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1.
STAR Protoc ; 3(1): 101067, 2022 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595326

ABSTRACT

N 6 -methylation of adenosine (m6A) is the most abundant internal mRNA modification and is an important post-transcriptional regulator of gene expression. Here, we describe a protocol for methylated RNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (MeRIP-Seq) to detect and quantify m6A modifications in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA. The protocol is optimized for low viral RNA levels and is readily adaptable for other applications. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Li et al. (2021).


Subject(s)
Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Immunoprecipitation/methods , Sequence Analysis, RNA/methods , Adenosine/analysis , Adenosine/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , Caco-2 Cells , Chlorocebus aethiops , Gene Expression/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Genetic Techniques , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Methylation , RNA/chemistry , RNA/genetics , RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vero Cells
2.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 8(15): e2100606, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340232

ABSTRACT

Mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS) protein is the core signaling adaptor in the RNA signaling pathway. Thus, appropriate regulation of MAVS expression is essential for antiviral immunity against RNA virus infection. However, the regulation of MAVS expression at the mRNA level especially at the post transcriptional level is not well-defined. Here, it is reported that the MAVS mRNA undergoes N6 -methyladenosine (m6 A) modification through methyltransferase-like protein 14 (METTL14), which leads to a fast turnover of MAVS mRNA. Knockdown or deficiency of METTL14 increases MAVS mRNA stability, and downstream phosphorylation of TBK1/IRF3 and interferon-ß production in response to RNA viruses. Compared to wild-type mice, heterozygotes Mettl14+/- mice better tolerate RNA virus infection. The authors' findings unveil a novel mechanism to regulate the stability of MAVS transcripts post-transcriptionally through m6 A modification.


Subject(s)
Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/immunology , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/metabolism , Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Methyltransferases/immunology , Methyltransferases/metabolism , Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing/genetics , Adenosine/genetics , Adenosine/immunology , Adenosine/metabolism , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Methyltransferases/genetics , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Signal Transduction/genetics , Signal Transduction/immunology
3.
Genes Dev ; 35(13-14): 1005-1019, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334329

ABSTRACT

N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is an abundant internal RNA modification, influencing transcript fate and function in uninfected and virus-infected cells. Installation of m6A by the nuclear RNA methyltransferase METTL3 occurs cotranscriptionally; however, the genomes of some cytoplasmic RNA viruses are also m6A-modified. How the cellular m6A modification machinery impacts coronavirus replication, which occurs exclusively in the cytoplasm, is unknown. Here we show that replication of SARS-CoV-2, the agent responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic, and a seasonal human ß-coronavirus HCoV-OC43, can be suppressed by depletion of METTL3 or cytoplasmic m6A reader proteins YTHDF1 and YTHDF3 and by a highly specific small molecule METTL3 inhibitor. Reduction of infectious titer correlates with decreased synthesis of viral RNAs and the essential nucleocapsid (N) protein. Sites of m6A modification on genomic and subgenomic RNAs of both viruses were mapped by methylated RNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (meRIP-seq). Levels of host factors involved in m6A installation, removal, and recognition were unchanged by HCoV-OC43 infection; however, nuclear localization of METTL3 and cytoplasmic m6A readers YTHDF1 and YTHDF2 increased. This establishes that coronavirus RNAs are m6A-modified and host m6A pathway components control ß-coronavirus replication. Moreover, it illustrates the therapeutic potential of targeting the m6A pathway to restrict coronavirus reproduction.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus OC43, Human/physiology , RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication/genetics , Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine/genetics , Adenosine/metabolism , Cell Line , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Humans , Methyltransferases/antagonists & inhibitors , Methyltransferases/metabolism , Nucleocapsid Proteins , RNA, Viral/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication/drug effects
4.
J Biol Chem ; 297(2): 100973, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1312455

ABSTRACT

N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most frequent chemical modification in eukaryotic mRNA and is known to participate in a variety of physiological processes, including cancer progression and viral infection. The reversible and dynamic m6A modification is installed by m6A methyltransferase (writer) enzymes and erased by m6A demethylase (eraser) enzymes. m6A modification recognized by m6A binding proteins (readers) regulates RNA processing and metabolism, leading to downstream biological effects such as promotion of stability and translation or increased degradation. The m6A writers and erasers determine the abundance of m6A modifications and play decisive roles in its distribution and function. In this review, we focused on m6A writers and erasers and present an overview on their known functions and enzymatic molecular mechanisms, showing how they recognize substrates and install or remove m6A modifications. We also summarize the current applications of m6A writers and erasers for m6A detection and highlight the merits and drawbacks of these available methods. Lastly, we describe the biological functions of m6A in cancers and viral infection based on research of m6A writers and erasers and introduce new assays for m6A functionality via programmable m6A editing tools.


Subject(s)
Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Eukaryotic Cells/metabolism , Methyltransferases/metabolism , Neoplasms/pathology , RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional/genetics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Adenosine/chemistry , Adenosine/genetics , Adenosine/metabolism , Humans , Neoplasms/genetics , Neoplasms/metabolism
5.
mBio ; 12(4): e0106721, 2021 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1297962

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an ongoing global public crisis. Although viral RNA modification has been reported based on the transcriptome architecture, the types and functions of RNA modification are still unknown. In this study, we evaluated the roles of RNA N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification in SARS-CoV-2. Our methylated RNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (MeRIP-Seq) and Nanopore direct RNA sequencing (DRS) analysis showed that SARS-CoV-2 RNA contained m6A modification. Moreover, SARS-CoV-2 infection not only increased the expression of methyltransferase-like 3 (METTL3) but also altered its distribution. Modification of METTL3 expression by short hairpin RNA or plasmid transfection for knockdown or overexpression, respectively, affected viral replication. Furthermore, the viral key protein RdRp interacted with METTL3, and METTL3 was distributed in both the nucleus and cytoplasm in the presence of RdRp. RdRp appeared to modulate the sumoylation and ubiquitination of METTL3 via an unknown mechanism. Taken together, our findings demonstrated that the host m6A modification complex interacted with viral proteins to modulate SARS-CoV-2 replication. IMPORTANCE Internal chemical modifications of viral RNA play key roles in the regulation of viral replication and gene expression. Although potential internal modifications have been reported in SARS-CoV-2 RNA, the function of the SARS-CoV-2 N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification in the viral life cycle is unclear. In the current study, we demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 RNA underwent m6A modification by host m6A machinery. SARS-CoV-2 infection altered the expression pattern of methyltransferases and demethylases, while the expression level of methyltransferase-like 3 (METTL3) and fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO) was linked to the viral replication. Further study showed that METTL3 interacted with viral RNA polymerase RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), which influenced not only the distribution but also the posttranslational modification of METTL3. Our study provided evidence that host m6A components interacted with viral proteins to modulate viral replication.


Subject(s)
Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Methyltransferases/genetics , Methyltransferases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Virus Replication/genetics , Adenosine/chemistry , Adenosine/genetics , Alpha-Ketoglutarate-Dependent Dioxygenase FTO/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Humans , Methylation , Protein Processing, Post-Translational/physiology , RNA, Viral/chemistry , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
6.
J Immunol ; 206(8): 1691-1696, 2021 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1158408

ABSTRACT

Severe COVID-19 disease is associated with elevated inflammatory responses. One form of Aicardi-Goutières syndrome caused by inactivating mutations in ADAR results in reduced adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) editing of endogenous dsRNAs, induction of IFNs, IFN-stimulated genes, other inflammatory mediators, morbidity, and mortality. Alu elements, ∼10% of the human genome, are the most common A-to-I-editing sites. Using leukocyte whole-genome RNA-sequencing data, we found reduced A-to-I editing of Alu dsRNAs in patients with severe COVID-19 disease. Dendritic cells infected with COVID-19 also exhibit reduced A-to-I editing of Alu dsRNAs. Unedited Alu dsRNAs, but not edited Alu dsRNAs, are potent inducers of IRF and NF-κB transcriptional responses, IL6, IL8, and IFN-stimulated genes. Thus, decreased A-to-I editing that may lead to accumulation of unedited Alu dsRNAs and increased inflammatory responses is associated with severe COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
Adenosine/genetics , Alu Elements/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Inosine/genetics , RNA Editing/genetics , RNA, Double-Stranded/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Adenosine/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Dendritic Cells/metabolism , Dendritic Cells/virology , Genome, Human , Humans , Inosine/metabolism , Interferon Regulatory Factors/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , RNA-Seq , Signal Transduction/genetics
7.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(5): 6273-6288, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154950

ABSTRACT

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic progressive lung disease with a poor prognosis. The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) shares some similarities with IPF. SARS-CoV-2 related genes have been reported to be broadly regulated by N6-methyladenosine (m6A) RNA modification. Here, we identified the association between m6A methylation regulators, COVID-19 infection pathways, and immune responses in IPF. The characteristic gene expression networks and immune infiltration patterns of m6A-SARS-CoV-2 related genes in different tissues of IPF were revealed. We subsequently evaluated the influence of these related gene expression patterns and immune infiltration patterns on the prognosis/lung function of IPF patients. The IPF cohort was obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus dataset. Pearson correlation analysis was performed to identify the correlations among genes or cells. The CIBERSORT algorithm was used to assess the infiltration of 22 types of immune cells. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) and proportional hazards model (Cox model) were used to develop the prognosis prediction model. Our research is pivotal for further understanding of the cellular and genetic links between IPF and SARS-CoV-2 infection in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, which may contribute to providing new ideas for prognosis assessment and treatment of both diseases.


Subject(s)
Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/genetics , Gene Regulatory Networks , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/genetics , Adenosine/genetics , Adenosine/immunology , Algorithms , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/diagnosis , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/immunology , Immunity , Immunity, Cellular , Prognosis , RNA/genetics , RNA/immunology , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
8.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(5): 6273-6288, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112911

ABSTRACT

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic progressive lung disease with a poor prognosis. The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) shares some similarities with IPF. SARS-CoV-2 related genes have been reported to be broadly regulated by N6-methyladenosine (m6A) RNA modification. Here, we identified the association between m6A methylation regulators, COVID-19 infection pathways, and immune responses in IPF. The characteristic gene expression networks and immune infiltration patterns of m6A-SARS-CoV-2 related genes in different tissues of IPF were revealed. We subsequently evaluated the influence of these related gene expression patterns and immune infiltration patterns on the prognosis/lung function of IPF patients. The IPF cohort was obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus dataset. Pearson correlation analysis was performed to identify the correlations among genes or cells. The CIBERSORT algorithm was used to assess the infiltration of 22 types of immune cells. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) and proportional hazards model (Cox model) were used to develop the prognosis prediction model. Our research is pivotal for further understanding of the cellular and genetic links between IPF and SARS-CoV-2 infection in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, which may contribute to providing new ideas for prognosis assessment and treatment of both diseases.


Subject(s)
Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/genetics , Gene Regulatory Networks , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/genetics , Adenosine/genetics , Adenosine/immunology , Algorithms , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/diagnosis , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/immunology , Immunity , Immunity, Cellular , Prognosis , RNA/genetics , RNA/immunology , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , RNA, Long Noncoding/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
9.
Biomolecules ; 10(7)2020 07 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-951579

ABSTRACT

Studies have shown that epigenetic abnormalities are involved in various diseases, including cancer. In particular, in order to realize precision medicine, the integrated analysis of genetics and epigenetics is considered to be important; detailed epigenetic analysis in the medical field has been becoming increasingly important. In the epigenetics analysis, DNA methylation and histone modification analyses have been actively studied for a long time, and many important findings were accumulated. On the other hand, recently, attention has also been focused on RNA modification in the field of epigenetics; now it is known that RNA modification is associated with various biological functions, such as regulation of gene expression. Among RNA modifications, functional analysis of N6-methyladenosine (m6A), the most abundant RNA modification found from humans to plants is actively progressing, and it has also been known that m6A abnormality is involved in cancer and other diseases. Importantly, recent studies have shown that m6A is related to viral infections. Considering the current world situation under threat of viral infections, it is important to deepen knowledge of RNA modification from the viewpoint of viral diseases. Hence, in this review, we have summarized the recent findings regarding the roles of RNA modifications in biological functions, cancer biology, and virus infection, particularly focusing on m6A in mRNA.


Subject(s)
Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Epigenesis, Genetic , Neoplasms/genetics , RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional , RNA/genetics , Virus Diseases/genetics , Adenosine/genetics , Adenosine/metabolism , Animals , Humans , Neoplasms/metabolism , RNA/metabolism , RNA Folding , RNA Stability , RNA Transport , Virus Diseases/metabolism
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