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1.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 7357, 2023 05 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314817

ABSTRACT

Researchers are constantly searching for drugs to combat the coronavirus pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2, which has lasted for over two years. Natural compounds such as phenolic acids are being tested against Mpro and AAK1, which are key players in the SARS-CoV-2 life cycle. This research work aims to study the ability of a panel of natural phenolic acids to inhibit the virus's multiplication directly through Mpro and indirectly by affecting the adaptor-associated protein kinase-1 (AAK1). Pharmacophore mapping, molecular docking, and dynamic studies were conducted over 50 ns and 100 ns on a panel of 39 natural phenolic acids. Rosmarinic acid (16) on the Mpro receptor (- 16.33 kcal/mol) and tannic acid (17) on the AAK1 receptor (- 17.15 kcal/mol) exhibited the best docking energy against both receptors. These favourable docking score values were found to be superior to those of the co-crystallized ligands. Preclinical and clinical research is required before using them simultaneously to halt the COVID-19 life cycle in a synergistic manner.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Protease Inhibitors , Humans , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Oligonucleotides , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Blood Adv ; 7(11): 2645-2655, 2023 06 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2305130

ABSTRACT

Patients with previous CD19-directed chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy have a prolonged vulnerability to viral infections. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has a great impact and has previously been shown to cause high mortality in this population. Until now, real-world data on the impact of vaccination and treatment on patients with COVID-19 after CD19-directed CAR T-cell therapy are lacking. Therefore, this multicenter, retrospective study was conducted with data from the EPICOVIDEHA survey. Sixty-four patients were identified. The overall mortality caused by COVID-19 was 31%. Patients infected with the Omicron variant had a significantly lower risk of death due to COVID-19 compared with patients infected with previous variants (7% vs 58% [P = .012]). Twenty-six patients were vaccinated at the time of the COVID-19 diagnosis. Two vaccinations showed a marked but unsignificant reduction in the risk of COVID-19-caused mortality (33.3% vs 14.2% [P = .379]). In addition, the course of the disease appears milder with less frequent intensive care unit admissions (39% vs 14% [P = .054]) and a shorter duration of hospitalization (7 vs 27.5 days [P = .022]). Of the available treatment options, only monoclonal antibodies seemed to be effective at reducing mortality from 32% to 0% (P = .036). We conclude that survival rates of CAR T-cell recipients with COVID-19 improved over time and that the combination of prior vaccination and monoclonal antibody treatment significantly reduces their risk of death. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT04733729.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Immunotherapy, Adoptive , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antigens, CD19
3.
Zool Res ; 44(3): 505-521, 2023 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2306427

ABSTRACT

Bacterial or viral infections, such as Brucella, mumps virus, herpes simplex virus, and Zika virus, destroy immune homeostasis of the testes, leading to spermatogenesis disorder and infertility. Of note, recent research shows that SARS-CoV-2 can infect male gonads and destroy Sertoli and Leydig cells, leading to male reproductive dysfunction. Due to the many side effects associated with antibiotic therapy, finding alternative treatments for inflammatory injury remains critical. Here, we found that Dmrt1 plays an important role in regulating testicular immune homeostasis. Knockdown of Dmrt1 in male mice inhibited spermatogenesis with a broad inflammatory response in seminiferous tubules and led to the loss of spermatogenic epithelial cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) revealed that Dmrt1 positively regulated the expression of Spry1, an inhibitory protein of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling pathway. Furthermore, immunoprecipitation-mass spectrometry (IP-MS) and co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) analysis indicated that SPRY1 binds to nuclear factor kappa B1 (NF-κB1) to prevent nuclear translocation of p65, inhibit activation of NF-κB signaling, prevent excessive inflammatory reaction in the testis, and protect the integrity of the blood-testis barrier. In view of this newly identified Dmrt1- Spry1-NF-κB axis mechanism in the regulation of testicular immune homeostasis, our study opens new avenues for the prevention and treatment of male reproductive diseases in humans and livestock.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rodent Diseases , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Humans , Male , Mice , Animals , Testis , NF-kappa B/metabolism , COVID-19/veterinary , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Homeostasis , Fertility , Zika Virus/metabolism , Zika Virus Infection/metabolism , Zika Virus Infection/veterinary , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Phosphoproteins/pharmacology , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/metabolism , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/pharmacology , Rodent Diseases/metabolism
4.
Front Immunol ; 14: 961642, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2306453

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the main cause of COVID-19, causing hundreds of millions of confirmed cases and more than 18.2 million deaths worldwide. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication of COVID-19 that leads to an increase in mortality, especially in intensive care unit (ICU) settings, and chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a high risk factor for COVID-19 and its related mortality. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms among AKI, CKD, and COVID-19 are unclear. Therefore, transcriptome analysis was performed to examine common pathways and molecular biomarkers for AKI, CKD, and COVID-19 in an attempt to understand the association of SARS-CoV-2 infection with AKI and CKD. Three RNA-seq datasets (GSE147507, GSE1563, and GSE66494) from the GEO database were used to detect differentially expressed genes (DEGs) for COVID-19 with AKI and CKD to search for shared pathways and candidate targets. A total of 17 common DEGs were confirmed, and their biological functions and signaling pathways were characterized by enrichment analysis. MAPK signaling, the structural pathway of interleukin 1 (IL-1), and the Toll-like receptor pathway appear to be involved in the occurrence of these diseases. Hub genes identified from the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, including DUSP6, BHLHE40, RASGRP1, and TAB2, are potential therapeutic targets in COVID-19 with AKI and CKD. Common genes and pathways may play pathogenic roles in these three diseases mainly through the activation of immune inflammation. Networks of transcription factor (TF)-gene, miRNA-gene, and gene-disease interactions from the datasets were also constructed, and key gene regulators influencing the progression of these three diseases were further identified among the DEGs. Moreover, new drug targets were predicted based on these common DEGs, and molecular docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed. Finally, a diagnostic model of COVID-19 was established based on these common DEGs. Taken together, the molecular and signaling pathways identified in this study may be related to the mechanisms by which SARS-CoV-2 infection affects renal function. These findings are significant for the effective treatment of COVID-19 in patients with kidney diseases.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Humans , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Molecular Docking Simulation , Acute Kidney Injury/genetics , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/genetics , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing
5.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2023: 2899271, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2298452

ABSTRACT

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the most studied receptors among the pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). They act as microbial sensors, playing major roles in the regulation of the innate immune system. TLRs mediate their cellular functions through the activation of MyD88-dependent or MyD88-independent signaling pathways. Myd88, or myeloid differentiation primary response 88, is a cytosolic adaptor protein essential for the induction of proinflammatory cytokines by all TLRs except TLR3. While the crucial role of Myd88 is well described, the contribution of other adaptors in mediating TLR signaling and function has been underestimated. In this review, we highlight important results demonstrating that TIRAP and TRAM adaptors are also required for full signaling activity and responses induced by most TLRs.


Subject(s)
Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88 , Toll-Like Receptor 4 , Toll-Like Receptor 3 , Toll-Like Receptors , Signal Transduction/physiology , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing
6.
Biophys Chem ; 295: 106971, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2275211

ABSTRACT

Structures can now be predicted for any protein using programs like AlphaFold and Rosetta, which rely on a foundation of experimentally determined structures of architecturally diverse proteins. The accuracy of such artificial intelligence and machine learning (AI/ML) approaches benefits from the specification of restraints which assist in navigating the universe of folds to converge on models most representative of a given protein's physiological structure. This is especially pertinent for membrane proteins, with structures and functions that depend on their presence in lipid bilayers. Structures of proteins in their membrane environments could conceivably be predicted from AI/ML approaches with user-specificized parameters that describe each element of the architecture of a membrane protein accompanied by its lipid environment. We propose the Classification Of Membrane Proteins based On Structures Engaging Lipids (COMPOSEL), which builds on existing nomenclature types for monotopic, bitopic, polytopic and peripheral membrane proteins as well as lipids. Functional and regulatory elements are also defined in the scripts, as shown with membrane fusing synaptotagmins, multidomain PDZD8 and Protrudin proteins that recognize phosphoinositide (PI) lipids, the intrinsically disordered MARCKS protein, caveolins, the ß barrel assembly machine (BAM), an adhesion G-protein coupled receptor (aGPCR) and two lipid modifying enzymes - diacylglycerol kinase DGKε and fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase FALDH. This demonstrates how COMPOSEL communicates lipid interactivity as well as signaling mechanisms and binding of metabolites, drug molecules, polypeptides or nucleic acids to describe the operations of any protein. Moreover COMPOSEL can be scaled to express how genomes encode membrane structures and how our organs are infiltrated by pathogens such as SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Membrane Proteins , Humans , Membrane Proteins/chemistry , Membrane Lipids , Artificial Intelligence , Models, Molecular , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Lipid Bilayers/chemistry , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/metabolism
7.
J Exp Med ; 220(5)2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2260121

ABSTRACT

X-linked recessive deficiency of TLR7, a MyD88- and IRAK-4-dependent endosomal ssRNA sensor, impairs SARS-CoV-2 recognition and type I IFN production in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), thereby underlying hypoxemic COVID-19 pneumonia with high penetrance. We report 22 unvaccinated patients with autosomal recessive MyD88 or IRAK-4 deficiency infected with SARS-CoV-2 (mean age: 10.9 yr; 2 mo to 24 yr), originating from 17 kindreds from eight countries on three continents. 16 patients were hospitalized: six with moderate, four with severe, and six with critical pneumonia, one of whom died. The risk of hypoxemic pneumonia increased with age. The risk of invasive mechanical ventilation was also much greater than in age-matched controls from the general population (OR: 74.7, 95% CI: 26.8-207.8, P < 0.001). The patients' susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 can be attributed to impaired TLR7-dependent type I IFN production by pDCs, which do not sense SARS-CoV-2 correctly. Patients with inherited MyD88 or IRAK-4 deficiency were long thought to be selectively vulnerable to pyogenic bacteria, but also have a high risk of hypoxemic COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88 , Child , Humans , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing , COVID-19/complications , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Toll-Like Receptor 7
8.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1127352, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2247730

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Severe COVID-19 originates a myriad of alterations in the immune system during active disease, especially in the T and NK cell compartments, but several studies in the last year have unveiled some alterations that persist in convalescence. Although most of the studies follow the participants for a short recovery time, studies following patients up to three or six months still find alterations. We aimed at evaluating changes in the NK, T and B cell compartments after severe COVID-19 in participants with a median recovery time of eleven months. Methods: Eighteen convalescent of severe COVID-19 (CSC), 14 convalescent of mild COVID-19 (CMC) and nine controls were recruited. NKG2A, NKG2C, NKG2D and the activating receptor NKp44 were evaluated in NKbright, NKdim and NKT subpopulations. In addition, CD3 and CD19 were measured and a basic biochemistry with IL-6 levels was obtained. Results: CSC participants showed lower NKbright/NKdim ratio, higher NKp44 expression in NKbright subpopulations, higher levels of serum IL-6, lower levels of NKG2A+ T lymphocytes and a trend to a lower expression of CD19 in B lymphocytes compared to controls. CMC participants showed no significant alterations in the immune system compared to controls. Conclusions: These results are concordant with previous studies, which find alterations in CSC weeks or months after resolution of the symptoms, and point to the possibility of these alterations lasting one year or more after COVID-19 resolution.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Convalescence , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing , Killer Cells, Natural
9.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 2128, 2023 02 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2267535

ABSTRACT

Lung fibrosis, including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, is an intractable disease accompanied by an irreversible dysfunction in the respiratory system. Its pathogenesis involves the transforming growth factorß (TGFß)-induced overproduction of the extracellular matrix from fibroblasts; however, limited countermeasures have been established. In this study, we identified osa-miR172d-5p, a plant-derived microRNA (miR), as a potent anti-fibrotic miR. In silico analysis followed by an in vitro assay based on human lung fibroblasts demonstrated that osa-miR172d-5p suppressed the gene expression of TGF-ß activated kinase 1 (MAP3K7) binding protein 1 (Tab1). It also suppressed the TGFß-induced fibrotic gene expression in human lung fibroblasts. To assess the anti-fibrotic effect of osa-miR172d-5p, we established bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis models to demonstrate that osa-miR172d-5p ameliorated lung fibrosis. Moreover, it suppressed Tab1 expression in the lung tissues of bleomycin-treated mice. In conclusion, osa-miR172d-5p could be a potent candidate for the treatment of lung fibrosis, including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.


Subject(s)
Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis , MicroRNAs , Humans , Mice , Animals , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/chemically induced , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/genetics , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/metabolism , Fibrosis , Bleomycin/toxicity , Bleomycin/metabolism , Fibroblasts/metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/metabolism
10.
Mol Biol Rep ; 50(3): 2701-2711, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2266086

ABSTRACT

By the end of 2019, COVID-19 was reported in Wuhan city of China, and through human-human transmission, this virus spread worldwide and became a pandemic. Initial symptoms of the disease include fever, cough, loss of smell, taste, and shortness of breath, but a decrease in the oxygen levels in the body leads, and pneumonia may ultimately lead to the patient's death. However, the symptoms vary from patient to patient. To understand COVID-19 disease pathogenesis, researchers have tried to understand the cellular pathways that could be targeted to suppress viral replication. Thus, this article reviews the markers that could be targeted to inhibit viral replication by inhibiting the translational initiation complex/regulatory kinases and upregulating host autophagic flux that may lead to a reduction in the viral load. The article also highlights that mTOR inhibitors may act as potential inhibitors of viral replication. mTOR inhibitors such as metformin may inhibit the interaction of SARS-CoV-2 Nsp's and ORFs with mTORC1, LARP1, and 4E-BP. They may also increase autophagic flux by decreasing protein degradation via inhibition of Skp2, further promoting viral cell death. These events result in cell cycle arrest at G1 by p27, ultimately causing cell death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , MTOR Inhibitors , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing , Virus Replication , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases
11.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 70: 104494, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2244967

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Treatment with fingolimod for multiple sclerosis (MS) reduces the efficacy of COVID-19 vaccination. The aim of this exploratory study was to evaluate whether main lymphocyte subsets and demographic features correlated to the subsequent increase in anti-SARS-CoV2 antibodies following the third dose of COVID-19 vaccination in fingolimod-treated MS patients. METHODS: This was a prospective single-center observational exploratory study including a subgroup of adult patients with MS (pwMS) in treatment with fingolimod who underwent COVID-19 vaccination. The association of anti-SARS-CoV2 antibody levels (reported as the Log10 of the difference between the post and pre third dose levels) with the total number and percentage of CD3+ T and CD19+ B was assessed by a linear regression model adjusted for age and sex. RESULTS: We found that peripheral blood CD19+ B lymphocytes before the third dose of vaccination in pwMS treated with fingolimod predict the subsequent increase of anti-SARS-CoV2 antibodies. CONCLUSION: This work suggests that evaluating the percentage of CD19+ B cells may be important to identify patients at risk of not producing SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, with possible reduced protection from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Adult , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Fingolimod Hydrochloride , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , B-Lymphocytes , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing , Antibodies, Viral , Vaccination
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(5): e2210361120, 2023 Jan 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2236812

ABSTRACT

Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to be a major health problem worldwide. Due to the fast emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants, understanding the molecular mechanisms of viral pathogenesis and developing novel inhibitors are essential and urgent. Here, we investigated the potential roles of N6,2'-O-dimethyladenosine (m6Am), one of the most abundant modifications of eukaryotic messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNAs), in SARS-CoV-2 infection of human cells. Using genome-wide m6Am-exo-seq, RNA sequencing analysis, and Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 genome editing, we demonstrate that phosphorylated C-terminal domain (CTD)-interacting factor 1 (PCIF1), a cap-specific adenine N6-methyltransferase, plays a major role in facilitating infection of primary human lung epithelial cells and cell lines by SARS-CoV-2, variants of concern, and other coronaviruses. We show that PCIF1 promotes infection by sustaining expression of the coronavirus receptors angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) via m6Am-dependent mRNA stabilization. In PCIF1-depleted cells, both ACE2/TMPRSS2 expression and viral infection are rescued by re-expression of wild-type, but not catalytically inactive, PCIF1. These findings suggest a role for PCIF1 and cap m6Am in regulating SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility and identify a potential therapeutic target for prevention of infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Nuclear Proteins/genetics , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases
13.
J Virol ; 97(2): e0153222, 2023 02 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2223571

ABSTRACT

Understanding the molecular basis of innate immune evasion by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an important consideration for designing the next wave of therapeutics. Here, we investigate the role of the nonstructural protein 16 (NSP16) of SARS-CoV-2 in infection and pathogenesis. NSP16, a ribonucleoside 2'-O-methyltransferase (MTase), catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group to mRNA as part of the capping process. Based on observations with other CoVs, we hypothesized that NSP16 2'-O-MTase function protects SARS-CoV-2 from cap-sensing host restriction. Therefore, we engineered SARS-CoV-2 with a mutation that disrupts a conserved residue in the active site of NSP16. We subsequently show that this mutant is attenuated both in vitro and in vivo, using a hamster model of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Mechanistically, we confirm that the NSP16 mutant is more sensitive than wild-type SARS-CoV-2 to type I interferon (IFN-I) in vitro. Furthermore, silencing IFIT1 or IFIT3, IFN-stimulated genes that sense a lack of 2'-O-methylation, partially restores fitness to the NSP16 mutant. Finally, we demonstrate that sinefungin, an MTase inhibitor that binds the catalytic site of NSP16, sensitizes wild-type SARS-CoV-2 to IFN-I treatment and attenuates viral replication. Overall, our findings highlight the importance of SARS-CoV-2 NSP16 in evading host innate immunity and suggest a target for future antiviral therapies. IMPORTANCE Similar to other coronaviruses, disruption of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) NSP16 function attenuates viral replication in a type I interferon-dependent manner. In vivo, our results show reduced disease and viral replication at late times in the hamster lung, but an earlier titer deficit for the NSP16 mutant (dNSP16) in the upper airway. In addition, our results confirm a role for IFIT1 but also demonstrate the necessity of IFIT3 in mediating dNSP16 attenuation. Finally, we show that targeting NSP16 activity with a 2'-O-methyltransferase inhibitor in combination with type I interferon offers a novel avenue for antiviral development.


Subject(s)
Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Nonstructural Proteins , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/metabolism , Methyltransferases/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism , Animals , Cricetinae
14.
Hum Immunol ; 83(8-9): 613-617, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2179262

ABSTRACT

The NF-κB signaling pathway is a key regulator of inflammation in the response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. This pathway has been implicated in the hyperinflammatory state that characterizes the severe forms of COVID-19. The genetic variation of the NF-κB components might thus explain the predisposition to critical outcomes of this viral disease. We aimed to study the role of the common NFKB1 rs28362491, NFKBIA rs696 and NFKBIZ rs3217713 variants in the risk of developing severe COVID-19 with ICU admission. A total of 470 Spanish patients requiring respiratory support in the ICU were studied (99 deceased and 371 survivors). Compared to healthy population controls (N = 300), the NFKBIA rs696 GG genotype was increased in the patients (p = 0.045; OR = 1.37). The NFKBIZ rs3217713 insertion homozygosis was associated with a significant risk of death (p = 0.02; OR = 1.76) and was also related to increased D-dimer values (p = 0.0078, OR = 1.96). This gene has been implicated in sepsis in mice and rats. Moreover, we found a trend toward lower expression of the NFKBIZ transcript in total blood from II patients. In conclusion, variants in the NF-κB genes might be associated with the risk of developing severe COVID-19, with a significant effect of the NFKBIZ gene on mortality. Our results were based on a limited number of patients and require validation in larger cohorts from other populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , NF-kappa B , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing , COVID-19/genetics , Genetic Association Studies , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Humans , NF-KappaB Inhibitor alpha/genetics , NF-kappa B/genetics , NF-kappa B p50 Subunit/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction
15.
Brain Behav Immun ; 108: 204-220, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2149375

ABSTRACT

Increasing evidence supports the pathogenic role of neuroinflammation in psychiatric diseases, including major depressive disorder (MDD) and neuropsychiatric symptoms of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); however, the precise mechanism and therapeutic strategy are poorly understood. Here, we report that myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), a pivotal adaptor that bridges toll-like receptors to their downstream signaling by recruiting the signaling complex called 'myddosome', was up-regulated in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) after exposure to chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) or severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein. The inducible expression of MyD88 in the mPFC primed neuroinflammation and conferred stress susceptibility via amplifying immune danger signals, such as high-mobility group box 1 and SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Overexpression of MyD88 aggravated, whereas knockout or pharmacological inhibition of MyD88 ameliorated CSDS-induced depressive-like behavior. Notably, TJ-M2010-5, a novel synthesized targeting inhibitor of MyD88 dimerization, alleviated both CSDS- and SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-induced depressive-like behavior. Taken together, our findings indicate that inhibiting MyD88 signaling represents a promising therapeutic strategy for stress-related mental disorders, such as MDD and COVID-19-related neuropsychiatric symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88 , Humans , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/psychology , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/metabolism , Neuroinflammatory Diseases , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
16.
Front Immunol ; 13: 907125, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123412

ABSTRACT

Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) patients have markedly decreased immune response to vaccinations. In this study we evaluated humoral and T cell-mediated responses against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-Cov-2) with additional flow cytometric changes in CVID patients receiving booster vaccination with BNT162b2 after two ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. The BNT162b2 vaccine raised the anti-spike protein S immunoglobulin G over the cut-off value from 70% to 83% in CVID, anti-neutralizing antibody had been raised over a cut-off value from 70% to 80% but levels after boosting were significantly less in both tests than in healthy controls (*p=0.02; **p=0.009 respectively). Anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin A became less positive in CVID after boosting, but the difference was not significant. The cumulative interferon-γ positive T cell response by ELISpot was over the cut-off value in 53% of the tested individuals and raised to 83% after boosting. This and flow cytometric control of cumulative CD4+ and CD8+ virus-specific T cell absolute counts in CVID were also statistically not different from healthy individuals after boosting. Additional flow cytometric measures for CD45+ lymphocytes, CD3+, and CD19+ cells have not shown significant differences from controls except for lower CD4+T cell counts at both time points (**p=0.003; **p=0.002), in parallel CD4+ virus-specific T-cell ratio was significantly lower in CVID patients at the first time point (*p: 0.03). After boosting, in more than 33% of both CVID patients and also in their healthy controls we detected a decrease in absolute CD45+, CD3+, CD3+CD4+, and CD3+CD8+, CD19+, and CD16+56+ cell counts. CD16+CD56+ cell counts were significantly lower compared to controls before and after boosting (*p=0.02, *p=0.02). CVID patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy throughout the previous year or autologous stem cell transplantation two years before vaccination had worse responses in anti-spike, anti-neutralizing antibody, CD3+CD4+T, CD19+ B, and natural killer cell counts than the whole CVID group. Vaccinations had few side effects. Based on these data, CVID patients receiving booster vaccination with BNT162b2 after two ChadOx1 can effectively elevate the levels of protection against COVID-19 infection, but the duration of the immune response together with COVID-19 morbidity data needs further investigation among these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Common Variable Immunodeficiency , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing , Antigens, CD19 , BNT162 Vaccine , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes , Transplantation, Autologous
17.
Front Immunol ; 13: 996637, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043454

ABSTRACT

Increased neutrophils and elevated level of circulating calprotectin are hallmarks of severe COVID-19 and they contribute to the dysregulated immune responses and cytokine storm in susceptible patients. However, the precise mechanism controlling calprotectin production during SARS-CoV-2 infection remains elusive. In this study, we showed that Dok3 adaptor restrains calprotectin production by neutrophils in response to SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein engagement of TLR4. Dok3 recruits SHP-2 to mediate the de-phosphorylation of MyD88 at Y257, thereby attenuating downstream JAK2-STAT3 signaling and calprotectin production. Blocking of TLR4, JAK2 and STAT3 signaling could prevent excessive production of calprotectin by Dok3-/- neutrophils, revealing new targets for potential COVID-19 therapy. As S protein from SARS-CoV-2 Delta and Omicron variants can activate TLR4-driven calprotectin production in Dok3-/- neutrophils, our study suggests that targeting calprotectin production may be an effective strategy to combat severe COVID-19 manifestations associated with these emerging variants.


Subject(s)
Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing , COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/metabolism , Humans , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/metabolism , Neutrophils/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 14935, 2022 Sep 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008304

ABSTRACT

Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) show an increased risk for a severe COVID-19 disease. Treatment with DPP4 inhibitor (DPP4i) results in reduced mortality and better clinical outcome. Here, we aimed to identify potential mechanisms for the observed DPP4i effect in COVID-19. Comparing T2D subjects with and without DPP4i treatment, we identified a significant increase of the anti-inflammatory adipokine sFRP5 in relation to DPP4 inhibition. sFRP5 is a specific antagonist to Wnt5a, a glycopeptide secreted by adipose tissue macrophages acting pro-inflammatory in various diseases. We therefore examined sFRP5 levels in patients hospitalised for severe COVID-19 and found significant lower levels compared to healthy controls. Since sFRP5 might consequently be a molecular link for the beneficial effects of DPP4i in COVID-19, we further aimed to identify the exact source of sFRP5 in adipose tissue on cellular level. We therefore isolated pre-adipocytes, mature adipocytes and macrophages from adipose tissue biopsies and performed western-blotting. Results showed a sFRP5 expression specifically in mature adipocytes of subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue. In summary, our data suggest that DPP4i increase serum levels of anti-inflammatory sFRP5 which might be beneficial in COVID-19, reflecting a state of sFRP5 deficiency.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/metabolism , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors/pharmacology , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Eye Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents
19.
J Virol ; 96(17): e0077422, 2022 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1992940

ABSTRACT

XIAP-associated factor 1 (XAF1) is an interferon (IFN)-stimulated gene (ISG) that enhances IFN-induced apoptosis. However, it is unexplored whether XAF1 is essential for the host fighting against invaded viruses. Here, we find that XAF1 is significantly upregulated in the host cells infected with emerging RNA viruses, including influenza, Zika virus (ZIKV), and SARS-CoV-2. IFN regulatory factor 1 (IRF1), a key transcription factor in immune cells, determines the induction of XAF1 during antiviral immunity. Ectopic expression of XAF1 protects host cells against various RNA viruses independent of apoptosis. Knockout of XAF1 attenuates host antiviral innate immunity in vitro and in vivo, which leads to more severe lung injuries and higher mortality in the influenza infection mouse model. XAF1 stabilizes IRF1 protein by antagonizing the CHIP-mediated degradation of IRF1, thus inducing more antiviral IRF1 target genes, including DDX58, DDX60, MX1, and OAS2. Our study has described a protective role of XAF1 in the host antiviral innate immunity against RNA viruses. We have also elucidated the molecular mechanism that IRF1 and XAF1 form a positive feedback loop to induce rapid and robust antiviral immunity. IMPORTANCE Rapid and robust induction of antiviral genes is essential for the host to clear the invaded viruses. In addition to the IRF3/7-IFN-I-STAT1 signaling axis, the XAF1-IRF1 positive feedback loop synergistically or independently drives the transcription of antiviral genes. Moreover, XAF1 is a sensitive and reliable gene that positively correlates with the viral infection, suggesting that XAF1 is a potential diagnostic marker for viral infectious diseases. In addition to the antitumor role, our study has shown that XAF1 is essential for antiviral immunity. XAF1 is not only a proapoptotic ISG, but it also stabilizes the master transcription factor IRF1 to induce antiviral genes. IRF1 directly binds to the IRF-Es of its target gene promoters and drives their transcriptions, which suggests a unique role of the XAF1-IRF1 loop in antiviral innate immunity, particularly in the host defect of IFN-I signaling such as invertebrates.


Subject(s)
Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins , Interferon Regulatory Factor-1 , RNA Virus Infections , RNA Viruses , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/immunology , Animals , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Interferon Regulatory Factor-1/immunology , Mice , Mice, Knockout , RNA Virus Infections/immunology , Virus Replication
20.
Antioxid Redox Signal ; 35(16): 1376-1392, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1342795

ABSTRACT

Significance: It is estimated that close to 50 million cases of sepsis result in over 11 million annual fatalities worldwide. The pathognomonic feature of sepsis is a dysregulated inflammatory response arising from viral, bacterial, or fungal infections. Immune recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns is a hallmark of the host immune defense to combat microbes and to prevent the progression to sepsis. Mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) is a ubiquitous adaptor protein located at the outer mitochondrial membrane, which is activated by the cytosolic pattern recognition receptors, retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation associated gene 5 (MDA5), following binding of viral RNA agonists. Recent Advances: Substantial progress has been made in deciphering the activation of the MAVS pathway with its interacting proteins, downstream signaling events (interferon [IFN] regulatory factors, nuclear factor kappa B), and context-dependent type I/III IFN response. Critical Issues: In the evolutionary race between pathogens and the host, viruses have developed immune evasion strategies for cleavage, degradation, or blockade of proteins in the MAVS pathway. For example, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) M protein and ORF9b protein antagonize MAVS signaling and a protective type I IFN response. Future Directions: The role of MAVS as a sensor for nonviral pathogens, host cell injury, and metabolic perturbations awaits better characterization in the future. New technical advances in multidimensional single-cell analysis and single-molecule methods will accelerate the rate of new discoveries. The ultimate goal is to manipulate MAVS activities in the form of immune-modulatory therapies to combat infections and sepsis. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 35, 1376-1392.


Subject(s)
Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/immunology , Sepsis/immunology , Signal Transduction/immunology , Virus Diseases/immunology , Animals , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immune Evasion/immunology , Sepsis/virology
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