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1.
Molecules ; 27(2)2022 Jan 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1624914

ABSTRACT

A novel series of 1-aryl-N-[4-phenyl-5-(arylazo)thiazol-2-yl)methanimines has been synthesized via the condensation of 2-amino-4-phenyl-5-arylazothiazole with various aromatic aldehydes. The synthesized imines were characterized by spectroscopic techniques, namely 1H and 13C-NMR, FTIR, MS, and Elemental Analysis. A molecular comparative docking study for 3a-f was calculated, with reference to two approved drugs, Molnupiravir and Remdesivir, using 7BQY (Mpro; PDB code 7BQY; resolution: 1.7 A°) under identical conditions. The binding scores against 7BQY were in the range of -7.7 to -8.7 kcal/mol for 3a-f. The high scores of the compounds indicated an enhanced binding affinity of the molecules to the receptor. This is due to the hydrophobic interactions and multi-hydrogen bonds between 3a-f ligands and the receptor's active amino acid residues. The main aim of using in silco molecular docking was to rank 3a-f with respect to the approved drugs, Molnupiravir and Remdesivir, using free energy methods as greener pastures. A further interesting comparison presented the laydown of the ligands before and after molecular docking. These results and other supporting statistical analyses suggested that ligands 3a-f deserve further investigation in the context of potential therapeutic agents for COVID-19. Free-cost, PASS, SwissADME, and Way2drug were used in this research paper to determine the possible biological activities and cytotoxicity of 3a-f.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Imines/chemistry , Thiazoles/chemistry , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/chemistry , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/toxicity , Binding Sites , Computer Simulation , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Cytidine/chemistry , Hydroxylamines/chemistry , Imines/chemical synthesis , Imines/pharmacokinetics , Imines/toxicity , Molecular Docking Simulation , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Thiazoles/chemical synthesis , Thiazoles/pharmacokinetics , Thiazoles/toxicity
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(1)2022 Jan 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613825

ABSTRACT

(1R,5S)-1-Hydroxy-3,6-dioxa-bicyclo[3.2.1]octan-2-one, available by an efficient catalytic pyrolysis of cellulose, has been applied as a chiral building block in the synthesis of seven new nucleoside analogues, with structural modifications on the nucleobase moiety and on the carboxyl- derived unit. The inverted configuration by Mitsunobu reaction used in their synthesis was verified by 2D-NOESY correlations, supported by the optimized structure employing the DFT methods. An in silico screening of these compounds as inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase has been carried out in comparison with both remdesivir, a mono-phosphoramidate prodrug recently approved for COVID-19 treatment, and its ribonucleoside metabolite GS-441524. Drug-likeness prediction and data by docking calculation indicated compound 6 [=(3S,5S)-methyl 5-(hydroxymethyl)-3-(6-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-9H-purin-9-yl)tetrahydrofuran-3-carboxylate] as the best candidate. Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulation showed a stable interaction of structure 6 in RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) complex and a lower average atomic fluctuation than GS-441524, suggesting a well accommodation in the RdRp binding pocket.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Cellulose/chemistry , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/antagonists & inhibitors , Nucleosides/chemical synthesis , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine/chemistry , Adenosine/pharmacokinetics , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/chemistry , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacokinetics , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/chemistry , Alanine/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Computational Biology , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Nucleosides/chemistry , Nucleosides/pharmacokinetics , Pyrolysis , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
3.
J Biol Chem ; 298(2): 101529, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587355

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir (RDV) is a direct-acting antiviral agent that is approved in several countries for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. RDV exhibits broad-spectrum antiviral activity against positive-sense RNA viruses, for example, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and hepatitis C virus, and nonsegmented negative-sense RNA viruses, for example, Nipah virus, whereas segmented negative-sense RNA viruses such as influenza virus or Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus are not sensitive to the drug. The reasons for this apparent efficacy pattern are unknown. Here, we expressed and purified representative RNA-dependent RNA polymerases and studied three biochemical parameters that have been associated with the inhibitory effects of RDV-triphosphate (TP): (i) selective incorporation of the nucleotide substrate RDV-TP, (ii) the effect of the incorporated RDV-monophosphate (MP) on primer extension, and (iii) the effect of RDV-MP in the template during incorporation of the complementary UTP. We found a strong correlation between antiviral effects and efficient incorporation of RDV-TP. Inhibition in primer extension reactions was heterogeneous and usually inefficient at higher NTP concentrations. In contrast, template-dependent inhibition of UTP incorporation opposite the embedded RDV-MP was seen with all polymerases. Molecular modeling suggests a steric conflict between the 1'-cyano group of the inhibitor and residues of the structurally conserved RNA-dependent RNA polymerase motif F. We conclude that future efforts in the development of nucleotide analogs with a broader spectrum of antiviral activities should focus on improving rates of incorporation while capitalizing on the inhibitory effects of a bulky 1'-modification.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Models, Molecular , RNA Viruses/enzymology , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/antagonists & inhibitors , Adenosine Monophosphate/chemistry , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/chemistry , Alanine/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Hepacivirus/drug effects , Hepacivirus/enzymology , Negative-Sense RNA Viruses/drug effects , Negative-Sense RNA Viruses/enzymology , Nipah Virus/drug effects , Nipah Virus/enzymology , Positive-Strand RNA Viruses/drug effects , Positive-Strand RNA Viruses/enzymology , RNA Viruses/drug effects , RNA, Viral/metabolism , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Virus Replication/drug effects
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 23465, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556248

ABSTRACT

Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) mainly affects young children and immunocompromised patients, causing morbidity and mortality in a subset of patients. Since no specific treatment is available, this study aims to explore the anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents including favipiravir and remdesivir for treating HCoV-NL63 infection. We first successfully modelled the 3D structure of HCoV-NL63 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) based on the experimentally solved SARS-CoV-2 RdRp structure. Molecular docking indicated that favipiravir has similar binding affinities to SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-NL63 RdRp with LibDock scores of 75 and 74, respectively. The LibDock scores of remdesivir to SARS-CoV-2 and HCoV-NL63 were 135 and 151, suggesting that remdesivir may have a higher affinity to HCoV-NL63 compared to SARS-CoV-2 RdRp. In cell culture models infected with HCoV-NL63, both favipiravir and remdesivir significantly inhibited viral replication and production of infectious viruses. Overall, remdesivir compared to favipiravir is more potent in inhibiting HCoV-NL63 in cell culture. Importantly, there is no evidence of resistance development upon long-term exposure to remdesivir. Furthermore, combining favipiravir or remdesivir with the clinically used antiviral cytokine interferon-alpha resulted in synergistic effects. These findings provided a proof-of-concept that anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs, in particular remdesivir, have the potential to be repurposed for treating HCoV-NL63 infection.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Amides/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Coronavirus NL63, Human/enzymology , Pyrazines/chemistry , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , Adenosine Monophosphate/chemistry , Adenosine Monophosphate/metabolism , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/chemistry , Alanine/metabolism , Alanine/pharmacology , Amides/metabolism , Amides/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Binding Sites , Cell Culture Techniques , Cell Line , Coronavirus NL63, Human/physiology , Haplorhini , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pyrazines/metabolism , Pyrazines/pharmacology , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , Virus Replication/drug effects
5.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 61(11): e202114619, 2022 03 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544209

ABSTRACT

Since early 2020, scientists have strived to find an effective solution to fight SARS-CoV-2, in particular by developing reliable vaccines that inhibit the spread of the disease and repurposing drugs for combatting its effects on the human body. The antiviral prodrug Remdesivir is still the most widely used therapeutic during the early stages of the infection. However, the current synthetic routes rely on the use of protecting groups, air-sensitive reagents, and cryogenic conditions, thus impeding a cost-efficient supply to patients. We have, therefore, focused on the development of a straightforward, direct addition of (hetero)arenes to unprotected sugars. Here we report a silylium-catalyzed and completely stereoselective C-glycosylation that initially yields the open-chain polyols, which can be selectively cyclized to provide either the kinetic α-furanose or the thermodynamically favored ß-anomer. The method significantly expedites the synthesis of Remdesivir precursor GS-441524 after a subsequent Mn-catalyzed C-H oxidation and deoxycyanation.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Nucleosides/chemical synthesis , Adenosine/chemical synthesis , Adenosine/chemistry , Adenosine Monophosphate/chemical synthesis , Adenosine Monophosphate/chemistry , Alanine/chemical synthesis , Alanine/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Catalysis , Chemistry Techniques, Synthetic/economics , Chemistry Techniques, Synthetic/methods , Cyclization , Glycosylation , Humans , Models, Molecular , Nucleosides/chemistry , Stereoisomerism , Time Factors
6.
Infect Genet Evol ; 97: 105153, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521407

ABSTRACT

Amid the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, it has become increasingly important to monitor the mutations that arise in the SARS-CoV-2 virus, to prepare public health strategies and guide the further development of vaccines and therapeutics. The spike (S) protein and the proteins comprising the RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase (RdRP) are key vaccine and drug targets, respectively, making mutation surveillance of these proteins of great importance. Full protein sequences were downloaded from the GISAID database, aligned, and the variants identified. 437,006 unique viral genomes were analyzed. Polymorphisms in the protein sequence were investigated and examined longitudinally to identify sequence and strain variants appearing between January 5th, 2020 and January 16th, 2021. A structural analysis was also performed to investigate mutations in the receptor binding domain and the N-terminal domain of the spike protein. Within the spike protein, there were 766 unique mutations observed in the N-terminal domain and 360 in the receptor binding domain. Four residues that directly contact ACE2 were mutated in more than 100 sequences, including positions K417, Y453, S494, and N501. Within the furin cleavage site of the spike protein, a high degree of conservation was observed, but the P681H mutation was observed in 10.47% of sequences analyzed. Within the RNA dependent RNA polymerase complex proteins, 327 unique mutations were observed in Nsp8, 166 unique mutations were observed in Nsp7, and 1157 unique mutations were observed in Nsp12. Only 4 sequences analyzed contained mutations in the 9 residues that directly interact with the therapeutic Remdesivir, suggesting limited mutations in drug interacting residues. The identification of new variants emphasizes the need for further study on the effects of the mutations and the implications of increased prevalence, particularly for vaccine or therapeutic efficacy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , Genome, Viral , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/chemistry , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Africa/epidemiology , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/chemistry , Alanine/pharmacology , Amino Acid Substitution , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Asia/epidemiology , Binding Sites , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , Databases, Factual , Epidemiological Monitoring , Europe/epidemiology , Evolution, Molecular , Furin/genetics , Furin/metabolism , Gene Expression , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation, alpha-Helical , Protein Conformation, beta-Strand , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , United States/epidemiology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism
7.
Chem Biol Interact ; 351: 109744, 2022 Jan 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1509623

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir, an intravenous nucleotide prodrug, has been approved for treating COVID-19 in hospitalized adults and pediatric patients. Upon administration, remdesivir can be readily hydrolyzed to form its active form GS-441524, while the cleavage of the carboxylic ester into GS-704277 is the first step for remdesivir activation. This study aims to assign the key enzymes responsible for remdesivir hydrolysis in humans, as well as to investigate the kinetics of remdesivir hydrolysis in various enzyme sources. The results showed that remdesivir could be hydrolyzed to form GS-704277 in human plasma and the microsomes from human liver (HLMs), lung (HLuMs) and kidney (HKMs), while the hydrolytic rate of remdesivir in HLMs was the fastest. Chemical inhibition and reaction phenotyping assays suggested that human carboxylesterase 1 (hCES1A) played a predominant role in remdesivir hydrolysis, while cathepsin A (CTSA), acetylcholinesterase (AchE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BchE) contributed to a lesser extent. Enzymatic kinetic analyses demonstrated that remdesivir hydrolysis in hCES1A (SHUTCM) and HLMs showed similar kinetic plots and much closed Km values to each other. Meanwhile, GS-704277 formation rates were strongly correlated with the CES1A activities in HLM samples from different individual donors. Further investigation revealed that simvastatin (a therapeutic agent for adjuvant treating COVID-19) strongly inhibited remdesivir hydrolysis in both recombinant hCES1A and HLMs. Collectively, our findings reveal that hCES1A plays a predominant role in remdesivir hydrolysis in humans, which are very helpful for predicting inter-individual variability in response to remdesivir and for guiding the rational use of this anti-COVID-19 agent in clinical settings.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Carboxylesterase/metabolism , Acetylcholinesterase/chemistry , Acetylcholinesterase/metabolism , Adenosine Monophosphate/chemistry , Adenosine Monophosphate/metabolism , Alanine/chemistry , Alanine/metabolism , Butyrylcholinesterase/chemistry , Butyrylcholinesterase/metabolism , Carboxylesterase/chemistry , Cathepsin A/chemistry , Cathepsin A/metabolism , Humans , Hydrolysis/drug effects , Kinetics , Liver/metabolism , Microsomes, Liver/metabolism , Simvastatin/pharmacology
8.
Infect Genet Evol ; 97: 105128, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500148

ABSTRACT

The scientific community has been releasing whole genomic sequences of SARS-CoV-2 to facilitate the investigation of molecular features and evolutionary history. We retrieved 36 genomes of 18 prevalent countries of Asia, Europe and America for genomic diversity and mutational analysis. Besides, we studied mutations in the RBD regions of Spike (S) proteins to analyze the drug efficiency against these mutations. In this research, phylogenenetic analysis, evolutionary modeling, substitution pattern analysis, molecular docking, dynamics simulation, etc. were performed. The genomic sequences showed >99% similarity with the reference sequence of China.TN93 + G was predicted as a best nucleotide substitution model. It was revealed that effective transition from the co-existing SARS genome to the SARS-CoV-2 and a noticeable positive selection in the SARS-CoV-2 genomes occurred. Moreover, three mutations in RBD domain, Val/ Phe367, Val/ Leu 382 and Ala/ Val522, were discovered in the genomes from Netherland, Bangladesh and the USA, respectively. Molecular docking and dynamics study showed RBD with mutation Val/Leu382 had the lowest binding affinity with remdesivir. In conclusion, the SARS-CoV-2 genomes are similar, but multiple degrees of transitions and transversions occurred. The mutations cause a significant conformational change, which are needed to be investigated during drug and vaccine development.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/epidemiology , Genome, Viral , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Adenosine Monophosphate/chemistry , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/chemistry , Alanine/pharmacology , Amino Acid Substitution , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Binding Sites , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , China/epidemiology , Evolution, Molecular , Gene Expression , Humans , Likelihood Functions , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Netherlands/epidemiology , Phylogeny , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation, alpha-Helical , Protein Conformation, beta-Strand , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , United States/epidemiology
9.
Assay Drug Dev Technol ; 19(8): 475-483, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475724

ABSTRACT

Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has posed a mounting threat to public health with worldwide outbreak caused by a novel virus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Recently, remdesivir (RDV) has been approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treating COVID-19 patients ≥12 years old requiring hospitalization. To the best of our knowledge, a simple method to estimate RDV in the pharmaceutical formulations using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is still unexplored, highlighting the need for a precise analytical method for its quantification. The prime purpose of the current investigation was to develop and validate a well-grounded HPLC method for quantification of RDV in pharmaceutical formulations. The best chromatogram was obtained by means of an Inertsil ODS-3V column using a mobile phase of milli-Q water modified to pH 3.0 with o-phosphoric acid and acetonitrile (50:50, % v/v) at a flow rate of 1.2 mL/min and wavelength of detector set at 246 nm with retention time being achieved at 6.0 min. The method was validated following International Council for Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) Q2 (R1) guidelines for various parameters such as specificity and selectivity, system suitability, linearity, precision, accuracy, limits of detection and quantification, and robustness. The method developed for the quantification of RDV was found to be linear in the concentration range of 25-2,500 ng/mL with limit of detection and limit of quantification of 1.95 and 6.49 ng/mL, respectively. Assay value of 102% ± 1% was achieved for marketed injectable dosage form when estimated by the validated method. Therefore, in this study a simple, rapid, sensitive, selective, accurate, precise, and robust analytical method was developed and validated for the quantification of RDV using HPLC. The established method was successfully employed for quantification of RDV in marketed pharmaceutical formulation.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Administration, Intravenous/standards , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/analysis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/analysis , Adenosine Monophosphate/chemistry , Administration, Intravenous/methods , Alanine/administration & dosage , Alanine/analysis , Alanine/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/standards , Dosage Forms/standards , Humans , Reproducibility of Results
10.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 193: 114800, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1471892

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir (GS-5734, Veklury®) has remained the only antiviral drug formally approved by the US FDA for the treatment of Covid-19 (SARS-CoV-2 infection). Its key structural features are the fact that it is a C-nucleoside (adenosine) analogue, contains a 1'-cyano function, and could be considered as a ProTide based on the presence of a phosphoramidate group. Its antiviral spectrum and activity in animal models have been well established and so has been its molecular mode of action as a delayed chain terminator of the viral RdRp (RNA-dependent RNA polymerase). Its clinical efficacy has been evaluated, but needs to be optimized with regard to timing, dosage and duration of treatment, and route of administration. Safety, toxicity and pharmacokinetics need to be further addressed, and so are its potential combinations with other drugs such as corticosteroids (i.e. dexamethasone) and ribavirin.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/chemistry , Adenosine Monophosphate/metabolism , Alanine/administration & dosage , Alanine/chemistry , Alanine/metabolism , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Protein Structure, Tertiary , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
12.
Eur J Med Chem ; 226: 113862, 2021 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433178

ABSTRACT

We report here the synthesis, purification, and characterization of mono- and di-fatty acyl conjugates of remdesivir (RDV) and their in vitro antiviral activity against SAR-CoV-2, an Ebola virus transcription- and replication-competent virus-like particle (trVLP) system, and infectious Ebola virus. The most potent monofatty acyl conjugate was 4b, containing a 4-oxatetradecanolyl at the 3' position. Monofatty acyl conjugates, 3'-O-tetradecanoyl (4a) (IC50(VeroE6) = 2.3 µM; IC50(Calu3) = 0.24 µM), 3'-O-4-oxatetradodecanoyl (4b) (IC50(VeroE6) = 2.0 µM; IC50(Calu3) = 0.18 µM), and 3'-O-(12-ethylthiododecanoyl) (4e) (IC50(VeroE6) = 2.4 µM; IC50(Calu3) = 0.25 µM) derivatives exhibited less activity than RDV (IC50(VeroE6) = 0.85 µM; IC50(Calu3) = 0.06 µM) in both VeroE6 and Calu3 cells. Difatty acylation led to a significant reduction in the antiviral activity of RDV (as shown in conjugates 5a and 5b) against SARS-CoV-2 when compared with monofatty acylation (3a-e and 4a-e). About 77.9% of 4c remained intact after 4 h incubation with human plasma while only 47% of parent RDV was observed at the 2 h time point. The results clearly indicate the effectiveness of fatty acylation to improve the half-life of RDV. The antiviral activities of a number of monofatty acyl conjugates of RDV, such as 3b, 3e, and 4b, were comparable with RDV against the Ebola trVLP system. Meanwhile, the corresponding physical mixtures of RDV and fatty acids 6a and 6b showed 1.6 to 2.2 times less antiviral activity than the corresponding conjugates, 4a and 4c, respectively, against SARS-CoV-2 in VeroE6 cells. A significant reduction in viral RNA synthesis was observed for selected compounds 3a and 4b consistent with the IC50 results. These studies indicate the potential of these compounds as long-acting antiviral agents or prodrugs of RDV.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/virology , Ebolavirus/drug effects , Fatty Acids/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/chemical synthesis , Adenosine Monophosphate/chemistry , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/chemical synthesis , Alanine/chemistry , Alanine/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
13.
J Med Chem ; 64(19): 14702-14714, 2021 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1412442

ABSTRACT

Here, we report the synthesis, structure-activity relationship studies, enzyme inhibition, antiviral activity, and X-ray crystallographic studies of 5-chloropyridinyl indole carboxylate derivatives as a potent class of SARS-CoV-2 chymotrypsin-like protease inhibitors. Compound 1 exhibited a SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro inhibitory IC50 value of 250 nM and an antiviral EC50 value of 2.8 µM in VeroE6 cells. Remdesivir, an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitor, showed an antiviral EC50 value of 1.2 µM in the same assay. Compound 1 showed comparable antiviral activity with remdesivir in immunocytochemistry assays. Compound 7d with an N-allyl derivative showed the most potent enzyme inhibitory IC50 value of 73 nM. To obtain molecular insight into the binding properties of these molecules, X-ray crystal structures of compounds 2, 7b, and 9d-bound to SARS-CoV 3CLpro were determined, and their binding properties were compared.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Indoles/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/chemistry , Adenosine Monophosphate/metabolism , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/chemistry , Alanine/metabolism , Animals , Binding Sites , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Crystallography, X-Ray , Humans , Indoles/chemical synthesis , Indoles/metabolism , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/chemical synthesis , Protease Inhibitors/metabolism , Pyridines/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Structure-Activity Relationship , Vero Cells
14.
Drug Res (Stuttg) ; 71(8): 462-472, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1404894

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Replication of SARS-CoV-2 depends on viral RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase (RdRp). Remdesivir, the broad-spectrum RdRp inhibitor acts as nucleoside-analogues (NAs). Remdesivir has initially been repurposed as a promising drug against SARS-CoV-2 infection with some health hazards like liver damage, allergic reaction, low blood-pressure, and breathing-shortness, throat-swelling. In comparison, theaflavin-3'-O-gallate (TFMG), the abundant black tea component has gained importance in controlling viral infection. TFMG is a non-toxic, non-invasive, antioxidant, anticancer and antiviral molecule. RESULTS: Here, we analyzed the inhibitory effect of theaflavin-3'-O-gallate on SARS CoV-2 RdRp in comparison with remdesivir by molecular-docking study. TFMG has been shown more potent in terms of lower Atomic-Contact-Energy (ACE) and higher occupancy of surface area; -393.97 Kcal/mol and 771.90 respectively, favoured with lower desolvation-energy; -9.2: Kcal/mol. TFMG forms more rigid electrostatic and H-bond than remdesivir. TFMG showed strong affinity to RNA primer and template and RNA passage-site of RdRp. CONCLUSIONS: TFMG can block the catalytic residue, NTP entry site, cation binding site, nsp7-nsp12 junction with binding energy of -6. 72 Kcal/mol with Ki value of 11.79, and interface domain with binding energy of -7.72 and -6.16 Kcal/mol with Ki value of 2.21 and 30.71 µM. And most importantly, TFMG shows antioxidant/anti-inflammatory/antiviral effect on human studies.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biflavonoids/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Catechin/pharmacology , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/antagonists & inhibitors , Drug Design , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Gallic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Molecular Docking Simulation , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/chemistry , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/chemistry , Alanine/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Biflavonoids/chemistry , COVID-19/virology , Catalytic Domain , Catechin/chemistry , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , Enzyme Inhibitors/chemistry , Gallic Acid/chemistry , Gallic Acid/pharmacology , Protein Conformation , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Structure-Activity Relationship
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17810, 2021 09 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1402118

ABSTRACT

Transporters in the human liver play a major role in the clearance of endo- and xenobiotics. Apical (canalicular) transporters extrude compounds to the bile, while basolateral hepatocyte transporters promote the uptake of, or expel, various compounds from/into the venous blood stream. In the present work we have examined the in vitro interactions of some key repurposed drugs advocated to treat COVID-19 (lopinavir, ritonavir, ivermectin, remdesivir and favipiravir), with the key drug transporters of hepatocytes. These transporters included ABCB11/BSEP, ABCC2/MRP2, and SLC47A1/MATE1 in the canalicular membrane, as well as ABCC3/MRP3, ABCC4/MRP4, SLC22A1/OCT1, SLCO1B1/OATP1B1, SLCO1B3/OATP1B3, and SLC10A1/NTCP, residing in the basolateral membrane. Lopinavir and ritonavir in low micromolar concentrations inhibited BSEP and MATE1 exporters, as well as OATP1B1/1B3 uptake transporters. Ritonavir had a similar inhibitory pattern, also inhibiting OCT1. Remdesivir strongly inhibited MRP4, OATP1B1/1B3, MATE1 and OCT1. Favipiravir had no significant effect on any of these transporters. Since both general drug metabolism and drug-induced liver toxicity are strongly dependent on the functioning of these transporters, the various interactions reported here may have important clinical relevance in the drug treatment of this viral disease and the existing co-morbidities.


Subject(s)
ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily B, Member 11/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Liver-Specific Organic Anion Transporter 1/metabolism , Liver/drug effects , Organic Cation Transport Proteins/metabolism , ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily B, Member 11/antagonists & inhibitors , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/chemistry , Adenosine Monophosphate/metabolism , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/chemistry , Alanine/metabolism , Alanine/pharmacology , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Comorbidity , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Liver/metabolism , Liver/pathology , Liver-Specific Organic Anion Transporter 1/antagonists & inhibitors , Lopinavir/chemistry , Lopinavir/metabolism , Lopinavir/pharmacology , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Organic Cation Transport Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Ritonavir/chemistry , Ritonavir/metabolism , Ritonavir/pharmacology , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Substrate Specificity
16.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(45): 20154-20160, 2020 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384106

ABSTRACT

Phosphoramidates composed of an amino acid and a nucleotide analogue are critical metabolites of prodrugs, such as remdesivir. Hydrolysis of the phosphoramidate liberates the nucleotide, which can then be phosphorylated to become the pharmacologically active triphosphate. Enzymatic hydrolysis has been demonstrated, but a spontaneous chemical process may also occur. We measured the rate of enzyme-free hydrolysis for 17 phosphoramidates of ribonucleotides with amino acids or related compounds at pH 7.5. Phosphoramidates of proline hydrolyzed fast, with a half-life time as short as 2.4 h for Pro-AMP in ethylimidazole-containing buffer at 37 °C; 45-fold faster than Ala-AMP and 120-fold faster than Phe-AMP. Crystal structures of Gly-AMP, Pro-AMP, ßPro-AMP and Phe-AMP bound to RNase A as crystallization chaperone showed how well the carboxylate is poised to attack the phosphoramidate, helping to explain this reactivity. Our results are significant for the design of new antiviral prodrugs.


Subject(s)
Amides/metabolism , Amino Acids/chemistry , Nucleotides/metabolism , Phosphoric Acids/metabolism , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/chemistry , Adenosine Monophosphate/metabolism , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/chemistry , Alanine/metabolism , Amides/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Catalytic Domain , Crystallography, X-Ray , Half-Life , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hydrolysis , Kinetics , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Nucleotides/chemistry , Phosphoric Acids/chemistry , Ribonuclease, Pancreatic/chemistry , Ribonuclease, Pancreatic/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
17.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 35(12): e5212, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1349236

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir (RDV) is the first antiviral drug, approved by the Food and Drug Administration, to treat severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. RDV is a relatively new chemical entity, 'ester prodrug', with no reported stability profile. Due to the urgency of its use and thus fast production, it is important to develop a stability-indicating method for its assay. Chromatographic separation was carried out on a C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) with dual detection: diode array at 240 nm and fluorescence at λex/em 245/390 nm. Isocratic elution of acetonitrile and distilled water (acidified with phosphoric acid, pH 4) in the ratio of 55:45 (v/v), respectively, was used. The linearity range using HPLC-diode array detection was 0.1-15 µg/mL, whereas that using fluorimetric detection was 0.05-15 µg/mL. As per the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines, RDV has been degraded by accelerated alkaline, acidic, neutral hydrolysis, oxidative, heat, and photolytic stress conditions. Possible degradation hypothesis of the parent molecule has been suggested and illustrated. The proposed methods have achieved selective determination of the intact drug with no peaks overlapping in all assumptions. Extensive degradation confirms threatened drug stability at thermal and basic hydrolytic stressing. The developed methods were fully validated and proved suitable for quality control routine analysis of RDV in raw material and pharmaceutical dosage forms.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Prodrugs/chemistry , Acetonitriles/chemistry , Adenosine Monophosphate/chemistry , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/chemistry , Alanine/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Chromatography, Reverse-Phase/methods , Drug Stability , Hot Temperature , Humans , Hydrolysis , Limit of Detection , Oxidation-Reduction , Photolysis
18.
Med Chem ; 18(3): 382-393, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348419

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, the identification of effective antiviral drugs is crucial. Unfortunately, no specific treatment or vaccine is available to date. OBJECTIVE: Here, we aimed to predict the interactions with SARS-CoV-2 proteins and protein targets from the human body for some flavone molecules (kaempferol, morin, pectolinarin, myricitrin, and herbacetin) in comparison to synthetic compounds (hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir, ribavirin, ritonavir, AMD-070, favipiravir). METHODS: Using MOE software and advanced bioinformatics and cheminformatics portals, we conducted an extensive analysis based on various structural and functional features of compounds, such as their amphiphilic field, flexibility, and steric features. The structural similarity analysis of natural and synthetic compounds was performed using Tanimoto coefficients. The interactions of some compounds with SARS-CoV-2 3CLprotease or RNA-dependent RNA polymerase were described using 2D protein-ligand interaction diagrams based on known crystal structures. The potential targets of considered compounds were identified using the SwissTargetPrediction web tool. RESULTS: Our results showed that remdesivir, pectolinarin, and ritonavir present a strong structural similarity which may be correlated to their similar biological activity. As common molecular targets of compounds in the human body, ritonavir, kaempferol, morin, and herbacetin can activate multidrug resistance-associated proteins, while remdesivir, ribavirin, and pectolinarin appear as ligands for adenosine receptors. CONCLUSION: Our evaluation recommends remdesivir, pectolinarin, and ritonavir as promising anti- SARS-CoV-2 agents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Flavones , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/chemistry , Adenosine Monophosphate/metabolism , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Computational Biology , Flavones/pharmacology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Proteins ; 89(11): 1541-1556, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303290

ABSTRACT

The expansion of three-dimensional protein structures and enhanced computing power have significantly facilitated our understanding of protein sequence/structure/function relationships. A challenge in structural genomics is to predict the function of uncharacterized proteins. Protein function deconvolution based on global sequence or structural homology is impracticable when a protein relates to no other proteins with known function, and in such cases, functional relationships can be established by detecting their local ligand binding site similarity. Here, we introduce a sequence order-independent comparison algorithm, PocketShape, for structural proteome-wide exploration of protein functional site by fully considering the geometry of the backbones, orientation of the sidechains, and physiochemical properties of the pocket-lining residues. PocketShape is efficient in distinguishing similar from dissimilar ligand binding site pairs by retrieving 99.3% of the similar pairs while rejecting 100% of the dissimilar pairs on a dataset containing 1538 binding site pairs. This method successfully classifies 83 enzyme structures with diverse functions into 12 clusters, which is highly in accordance with the actual structural classification of proteins classification. PocketShape also achieves superior performances than other methods in protein profiling based on experimental data. Potential new applications for representative SARS-CoV-2 drugs Remdesivir and 11a are predicted. The high accuracy and time-efficient characteristics of PocketShape will undoubtedly make it a promising complementary tool for proteome-wide protein function inference and drug repurposing study.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Drug Repositioning/methods , Proteins/metabolism , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/chemistry , Adenosine Monophosphate/metabolism , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/chemistry , Alanine/metabolism , Alanine/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Binding Sites , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Databases, Protein , GTP Phosphohydrolases/chemistry , GTP Phosphohydrolases/metabolism , Phosphoglycerate Mutase/chemistry , Phosphoglycerate Mutase/metabolism , Proteins/chemistry , Proteins/classification , ROC Curve , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
20.
Pharmacol Rep ; 73(6): 1754-1764, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1283833

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 is a newly emerged human coronavirus that severely affected human health and the economy. The viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) is a crucial protein target to stop virus replication. The adenosine derivative, remdesivir, was authorized for emergency use 10 months ago by the United States FDA against COVID-19 despite its doubtful efficacy against SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: A dozen modifications based on remdesivir are tested against SARS-CoV-2 RdRp using combined molecular docking and dynamics simulation in this work. RESULTS: The results reveal a better binding affinity of 11 modifications compared to remdesivir. Compounds 8, 9, 10, and 11 show the best binding affinities against SARS-CoV-2 RdRp conformations gathered during 100 ns of the Molecular Dynamics Simulation (MDS) run (- 8.13 ± 0.45 kcal/mol, - 8.09 ± 0.67 kcal/mol, - 8.09 ± 0.64 kcal/mol, and - 8.07 ± 0.73 kcal/mol, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests these four compounds as potential SARS-CoV-2 RdRp inhibitors, which need to be validated experimentally.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/antagonists & inhibitors , Drug Design , Adenosine Monophosphate/chemistry , Alanine/chemistry , Binding Sites , COVID-19 , Computer Simulation , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Molecular Structure , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
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