccination. These very preliminary but promising results with ezrin peptide treatment of COVID must be replicated in large-scale randomised placebo controlled clinical studies, to be verified.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytoskeletal Proteins/pharmacology , Cytoskeletal Proteins/therapeutic use , Adaptive Immunity/drug effects , Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Mice , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/drug therapy
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444231

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2) has progressed rapidly from an outbreak to a global pandemic, with new variants rapidly emerging. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the disease resulting from SARS-CoV-2 infection, can lead to multiorgan damage. Due to the extremely contagious and fatal nature of the virus, it has been a priority of medical research to find effective means of treatment. Amid this search, the role of vitamin D in modulating various aspects of the innate and adaptive immune system has been discussed. This review aims to consolidate the research surrounding the role of vitamin D in the treatment and prevention of COVID-19. While there are some conflicting results reported, the consensus is that vitamin D has a host of immunomodulatory effects which may be beneficial in the context of COVID-19 and that low levels of vitamin D can result in dysfunction of crucial antimicrobial effects, potentially contributing to poor prognosis. Studies also show that the effects of low vitamin D can be mitigated via supplementation, although the benefits of vitamin D supplementation in the treatment of COVID-19 remain controversial.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Adaptive Immunity/drug effects , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Immunologic Factors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vitamin D/pharmacology , Vitamins/pharmacology
5.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438675

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is caused by SARS-CoV-2 and is leading to the worst health crisis of this century. It emerged in China during late 2019 and rapidly spread all over the world, producing a broad spectrum of clinical disease severity, ranging from asymptomatic infection to death (4.3 million victims so far). Consequently, the scientific research is devoted to investigating the mechanisms of COVID-19 pathogenesis to both identify specific therapeutic drugs and develop vaccines. Although immunological mechanisms driving COVID-19 pathogenesis are still largely unknown, new understanding has emerged about the innate and adaptive immune responses elicited in SARS-CoV-2 infection, which are mainly focused on the dysregulated inflammatory response in severe COVID-19. Polyphenols are naturally occurring products with immunomodulatory activity, playing a relevant role in reducing inflammation and preventing the onset of serious chronic diseases. Mainly based on data collected before the appearance of SARS-CoV-2, polyphenols have been recently suggested as promising agents to fight COVID-19, and some clinical trials have already been approved with polyphenols to treat COVID-19. The aim of this review is to analyze and discuss the in vitro and in vivo research on the immunomodulatory activity of quercetin as a research model of polyphenols, focusing on research that addresses issues related to the dysregulated immune response in severe COVID-19. From this analysis, it emerges that although encouraging data are present, they are still insufficient to recommend polyphenols as potential immunomodulatory agents against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Polyphenols/therapeutic use , Quercetin/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adaptive Immunity/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Immunologic Factors/chemistry , Immunologic Factors/pharmacology , Polyphenols/chemistry , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Quercetin/analogs & derivatives , Quercetin/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
6.
Sci Adv ; 7(34)2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365116

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has spread worldwide, yet the role of antiviral T cell immunity during infection and the contribution of immune checkpoints remain unclear. By prospectively following a cohort of 292 patients with melanoma, half of which treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), we identified 15 patients with acute or convalescent COVID-19 and investigated their transcriptomic, proteomic, and cellular profiles. We found that ICI treatment was not associated with severe COVID-19 and did not alter the induction of inflammatory and type I interferon responses. In-depth phenotyping demonstrated expansion of CD8 effector memory T cells, enhanced T cell activation, and impaired plasmablast induction in ICI-treated COVID-19 patients. The evaluation of specific adaptive immunity in convalescent patients showed higher spike (S), nucleoprotein (N), and membrane (M) antigen-specific T cell responses and similar induction of spike-specific antibody responses. Our findings provide evidence that ICI during COVID-19 enhanced T cell immunity without exacerbating inflammation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/immunology , Melanoma/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adaptive Immunity/drug effects , Adaptive Immunity/immunology , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Immunologic Memory/drug effects , Immunologic Memory/immunology , Lymphocyte Activation/drug effects , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Male , Melanoma/complications , Melanoma/drug therapy , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , T-Lymphocytes/virology
7.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 97: 107686, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188660

ABSTRACT

The ongoing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic is having a disastrous impact on global health. Recently, several studies examined the potential of vitamin D to reduce the effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection by modulating the immune system. Indeed, vitamin D has been found to boost the innate immune system and stimulate the adaptive immune response against SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this review, we provide a comprehensive update of the immunological mechanisms underlying the positive effects of vitamin D in reducing SARS-CoV-2 infection as well as a thorough survey of the recent epidemiological studies and clinical trials that tested vitamin D as a potential therapeutic agent against COVID-19 infection. We believe that a better understanding of the histopathology and immunopathology of the disease as well as the mechanism of vitamin D effects on COVID-19 severity will ultimately pave the way for a more effective prevention and control of this global pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Vitamin D/pharmacology , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Adaptive Immunity/drug effects , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/immunology , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Seasons , Severity of Illness Index , Vitamin D/immunology , Vitamin D/metabolism
8.
Iran J Immunol ; 18(1): 1-12, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1160970

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) associated with SARS-CoV-2, causes a severe form of the respiratory illness known as Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19). COVID-19 has emerged as a worldwide pandemic with a high number of fatalities. Approximately 112,654,202 people have been infected so far with this disease which has led to the death of more than one point seven million (2,496,749) till 24th Feb, 2021. Measures to counter this disease have led to a global economic slowdown. Multiple drug trials are ongoing and several putative candidates for vaccination against the virus have been approved and are in the pipeline. Many studies have also characterized the immunological profile of patients infected with COVID-19. Some studies suggest that the severity of the COVID-19 infection is directly associated with the cytokine storm. In this review, we aim to compile the available knowledge and describe the nature of immune responses in patients infected with COVID-19 in different age groups, comorbidity, and immune-compromised state and their association with disease severity.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Innate , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adaptive Immunity/drug effects , Age Factors , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Comorbidity , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Immunocompromised Host , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index
9.
Ann Transplant ; 26: e929279, 2021 Mar 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154830

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) has been an ongoing pandemic since December 2019. Unfortunately, kidney transplant recipients are a high-risk group during the disease course, and scientific data are still limited in this patient group. Beyond the dosage of immunosuppressive drugs, pharmacological immunosuppression may also alter the infection response in the COVID-19 course. The effects of immunosuppressive agents on the development and process of infection should not be decided only by determining how potent they are and how much they suppress the immune system; it is also thought that the direct effect of the virus, increased oxidative stress, and cytokine storm play a role in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 disease. There are data about immunosuppressive drugs like calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) or mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (mTORi) therapy related to their beneficial effects during any infection course. Limited data suggest that the use of CNI or mTORi may have beneficial effects on the process. In this hypothetical review, the probable impacts of CNI and mTORi on the pathogenesis of the COVID-19 were investigated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Calcineurin Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Graft Rejection/prevention & control , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Kidney Transplantation , Postoperative Complications/immunology , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Adaptive Immunity/drug effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , Calcineurin Inhibitors/pharmacology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Graft Rejection/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Immunocompromised Host , Immunosuppressive Agents/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/immunology , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications/virology , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors
10.
Cells ; 9(9)2020 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1148288

ABSTRACT

Vaccine design traditionally focuses on inducing adaptive immune responses against a sole target pathogen. Considering that many microbes evade innate immune mechanisms to initiate infection, and in light of the discovery of epigenetically mediated innate immune training, the paradigm of vaccine design has the potential to change. The Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine induces some level of protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) while stimulating trained immunity that correlates with lower mortality and increased protection against unrelated pathogens. This review will explore BCG-induced trained immunity, including the required pathways to establish this phenotype. Additionally, potential methods to improve or expand BCG trained immunity effects through alternative vaccine delivery and formulation methods will be discussed. Finally, advances in new anti-Mtb vaccines, other antimicrobial uses for BCG, and "innate memory-based vaccines" will be examined.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity/drug effects , BCG Vaccine/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Epigenesis, Genetic/drug effects , Myeloid Cells/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/prevention & control , Acetylmuramyl-Alanyl-Isoglutamine/immunology , Acetylmuramyl-Alanyl-Isoglutamine/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cross Protection , Epigenesis, Genetic/immunology , Histones/genetics , Histones/immunology , Humans , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Myeloid Cells/immunology , Myeloid Cells/pathology , Nod2 Signaling Adaptor Protein/genetics , Nod2 Signaling Adaptor Protein/immunology , Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern Molecules/immunology , Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern Molecules/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/genetics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/immunology , Signal Transduction , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/immunology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/immunology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/microbiology
11.
Am J Med Sci ; 361(6): 683-689, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1118316

ABSTRACT

Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine is one of the most widely used vaccines in the world. It protects against many non-mycobacterial infections secondary to its nonspecific immune effects. The mechanism for these effects includes modification of innate and adaptive immunity. The alteration in innate immunity is through histone modifications and epigenetic reprogramming of monocytes to develop an inflammatory phenotype, a process called "trained immunity." The memory T cells of adaptive immunity are also responsible for resistance against secondary infections after administration of BCG vaccine, a process called "heterologous immunity." Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine is known to not only boosts immune responses to many vaccines when they are co-administered but also decrease severity of these infections when used alone. The BCG vaccine by itself induces a TH1 type response, and its use as a vector has also shown promising results. This review article summarizes the studies showing effects of BCG vaccines on various viral infections, its role in enhancing vaccine responses, the mechanisms for this protective effect, and information on its effect on COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity/drug effects , BCG Vaccine/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Diseases/classification , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/prevention & control
12.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(4): 2131-2145, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1116634

ABSTRACT

The world is currently facing the COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the novel Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Due to a lack of specific treatment and prophylaxis, protective health measures that can reduce infection severity and COVID-19 mortality are urgently required. Clinical and epidemiological studies have shown that vitamin D deficiency can be linked to an increased risk of viral infection, including COVID-19. Therefore, in this review, we looked at various possible roles of vitamin D in reducing the risk of COVID-19 infection and severity. We describe in this article that individuals at high risk of vitamin D deficiency should consider taking vitamin D supplements to keep optimal concentrations. Moreover, we discuss different possible mechanisms by which vitamin D can efficiently reduce the risk of infections through modulation of innate and adaptive immunity against various types of infections. It is advisable to perform further studies addressing the observed influence of vitamin D levels to reduce the risk of COVID-19 infection and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Protective Agents/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D Deficiency/prevention & control , Vitamin D/therapeutic use , Adaptive Immunity/drug effects , Bystander Effect , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/transmission , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Protective Agents/administration & dosage , Severity of Illness Index , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology , Vitamin D Deficiency/immunology
13.
J Pathol ; 254(4): 307-331, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084377

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), continues to spread globally despite the worldwide implementation of preventive measures to combat the disease. Although most COVID-19 cases are characterised by a mild, self-limiting disease course, a considerable subset of patients develop a more severe condition, varying from pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) to multi-organ failure (MOF). Progression of COVID-19 is thought to occur as a result of a complex interplay between multiple pathophysiological mechanisms, all of which may orchestrate SARS-CoV-2 infection and contribute to organ-specific tissue damage. In this respect, dissecting currently available knowledge of COVID-19 immunopathogenesis is crucially important, not only to improve our understanding of its pathophysiology but also to fuel the rationale of both novel and repurposed treatment modalities. Various immune-mediated pathways during SARS-CoV-2 infection are relevant in this context, which relate to innate immunity, adaptive immunity, and autoimmunity. Pathological findings in tissue specimens of patients with COVID-19 provide valuable information with regard to our understanding of pathophysiology as well as the development of evidence-based treatment regimens. This review provides an updated overview of the main pathological changes observed in COVID-19 within the most commonly affected organ systems, with special emphasis on immunopathology. Current management strategies for COVID-19 include supportive care and the use of repurposed or symptomatic drugs, such as dexamethasone, remdesivir, and anticoagulants. Ultimately, prevention is key to combat COVID-19, and this requires appropriate measures to attenuate its spread and, above all, the development and implementation of effective vaccines. © 2021 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. on behalf of The Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity/immunology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adaptive Immunity/drug effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Immunity, Innate/immunology , United Kingdom
14.
Med Hypotheses ; 144: 110012, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-997289

ABSTRACT

The most serious health issue today is the rapid outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). More than 6,973,427 confirmed cases were diagnosed in nearly 213 countries and territories around the world and two international conveyances, causing globally over 400,000 deaths. Epidemiology, risk factors, and clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients have been identified, but the factors influencing the immune system against COVID-19 have not been well established. Upon infection or cell damage, high amounts of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) are released from damaged cells, which serve as mediators of inflammation through purinergic cell surface receptor signaling. As a protective mechanism to prevent excessive damage to host tissue, adenosine counteracts ATP's effects by adenosine receptor stimulation to suppress the pro-inflammatory response. Adenosine is seen as a major obstacle to the efficacy of immune therapies, and the adenosinergic axis components are critical therapeutic targets for cancer and microbial infections. Pharmacologic inhibitors or antibodies specific to adenosinergic pathway components or adenosine receptors in microbial and tumor therapy have shown efficacy in pre-clinical studies and are entering the clinical arena. In this review, we provide a novel hypothesis explaining the potential for improving the efficiency of innate and adaptive immune systems by targeting adenosinergic pathway components and adenosine A2A receptor signaling for the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Adenosine A2 Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pandemics , Receptor, Adenosine A2A/physiology , 5'-Nucleotidase/metabolism , Adaptive Immunity/drug effects , Adenosine A2 Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism , Apyrase/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , GPI-Linked Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Interferon-beta/physiology , Models, Immunological , Molecular Targeted Therapy , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
15.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 132: 110859, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-885208

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are a member of the Coronaviridae family with positive-sense single- stranded RNA. In recent years, the CoVs have become a global problem to public health. The immune responses (innate and adaptive immunity) are essential for elimination and clearance of CoVs infections, however, uncontrolled immune responses can result in aggravating acute lung injury and significant immunopathology. Gaining profound understanding about the interaction between CoVs and the innate and adaptive immune systems could be a critical step in the field of treatment. In this review, we present an update on the host innate and adaptive immune responses against SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and newly appeared SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Innate/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adaptive Immunity/drug effects , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Immunization, Passive , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects , Virus Replication/immunology
16.
Nat Rev Immunol ; 20(11): 709-713, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-834892

ABSTRACT

Immunity is a multifaceted phenomenon. For T cell-mediated memory responses to SARS-CoV-2, it is relevant to consider their impact both on COVID-19 disease severity and on viral spread in a population. Here, we reflect on the immunological and epidemiological aspects and implications of pre-existing cross-reactive immune memory to SARS-CoV-2, which largely originates from previous exposure to circulating common cold coronaviruses. We propose four immunological scenarios for the impact of cross-reactive CD4+ memory T cells on COVID-19 severity and viral transmission. For each scenario, we discuss its implications for the dynamics of herd immunity and on projections of the global impact of SARS-CoV-2 on the human population, and assess its plausibility. In sum, we argue that key potential impacts of cross-reactive T cell memory are already incorporated into epidemiological models based on data of transmission dynamics, particularly with regard to their implications for herd immunity. The implications of immunological processes on other aspects of SARS-CoV-2 epidemiology are worthy of future study.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronaviridae Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Adaptive Immunity/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Coronaviridae/drug effects , Coronaviridae/immunology , Coronaviridae Infections/epidemiology , Coronaviridae Infections/immunology , Coronaviridae Infections/virology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cross Reactions , Humans , Immunity, Herd/drug effects , Immunologic Memory , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Rhinovirus/drug effects , Rhinovirus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/biosynthesis
17.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 16(12): 2954-2962, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-802179

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2 has gripped essentially all countries in the world, and has infected millions and killed hundreds of thousands of people. Several innovative approaches are in development to restrain the spread of SARS-CoV-2. In particular, BCG, a vaccine against tuberculosis (TB), is being considered as an alternative therapeutic modality. BCG vaccine is known to induce both humoral and adaptive immunities, thereby activating both nonspecific and cross-reactive immune responses in the host, which combined could effectively resist other pathogens including SARS-CoV-2. Notably, some studies have revealed that SARS-CoV-2 infectivity, case positivity, and mortality rate have been higher in countries that have not adopted BCG vaccination than in countries that have done so. This review presents an overview of the concepts underlying BCG vaccination and its nonspecific immuological effects and protection, resulting in 'trained immunity' and potential utility for resisting COVID-19.


Subject(s)
BCG Vaccine/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Drug Repositioning/methods , Adaptive Immunity/drug effects , Adaptive Immunity/immunology , BCG Vaccine/immunology , BCG Vaccine/pharmacology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , Cross Reactions/drug effects , Cross Reactions/immunology , Humans , Pandemics , Tuberculosis/immunology , Tuberculosis/prevention & control
19.
Physiol Genomics ; 52(9): 401-407, 2020 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-772149

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a worldwide pandemic, infecting over 16 million people worldwide with a significant mortality rate. However, there is no current Food and Drug Administration-approved drug that treats coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Damage to T lymphocytes along with the cytokine storm are important factors that lead to exacerbation of clinical cases. Here, we are proposing intravenous oxytocin (OXT) as a candidate for adjunctive therapy for COVID-19. OXT has anti-inflammatory and proimmune adaptive functions. Using the Library of Integrated Network-Based Cellular Signatures (LINCS), we used the transcriptomic signature for carbetocin, an OXT agonist, and compared it to gene knockdown signatures of inflammatory (such as interleukin IL-1ß and IL-6) and proimmune markers (including T cell and macrophage cell markers like CD40 and ARG1). We found that carbetocin's transcriptomic signature has a pattern of concordance with inflammation and immune marker knockdown signatures that are consistent with reduction of inflammation and promotion and sustaining of immune response. This suggests that carbetocin may have potent effects in modulating inflammation, attenuating T cell inhibition, and enhancing T cell activation. Our results also suggest that carbetocin is more effective at inducing immune cell responses than either lopinavir or hydroxychloroquine, both of which have been explored for the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity/drug effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Gene Expression Profiling , Oxytocin/analogs & derivatives , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , Adaptive Immunity/genetics , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Cell Line , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Databases, Genetic , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Oxytocin/pharmacology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/virology , Transcriptome
20.
Clin Immunol ; 220: 108588, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-743920

ABSTRACT

Though recent reports link SARS-CoV-2 infections with hyper-inflammatory states in children, most children experience no/mild symptoms, and hospitalization and mortality rates are low in the age group. As symptoms are usually mild and seroconversion occurs at low frequencies, it remains unclear whether children significantly contribute to community transmission. Several hypotheses try to explain age-related differences in disease presentation and severity. Possible reasons for milder presentations in children as compared to adults include frequent contact to seasonal coronaviruses, presence of cross-reactive antibodies, and/or co-clearance with other viruses. Increased expression of ACE2 in young people may facilitate virus infection, while limiting inflammation and reducing the risk of severe disease. Further potential factors include recent vaccinations and a more diverse memory T cell repertoire. This manuscript reviews age-related host factors that may protect children from COVID-19 and complications associated, and addresses the confusion around seropositivity and immunity.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronaviridae Infections/prevention & control , Coronaviridae/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adaptive Immunity/drug effects , Adolescent , Asymptomatic Diseases , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Child , Coronaviridae/drug effects , Coronaviridae/immunology , Coronaviridae Infections/epidemiology , Coronaviridae Infections/immunology , Coronaviridae Infections/virology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cross Protection , Female , Humans , Immune Evasion/genetics , Immune Evasion/immunology , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/virology , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Vaccination , Young Adult
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