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Lancet Oncol ; 23(2): 270-278, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616869


BACKGROUND: Endoscopic surveillance is recommended for patients with Barrett's oesophagus because, although the progression risk is low, endoscopic intervention is highly effective for high-grade dysplasia and cancer. However, repeated endoscopy has associated harms and access has been limited during the COVID-19 pandemic. We aimed to evaluate the role of a non-endoscopic device (Cytosponge) coupled with laboratory biomarkers and clinical factors to prioritise endoscopy for Barrett's oesophagus. METHODS: We first conducted a retrospective, multicentre, cross-sectional study in patients older than 18 years who were having endoscopic surveillance for Barrett's oesophagus (with intestinal metaplasia confirmed by TFF3 and a minimum Barrett's segment length of 1 cm [circumferential or tongues by the Prague C and M criteria]). All patients had received the Cytosponge and confirmatory endoscopy during the BEST2 (ISRCTN12730505) and BEST3 (ISRCTN68382401) clinical trials, from July 7, 2011, to April 1, 2019 (UK Clinical Research Network Study Portfolio 9461). Participants were divided into training (n=557) and validation (n=334) cohorts to identify optimal risk groups. The biomarkers evaluated were overexpression of p53, cellular atypia, and 17 clinical demographic variables. Endoscopic biopsy diagnosis of high-grade dysplasia or cancer was the primary endpoint. Clinical feasibility of a decision tree for Cytosponge triage was evaluated in a real-world prospective cohort from Aug 27, 2020 (DELTA; ISRCTN91655550; n=223), in response to COVID-19 and the need to provide an alternative to endoscopic surveillance. FINDINGS: The prevalence of high-grade dysplasia or cancer determined by the current gold standard of endoscopic biopsy was 17% (92 of 557 patients) in the training cohort and 10% (35 of 344) in the validation cohort. From the new biomarker analysis, three risk groups were identified: high risk, defined as atypia or p53 overexpression or both on Cytosponge; moderate risk, defined by the presence of a clinical risk factor (age, sex, and segment length); and low risk, defined as Cytosponge-negative and no clinical risk factors. The risk of high-grade dysplasia or intramucosal cancer in the high-risk group was 52% (68 of 132 patients) in the training cohort and 41% (31 of 75) in the validation cohort, compared with 2% (five of 210) and 1% (two of 185) in the low-risk group, respectively. In the real-world setting, Cytosponge results prospectively identified 39 (17%) of 223 patients as high risk (atypia or p53 overexpression, or both) requiring endoscopy, among whom the positive predictive value was 31% (12 of 39 patients) for high-grade dysplasia or intramucosal cancer and 44% (17 of 39) for any grade of dysplasia. INTERPRETATION: Cytosponge atypia, p53 overexpression, and clinical risk factors (age, sex, and segment length) could be used to prioritise patients for endoscopy. Further investigation could validate their use in clinical practice and lead to a substantial reduction in endoscopy procedures compared with current surveillance pathways. FUNDING: Medical Research Council, Cancer Research UK, Innovate UK.

Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Barrett Esophagus/pathology , COVID-19 , Esophageal Neoplasms/pathology , Patient Selection , Watchful Waiting/methods , Adenocarcinoma/diagnostic imaging , Adenocarcinoma/metabolism , Aged , Barrett Esophagus/diagnostic imaging , Barrett Esophagus/metabolism , Barrett Esophagus/therapy , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/prevention & control , Clinical Decision-Making , Clinical Trials as Topic , Cross-Sectional Studies , Decision Trees , Disease Progression , Esophageal Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Esophageal Neoplasms/metabolism , Esophagoscopy , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Trefoil Factor-3/metabolism , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/metabolism
Med Phys ; 48(12): 7913-7929, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1516790


PURPOSE: Feature maps created from deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs) have been widely used for visual explanation of DCNN-based classification tasks. However, many clinical applications such as benign-malignant classification of lung nodules normally require quantitative and objective interpretability, rather than just visualization. In this paper, we propose a novel interpretable multi-task attention learning network named IMAL-Net for early invasive adenocarcinoma screening in chest computed tomography images, which takes advantage of segmentation prior to assist interpretable classification. METHODS: Two sub-ResNets are firstly integrated together via a prior-attention mechanism for simultaneous nodule segmentation and invasiveness classification. Then, numerous radiomic features from the segmentation results are concatenated with high-level semantic features from the classification subnetwork by FC layers to achieve superior performance. Meanwhile, an end-to-end feature selection mechanism (named FSM) is designed to quantify crucial radiomic features greatly affecting the prediction of each sample, and thus it can provide clinically applicable interpretability to the prediction result. RESULTS: Nodule samples from a total of 1626 patients were collected from two grade-A hospitals for large-scale verification. Five-fold cross validation demonstrated that the proposed IMAL-Net can achieve an AUC score of 93.8% ± 1.1% and a recall score of 93.8% ± 2.8% for identification of invasive lung adenocarcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: It can be concluded that fusing semantic features and radiomic features can achieve obvious improvements in the invasiveness classification task. Moreover, by learning more fine-grained semantic features and highlighting the most important radiomics features, the proposed attention and FSM mechanisms not only can further improve the performance but also can be used for both visual explanations and objective analysis of the classification results.

Adenocarcinoma of Lung , Adenocarcinoma , Lung Neoplasms , Adenocarcinoma/diagnostic imaging , Adenocarcinoma of Lung/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Neural Networks, Computer , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Rev Esp Enferm Dig ; 114(2): 116-117, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1399678


Multiple primary tumors occur in 5-10 % of the population. However, synchronic neoplasms diagnosed within six months of one another is a rarity. We report the case of a patient initially diagnosed with a pancreatic cyst and a synchronous pancreatic and ampullary adenocarcinoma eleven months later.

Adenocarcinoma , Ampulla of Vater , COVID-19 , Common Bile Duct Neoplasms , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Adenocarcinoma/diagnostic imaging , Adenocarcinoma/epidemiology , Ampulla of Vater/diagnostic imaging , Ampulla of Vater/pathology , Ampulla of Vater/surgery , Common Bile Duct Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Common Bile Duct Neoplasms/epidemiology , Humans , Pancreatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Pancreatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
Arch Bronconeumol (Engl Ed) ; 56(10): 674-676, 2020 Oct.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-614755