Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 35
Filter
1.
J Med Chem ; 65(2): 1302-1312, 2022 01 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747278

ABSTRACT

CK2α and CK2α' are paralogous catalytic subunits of CK2, which belongs to the eukaryotic protein kinases. CK2 promotes tumorigenesis and the spread of pathogenic viruses like SARS-CoV-2 and is thus an attractive drug target. Efforts to develop selective CK2 inhibitors binding offside the ATP site had disclosed the αD pocket in CK2α; its occupation requires large conformational adaptations of the helix αD. As shown here, the αD pocket is accessible also in CK2α', where the necessary structural plasticity can be triggered with suitable ligands even in the crystalline state. A CK2α' structure with an ATP site and an αD pocket ligand guided the design of the bivalent CK2 inhibitor KN2. It binds to CK2 with low nanomolar affinity, is cell-permeable, and suppresses the intracellular phosphorylation of typical CK2 substrates. Kinase profiling revealed a high selectivity of KN2 for CK2 and emphasizes the selectivity-promoting potential of the αD pocket.


Subject(s)
Casein Kinase II/antagonists & inhibitors , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism , Casein Kinase II/chemistry , Casein Kinase II/metabolism , Crystallization , HEK293 Cells , HeLa Cells , Humans , Ligands , Phosphorylation , Protein Conformation , Substrate Specificity
2.
Life Sci ; 297: 120482, 2022 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1734800

ABSTRACT

Identifying signaling pathways and molecules involved in SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis is pivotal for developing new effective therapeutic or preventive strategies for COVID-19. Pannexins (PANX) are ATP-release channels in the plasma membrane essential in many physiological and immune responses. Activation of pannexin channels and downstream purinergic receptors play dual roles in viral infection, either by facilitating viral replication and infection or inducing host antiviral defense. The current review provides a hypothesis demonstrating the possible contribution of the PANX1 channel and purinergic receptors in SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis and mechanism of action. Moreover, we discuss whether targeting these signaling pathways may provide promising preventative therapies and treatments for patients with progressive COVID-19 resulting from excessive pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines production. Several inhibitors of this pathway have been developed for the treatment of other viral infections and pathological consequences. Specific PANX1 inhibitors could be potentially included as part of the COVID-19 treatment regimen if, in future, studies demonstrate the role of PANX1 in COVID-19 pathogenesis. Of note, any ATP therapeutic modulation for COVID-19 should be carefully designed and monitored because of the complex role of extracellular ATP in cellular physiology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , Connexins/metabolism , Humans , Nerve Tissue Proteins/metabolism , Receptors, Purinergic/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Mol Med (Berl) ; 100(4): 645-663, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729277

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has significantly impacted the world and has driven many researchers into the pathophysiology of COVID-19. In the findings, there is a close association between purinergic signaling and the immune response. Then, this study aimed to evaluate alterations in the purinergic signaling in COVID-19 patients according to range severity. We divided the COVID-19 patients into moderate and severe cases following the guideless of NIH and WHO, together with clinical characteristics. The blood samples were collected to obtain PBMCs and platelets. We analyzed the ectonucleotidase activities through ATP, ADP, AMP, Ado hydrolysis, E-NTPDase1 (CD39), and 5'-NT (CD73) expression by flow cytometry in total leukocytes. The extracellular ATP was measured by bioluminescence, and cytokines were analyzed by flow cytometry. We observed a decrease in ATP hydrolysis and increased AMP hydrolysis in PBMCs for both groups. In severe cases, ATP hydrolysis was raised for the platelets, while ADP and AMP hydrolysis have risen significantly in both groups. Additionally, there was a significant increase in ADP hydrolysis in severe cases compared to moderate cases. In addition, we observed an increase in the ADA activity in platelets of moderate patients. Moderate and severe cases showed increased expression of CD39 and CD73 in total leukocytes. To finalize the purinergic signaling, extracellular ATP was increased in both groups. Furthermore, there was an increase in IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-17 in moderate and severe groups. Thus, for the first time, our findings confirm the changes in purinergic signaling and immune response in COVID-19, in addition to making it more evident that the severity range directly impacts these changes. Therefore, the therapeutic potential of the purinergic system must be highlighted and studied as a possible target for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 disease. KEY MESSAGES: COVID-19 patients exhibit alterations in purinergic system and immune response. High levels of extracellular ATP lead to different inflammatory responses. CD39 and CD73 expression were increased in COVID-19 patients. Cytokines IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-17 also were altered in these patients. The purinergic system may be a possibility target to SARS-CoV-2 treatments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism , Blood Platelets , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Med Chem ; 65(5): 3706-3728, 2022 03 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699705

ABSTRACT

Glucose, the primary substrate for ATP synthesis, is catabolized during glycolysis to generate ATP and precursors for the synthesis of other vital biomolecules. Opportunistic viruses and cancer cells often hijack this metabolic machinery to obtain energy and components needed for their replication and proliferation. One way to halt such energy-dependent processes is by interfering with the glycolytic pathway. 2-Deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG) is a synthetic glucose analogue that can inhibit key enzymes in the glycolytic pathway. The efficacy of 2-DG has been reported across an array of diseases and disorders, thereby demonstrating its broad therapeutic potential. Recent approval of 2-DG in India as a therapeutic approach for the management of the COVID-19 pandemic has brought renewed attention to this molecule. The purpose of this perspective is to present updated therapeutic avenues as well as a variety of chemical synthetic strategies for this medically useful sugar derivative, 2-DG.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Deoxyglucose/chemistry , Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Deoxyglucose/metabolism , Deoxyglucose/pharmacology , Deoxyglucose/therapeutic use , Epilepsy/diagnosis , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Epilepsy/pathology , Glycolysis/drug effects , Humans , Isotope Labeling , Mitochondria/metabolism , Neoplasms/diagnosis , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/pathology , Positron-Emission Tomography , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Structure-Activity Relationship , Virus Replication/drug effects
5.
Purinergic Signal ; 18(1): 13-59, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1694363

ABSTRACT

Hyperinflammation plays an important role in severe and critical COVID-19. Using inconsistent criteria, many researchers define hyperinflammation as a form of very severe inflammation with cytokine storm. Therefore, COVID-19 patients are treated with anti-inflammatory drugs. These drugs appear to be less efficacious than expected and are sometimes accompanied by serious adverse effects. SARS-CoV-2 promotes cellular ATP release. Increased levels of extracellular ATP activate the purinergic receptors of the immune cells initiating the physiologic pro-inflammatory immune response. Persisting viral infection drives the ATP release even further leading to the activation of the P2X7 purinergic receptors (P2X7Rs) and a severe yet physiologic inflammation. Disease progression promotes prolonged vigorous activation of the P2X7R causing cell death and uncontrolled ATP release leading to cytokine storm and desensitisation of all other purinergic receptors of the immune cells. This results in immune paralysis with co-infections or secondary infections. We refer to this pathologic condition as hyperinflammation. The readily available and affordable P2X7R antagonist lidocaine can abrogate hyperinflammation and restore the normal immune function. The issue is that the half-maximal effective concentration for P2X7R inhibition of lidocaine is much higher than the maximal tolerable plasma concentration where adverse effects start to develop. To overcome this, we selectively inhibit the P2X7Rs of the immune cells of the lymphatic system inducing clonal expansion of Tregs in local lymph nodes. Subsequently, these Tregs migrate throughout the body exerting anti-inflammatory activities suppressing systemic and (distant) local hyperinflammation. We illustrate this with six critically ill COVID-19 patients treated with lidocaine.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Inflammation/etiology , Lidocaine/therapeutic use , Purinergic P2X Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Receptors, Purinergic/physiology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Critical Care , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Infusions, Subcutaneous , Lidocaine/administration & dosage , Lidocaine/pharmacology , Lymph Nodes/immunology , Lymphatic System/immunology , Male , Maximum Tolerated Dose , Middle Aged , Models, Immunological , Purinergic P2X Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Purinergic P2X Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Receptors, Purinergic/drug effects , Receptors, Purinergic P1/drug effects , Receptors, Purinergic P1/physiology , Receptors, Purinergic P2X7/physiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Signal Transduction , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology
6.
Stem Cell Reports ; 17(3): 522-537, 2022 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692862

ABSTRACT

Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) commonly have manifestations of heart disease. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) genome encodes 27 proteins. Currently, SARS-CoV-2 gene-induced abnormalities of human heart muscle cells remain elusive. Here, we comprehensively characterized the detrimental effects of a SARS-CoV-2 gene, Orf9c, on human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs) by preforming multi-omic analyses. Transcriptomic analyses of hPSC-CMs infected by SARS-CoV-2 with Orf9c overexpression (Orf9cOE) identified concordantly up-regulated genes enriched into stress-related apoptosis and inflammation signaling pathways, and down-regulated CM functional genes. Proteomic analysis revealed enhanced expressions of apoptotic factors, whereas reduced protein factors for ATP synthesis by Orf9cOE. Orf9cOE significantly reduced cellular ATP level, induced apoptosis, and caused electrical dysfunctions of hPSC-CMs. Finally, drugs approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, namely, ivermectin and meclizine, restored ATP levels and ameliorated CM death and functional abnormalities of Orf9cOE hPSC-CMs. Overall, we defined the molecular mechanisms underlying the detrimental impacts of Orf9c on hPSC-CMs and explored potentially therapeutic approaches to ameliorate Orf9c-induced cardiac injury and abnormalities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Genome-Wide Association Study/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Action Potentials/drug effects , Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism , Apoptosis/drug effects , Apoptosis/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Down-Regulation , Humans , Ivermectin/pharmacology , Meclizine/pharmacology , Myocytes, Cardiac/cytology , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology , Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism , Protein Interaction Maps/genetics , RNA, Messenger/chemistry , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Signal Transduction/genetics , Transcriptome/drug effects , Up-Regulation
7.
Life Sci ; 295: 120411, 2022 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683412

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Virus-infected host cells switch their metabolism to a more glycolytic phenotype, required for new virion synthesis and packaging. Therefore, we investigated the effect and mechanistic action of glycolytic inhibitor 2-Deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG) on virus multiplication in host cells following SARS-CoV-2 infection. MAIN METHODS: SARS-CoV-2 induced change in glycolysis was examined in Vero E6 cells. Effect of 2-DG on virus multiplication was evaluated by RT-PCR (N and RdRp genes) analysis, protein expression analysis of Nucleocapsid (N) and Spike (S) proteins and visual indication of cytopathy effect (CPE), The mass spectrometry analysis was performed to examine the 2-DG induced change in glycosylation status of receptor binding domain (RBD) in SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. KEY FINDINGS: We observed SARS-COV-2 infection induced increased glucose influx and glycolysis, resulting in selectively high accumulation of the fluorescent glucose analog, 2-NBDG in Vero E6 cells. 2-DG inhibited glycolysis, reduced virus multiplication and alleviated cells from virus-induced cytopathic effect (CPE) in SARS-CoV-2 infected cells. The progeny virions produced from 2-DG treated cells were found unglycosylated at crucial N-glycosites (N331 and N343) of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) in the spike protein, resulting in production of defective progeny virions with compromised infective potential. SIGNIFICANCE: The mechanistic study revealed that the inhibition of SARS-COV-2 multiplication is attributed to 2-DG induced glycolysis inhibition and possibly un-glycosylation of the spike protein, also. Therefore, based on its previous human trials in different types of Cancer and Herpes patients, it could be a potential molecule to study in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Deoxyglucose/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Chlorocebus aethiops , Glucose/metabolism , Glycolysis/drug effects , Glycosylation , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Mannose/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vero Cells , Virion/drug effects , Virion/pathogenicity , Virus Replication/drug effects
8.
J Mol Med (Berl) ; 100(4): 569-584, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653410

ABSTRACT

For over a year, the coronavirus disease 2019 has been affecting the world population by causing severe tissue injuries and death in infected people. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD +) are two molecules that are released into the extracellular microenvironment after direct virus infection or cell death caused by hyper inflammation and coagulopathy. Also, these molecules are well known to participate in multiple pathways and have a pivotal role in the purinergic signaling pathway. Thus, using public datasets available on the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), we analyzed raw proteomics data acquired using mass spectrometry (the gold standard method) and raw genomics data from COVID-19 patient samples obtained by microarray. The data was analyzed using bioinformatics and statistical methods according to our objectives. Here, we compared the purinergic profile of the total leukocyte population and evaluated the levels of these soluble biomolecules in the blood, and their correlation with coagulation components in COVID-19 patients, in comparison to healthy people or non-COVID-19 patients. The blood metabolite analysis showed a stage-dependent inosine increase in COVID-19 patients, while the nucleotides ATP and ADP had positive correlations with fibrinogen and other coagulation proteins. Also, ATP, ADP, inosine, and hypoxanthine had positive and negative correlations with clinical features. Regarding leukocyte gene expression, COVID-19 patients showed an upregulation of the P2RX1, P2RX4, P2RX5, P2RX7, P2RY1, P2RY12, PANX1, ADORA2B, NLPR3, and F3 genes. Yet, the ectoenzymes of the canonical and non-canonical adenosinergic pathway (ENTPD1 and CD38) are upregulated, suggesting that adenosine is produced by both active adenosinergic pathways. Hence, approaches targeting these biomolecules or their specific purinoreceptors and ectoenzymes may attenuate the high inflammatory state and the coagulopathy seen in COVID-19 patients. KEY MESSAGES : Adenosinergic pathways are modulated on leukocytes from COVID-19 patients. Plasmatic inosine levels are increased in COVID-19 patients. ATP, ADP, AMP, hypoxanthine, and inosine are correlated with coagulation players. The nucleotides and nucleosides are correlated with patients' clinical features. The P2 receptors and ectoenzymes are correlated with Tissue factor in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adenosine/metabolism , Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism , Connexins , Humans , Leukocytes/metabolism , Nerve Tissue Proteins , Signal Transduction
9.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572668

ABSTRACT

Broad-spectrum antiviral therapies hold promise as a first-line defense against emerging viruses by blunting illness severity and spread until vaccines and virus-specific antivirals are developed. The nucleobase favipiravir, often discussed as a broad-spectrum inhibitor, was not effective in recent clinical trials involving patients infected with Ebola virus or SARS-CoV-2. A drawback of favipiravir use is its rapid clearance before conversion to its active nucleoside-5'-triphosphate form. In this work, we report a synergistic reduction of flavivirus (dengue, Zika), orthomyxovirus (influenza A), and coronavirus (HCoV-OC43 and SARS-CoV-2) replication when the nucleobases favipiravir or T-1105 were combined with the antimetabolite 6-methylmercaptopurine riboside (6MMPr). The 6MMPr/T-1105 combination increased the C-U and G-A mutation frequency compared to treatment with T-1105 or 6MMPr alone. A further analysis revealed that the 6MMPr/T-1105 co-treatment reduced cellular purine nucleotide triphosphate synthesis and increased conversion of the antiviral nucleobase to its nucleoside-5'-monophosphate, -diphosphate, and -triphosphate forms. The 6MMPr co-treatment specifically increased production of the active antiviral form of the nucleobases (but not corresponding nucleosides) while also reducing levels of competing cellular NTPs to produce the synergistic effect. This in-depth work establishes a foundation for development of small molecules as possible co-treatments with nucleobases like favipiravir in response to emerging RNA virus infections.


Subject(s)
Antimetabolites/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , RNA Viruses/drug effects , Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism , Amides/pharmacology , Animals , Cell Line , Drug Synergism , Guanosine Triphosphate/metabolism , Humans , Methylthioinosine/pharmacology , Mutation/drug effects , Phosphoribosyl Pyrophosphate/metabolism , Pyrazines/pharmacology , RNA Viruses/classification , RNA Viruses/genetics , RNA, Viral/drug effects , RNA, Viral/genetics , Virus Replication/drug effects
10.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 747744, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555359

ABSTRACT

This paper suggests that ATP release induced by the SARS-CoV-2 virus plays a key role in the genesis of the major symptoms and complications of COVID-19. Infection of specific cells which contain the Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor results in a loss of protection of the Mineralocorticoid Receptor (MR). Local activation by cortisol stimulates the release of ATP initially into the basolateral compartment and then by lysosomal exocytosis from the cell surface. This then acts on adjacent cells. In the nose ATP acts as a nociceptive stimulus which results in anosmia. It is suggested that a similar paracrine mechanism is responsible for the loss of taste. In the lung ATP release from type 2 alveolar cells produces the non-productive cough by acting on purinergic receptors on adjacent neuroepithelial cells and activating, via the vagus, the cough reflex. Infection of endothelial cells results in the exocytosis of WeibelPalade bodies. These contain the Von Willebrand Factor responsible for micro-clotting and angiopoietin-2 which increases vascular permeability and plays a key role in the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. To test this hypothesis this paper reports proof of concept studies in which MR blockade using spironolactone and low dose dexamethasone (SpiDex) was given to PCR-confirmed COVID-19 patients. In 80 patients with moderate to severe respiratory failure 40 were given SpiDex and 40 conventional treatment with high dose dexamethasone (HiDex). There was 1 death in the HiDex group and none in the SpiDex. As judged by clinical, biochemical and radiological parameters there were clear statistically significant benefits of SpiDex in comparison to HiDex. A further 20 outpatients with COVID-19 were given SpiDex. There was no control group and the aim was to demonstrate safety. No adverse effects were noted and no patient became hyperkalaemic. 90% were asymptomatic at 10 days. The very positive results suggest that blockade of the MR can produce major benefit in COVID19 patients. Further larger controlled studies of inpatients and outpatients are required not only for SARS-CoV-2 infection per se but also to determine if this treatment affects the incidence of Long COVID.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Nociception , SARS-CoV-2 , Symptom Assessment , Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Angiopoietin-2/biosynthesis , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/biosynthesis , Animals , COVID-19/blood , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Dexamethasone/blood , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Female , Humans , Hydrocortisone/metabolism , Kidney/drug effects , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Biological , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rats , Receptors, Mineralocorticoid/biosynthesis , Spironolactone/blood , von Willebrand Factor/biosynthesis
11.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6668, 2021 11 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526076

ABSTRACT

Our innate immune responses to viral RNA are vital defenses. Long cytosolic double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is recognized by MDA5. The ATPase activity of MDA5 contributes to its dsRNA binding selectivity. Mutations that reduce RNA selectivity can cause autoinflammatory disease. Here, we show how the disease-associated MDA5 variant M854K perturbs MDA5-dsRNA recognition. M854K MDA5 constitutively activates interferon signaling in the absence of exogenous RNA. M854K MDA5 lacks ATPase activity and binds more stably to synthetic Alu:Alu dsRNA. CryoEM structures of MDA5-dsRNA filaments at different stages of ATP hydrolysis show that the K854 sidechain forms polar bonds that constrain the conformation of MDA5 subdomains, disrupting key steps in the ATPase cycle- RNA footprint expansion and helical twist modulation. The M854K mutation inhibits ATP-dependent RNA proofreading via an allosteric mechanism, allowing MDA5 to form signaling complexes on endogenous RNAs. This work provides insights on how MDA5 recognizes dsRNA in health and disease.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1/metabolism , Mutation, Missense , RNA, Double-Stranded/metabolism , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Adenosine Triphosphatases/genetics , Adenosine Triphosphatases/metabolism , Adenosine Triphosphatases/ultrastructure , Cryoelectron Microscopy , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Inflammation/genetics , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1/chemistry , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1/genetics , Models, Molecular , Nucleic Acid Conformation , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , RNA, Double-Stranded/chemistry , RNA, Double-Stranded/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512374

ABSTRACT

Nucleoside kinases (NKs) are key enzymes involved in the in vivo phosphorylation of nucleoside analogues used as drugs to treat cancer or viral infections. Having different specificities, the characterization of NKs is essential for drug design and nucleotide analogue production in an in vitro enzymatic process. Therefore, a fast and reliable substrate screening method for NKs is of great importance. Here, we report on the validation of a well-known luciferase-based assay for the detection of NK activity in a 96-well plate format. The assay was semi-automated using a liquid handling robot. Good linearity was demonstrated (r² > 0.98) in the range of 0-500 µM ATP, and it was shown that alternative phosphate donors like dATP or CTP were also accepted by the luciferase. The developed high-throughput assay revealed comparable results to HPLC analysis. The assay was exemplarily used for the comparison of the substrate spectra of four NKs using 20 (8 natural, 12 modified) substrates. The screening results correlated well with literature data, and additionally, previously unknown substrates were identified for three of the NKs studied. Our results demonstrate that the developed semi-automated high-throughput assay is suitable to identify best performing NKs for a wide range of substrates.


Subject(s)
Nucleosides/metabolism , Phosphotransferases/metabolism , Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism , Animals , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolism , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , High-Throughput Screening Assays/methods , Humans , Luciferases/metabolism , Phosphorylation/physiology , Substrate Specificity
13.
Protein Sci ; 31(2): 345-356, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499313

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) protein plays essential roles in many steps of the viral life cycle, thus representing a key drug target. N protein contains the folded N-/C-terminal domains (NTD/CTD) and three intrinsically disordered regions, while its functions including liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) depend on the capacity in binding various viral/host-cell RNA/DNA of diverse sequences. Previously NTD was established to bind various RNA/DNA while CTD to dimerize/oligomerize for forming high-order structures. By NMR, here for the first time we decrypt that CTD is not only capable of binding S2m, a specific probe derived from SARS-CoV-2 gRNA but with the affinity even higher than that of NTD. Very unexpectedly, ATP, the universal energy currency for all living cells with high cellular concentrations (2-16 mM), specifically binds CTD with Kd of 1.49 ± 0.28 mM. Strikingly, the ATP-binding residues of NTD/CTD are identical in the SARS-CoV-2 variants while ATP and S2m interplay in binding NTD/CTD, as well as in modulating LLPS critical for the viral life cycle. Results together not only define CTD as a novel binding domain for ATP and nucleic acid, but enforce our previous proposal that ATP has been evolutionarily exploited by SARS-CoV-2 to complete its life cycle in the host cell. Most importantly, the unique ATP-binding pockets on NTD/CTD may offer promising targets for design of specific anti-SARS-CoV-2 molecules to fight the pandemic. Fundamentally, ATP emerges to act at mM as a cellular factor to control the interface between the host cell and virus lacking the ability to generate ATP.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism , Humans , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Immunology ; 164(3): 541-554, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488214

ABSTRACT

IL-33 and ATP are alarmins, which are released upon damage of cellular barriers or are actively secreted upon cell stress. Due to high-density expression of the IL-33 receptor T1/ST2 (IL-33R), and the ATP receptor P2X7, mast cells (MCs) are one of the first highly sensitive sentinels recognizing released IL-33 or ATP in damaged peripheral tissues. Whereas IL-33 induces the MyD88-dependent activation of the TAK1-IKK2-NF-κB signalling, ATP induces the Ca2+ -dependent activation of NFAT. Thereby, each signal alone only induces a moderate production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and lipid mediators (LMs). However, MCs, which simultaneously sense (co-sensing) IL-33 and ATP, display an enhanced and prolonged activation of the TAK1-IKK2-NF-κB signalling pathway. This resulted in a massive production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-2, IL-4, IL-6 and GM-CSF as well as of arachidonic acid-derived cyclooxygenase (COX)-mediated pro-inflammatory prostaglandins (PGs) and thromboxanes (TXs), hallmarks of strong MC activation. Collectively, these data show that co-sensing of ATP and IL-33 results in hyperactivation of MCs, which resembles to MC activation induced by IgE-mediated crosslinking of the FcεRI. Therefore, the IL-33/IL-33R and/or the ATP/P2X7 signalling axis are attractive targets for therapeutical intervention of diseases associated with the loss of integrity of cellular barriers such as allergic and infectious respiratory reactions.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism , Hypersensitivity/immunology , Interleukin-33/metabolism , Mast Cells/immunology , Animals , Anti-Allergic Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Allergic Agents/therapeutic use , Cell Degranulation/drug effects , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Eicosanoids/metabolism , Humans , Hypersensitivity/drug therapy , Interleukin-1 Receptor-Like 1 Protein/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-1 Receptor-Like 1 Protein/metabolism , Interleukin-33/antagonists & inhibitors , Lipidomics , Mast Cells/drug effects , Mast Cells/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Knockout , NFATC Transcription Factors/genetics , Primary Cell Culture , Receptors, Purinergic P2X7/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Signal Transduction/immunology
15.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4848, 2021 08 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354102

ABSTRACT

There is currently a lack of effective drugs to treat people infected with SARS-CoV-2, the cause of the global COVID-19 pandemic. The SARS-CoV-2 Non-structural protein 13 (NSP13) has been identified as a target for anti-virals due to its high sequence conservation and essential role in viral replication. Structural analysis reveals two "druggable" pockets on NSP13 that are among the most conserved sites in the entire SARS-CoV-2 proteome. Here we present crystal structures of SARS-CoV-2 NSP13 solved in the APO form and in the presence of both phosphate and a non-hydrolysable ATP analog. Comparisons of these structures reveal details of conformational changes that provide insights into the helicase mechanism and possible modes of inhibition. To identify starting points for drug development we have performed a crystallographic fragment screen against NSP13. The screen reveals 65 fragment hits across 52 datasets opening the way to structure guided development of novel antiviral agents.


Subject(s)
Methyltransferases/chemistry , RNA Helicases/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Adenosine Triphosphate/chemistry , Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Apoenzymes/chemistry , Apoenzymes/metabolism , Binding Sites , Crystallography, X-Ray , Drug Design , Enzyme Inhibitors/chemistry , Enzyme Inhibitors/metabolism , Methyltransferases/antagonists & inhibitors , Methyltransferases/metabolism , Models, Molecular , Phosphates/chemistry , Phosphates/metabolism , Protein Conformation , RNA Helicases/antagonists & inhibitors , RNA Helicases/metabolism , RNA, Viral/chemistry , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Structure-Activity Relationship , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism
16.
J Med Chem ; 65(2): 1302-1312, 2022 01 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331359

ABSTRACT

CK2α and CK2α' are paralogous catalytic subunits of CK2, which belongs to the eukaryotic protein kinases. CK2 promotes tumorigenesis and the spread of pathogenic viruses like SARS-CoV-2 and is thus an attractive drug target. Efforts to develop selective CK2 inhibitors binding offside the ATP site had disclosed the αD pocket in CK2α; its occupation requires large conformational adaptations of the helix αD. As shown here, the αD pocket is accessible also in CK2α', where the necessary structural plasticity can be triggered with suitable ligands even in the crystalline state. A CK2α' structure with an ATP site and an αD pocket ligand guided the design of the bivalent CK2 inhibitor KN2. It binds to CK2 with low nanomolar affinity, is cell-permeable, and suppresses the intracellular phosphorylation of typical CK2 substrates. Kinase profiling revealed a high selectivity of KN2 for CK2 and emphasizes the selectivity-promoting potential of the αD pocket.


Subject(s)
Casein Kinase II/antagonists & inhibitors , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism , Casein Kinase II/chemistry , Casein Kinase II/metabolism , Crystallization , HEK293 Cells , HeLa Cells , Humans , Ligands , Phosphorylation , Protein Conformation , Substrate Specificity
17.
Immunity ; 54(7): 1463-1477.e11, 2021 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263294

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), an inflammatory condition with high mortality rates, is common in severe COVID-19, whose risk is reduced by metformin rather than other anti-diabetic medications. Detecting of inflammasome assembly in post-mortem COVID-19 lungs, we asked whether and how metformin inhibits inflammasome activation while exerting its anti-inflammatory effect. We show that metformin inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation and interleukin (IL)-1ß production in cultured and alveolar macrophages along with inflammasome-independent IL-6 secretion, thus attenuating lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and SARS-CoV-2-induced ARDS. By targeting electron transport chain complex 1 and independently of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) or NF-κB, metformin blocked LPS-induced and ATP-dependent mitochondrial (mt) DNA synthesis and generation of oxidized mtDNA, an NLRP3 ligand. Myeloid-specific ablation of LPS-induced cytidine monophosphate kinase 2 (CMPK2), which is rate limiting for mtDNA synthesis, reduced ARDS severity without a direct effect on IL-6. Thus, inhibition of ATP and mtDNA synthesis is sufficient for ARDS amelioration.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism , DNA, Mitochondrial/biosynthesis , Inflammasomes/drug effects , Metformin/pharmacology , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Pneumonia/prevention & control , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , DNA, Mitochondrial/metabolism , Humans , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Interleukin-1beta/genetics , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Metformin/therapeutic use , Mice , Nucleoside-Phosphate Kinase/metabolism , Pneumonia/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/chemically induced , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
18.
Purinergic Signal ; 17(3): 399-410, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1220524

ABSTRACT

Systemic pools of ATP are elevated in individuals homozygous for cystic fibrosis (CF) as evidenced by elevated blood and plasma ATP levels. This elevated ATP level seems to provide benefit in the presence of advanced solid tumors (Abraham et al., Nature Medicine 2(5):593-596, 1996). We published in this journal a paper showing that IV ATP can elevate the depleted ATP pools of advanced cancer patients up to levels found in CF patients with subsequent clinical, biochemical, and quality of life (QOL) improvements (Rapaport et al., Purinergic Signalling 11(2): 251-262, 2015). We hypothesize that the elevated ATP levels seen in CF patients may be benefiting CF patients in another way: by improving their survival after contracting COVID-19. We discuss here the reasoning behind this hypothesis and suggest how these findings might be applied clinically in the general population.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism , COVID-19 , Cystic Fibrosis/complications , Cystic Fibrosis/metabolism , Cystic Fibrosis/physiopathology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Future Microbiol ; 16: 487-507, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219499

ABSTRACT

Aim: The confirmation of lipolytic activity and role of Rv1900c in the Mycobacterium physiology Methods: rv1900c/N-terminus domain (rv1900NT) were cloned in pET28a/Escherichia coli, purified by affinity chromatography and characterized. Results: A zone of clearance on tributyrin-agar and activity with pNP-decanoate confirmed the lipolytic activity of Rv1900c. The Rv1900NT demonstrated higher enzyme specific activity, Vmax and kcat, but Rv1900c was more thermostable. The lipolytic activity of Rv1900c decreased in presence of ATP. Mycobacterium smegmatis expressed rv1900c/rv1900NT-altered colony morphology, growth, cell surface properties and survival under stress conditions. The effect was more prominent with Rv1900NT as compared with Rv1900c. Conclusion: The study confirmed the lipolytic activity of Rv1900c and suggested its regulation by the adenylate cyclase domain and role in the intracellular survival of bacteria.


Lay abstract Tuberculosis (TB) remains the top contagious/infectious killer in the world. It is caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The bacteria resides/replicates in the immune cell that normally has to eradicate infectious microorganisms. Though the treatment of TB is available, the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria is of major concern. The treatment of drug-resistant TB has been reported to be more difficult due to lengthy and complex treatment regimens. Therefore, there is an urgent need for new and better drugs to treat TB/drug-resistant TB. For this purpose understanding the role of each protein in the physiology of mycobacteria is required. Lipids play a critical role in the intracellular survival of this pathogen in the host. Our study demonstrated that LipJ supported the intracellular survival of bacteria. Therefore, it could be a potential drug target.


Subject(s)
Adenylyl Cyclases/metabolism , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Lipase/metabolism , Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism , Adenylyl Cyclases/chemistry , Adenylyl Cyclases/genetics , Adenylyl Cyclases/isolation & purification , Amino Acid Sequence , Bacterial Proteins/chemistry , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/isolation & purification , Biofilms/growth & development , Catalytic Domain , Cell Wall/physiology , Cloning, Molecular , Enzyme Stability , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Lipase/chemistry , Lipase/genetics , Lipase/isolation & purification , Lipolysis , Mycobacterium smegmatis/genetics , Mycobacterium smegmatis/physiology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/enzymology , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/isolation & purification , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , Stress, Physiological , Temperature
20.
Protein Sci ; 30(7): 1277-1293, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172360

ABSTRACT

Proteins function in the crowded cellular environments with high salt concentrations, thus facing tremendous challenges of misfolding/aggregation which represents a pathological hallmark of aging and an increasing spectrum of human diseases. Recently, intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) were recognized to drive liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS), a common principle for organizing cellular membraneless organelles (MLOs). ATP, the universal energy currency for all living cells, mysteriously has concentrations of 2-12 mM, much higher than required for its previously-known functions. Only recently, ATP was decoded to behave as a biological hydrotrope to inhibit protein LLPS and aggregation at mM. We further revealed that ATP also acts as a bivalent binder, which not only biphasically modulates LLPS driven by IDRs of human and viral proteins, but also bind to the conserved nucleic-acid-binding surfaces of the folded proteins. Most unexpectedly, ATP appears to act as a hydration mediator to antagonize the crowding-induced destabilization as well as to enhance folding of proteins without significant binding. Here, this review focuses on summarizing the results of these biophysical studies and discussing their implications in an evolutionary context. By linking triphosphate with unique hydration property to adenosine, ATP appears to couple the ability for establishing hydrophobic, π-π, π-cation and electrostatic interactions to the capacity in mediating hydration of proteins, which is at the heart of folding, dynamics, stability, phase separation and aggregation. Consequently, ATP acquired a category of functions at ~mM to energy-independently control protein homeostasis with diverse mechanisms, thus implying a link between cellular ATP concentrations and protein-aggregation diseases.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate/metabolism , Homeostasis , Protein Folding , Proteostasis , Animals , Humans , Protein Domains
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL