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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(1)2022 Jan 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613825

ABSTRACT

(1R,5S)-1-Hydroxy-3,6-dioxa-bicyclo[3.2.1]octan-2-one, available by an efficient catalytic pyrolysis of cellulose, has been applied as a chiral building block in the synthesis of seven new nucleoside analogues, with structural modifications on the nucleobase moiety and on the carboxyl- derived unit. The inverted configuration by Mitsunobu reaction used in their synthesis was verified by 2D-NOESY correlations, supported by the optimized structure employing the DFT methods. An in silico screening of these compounds as inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase has been carried out in comparison with both remdesivir, a mono-phosphoramidate prodrug recently approved for COVID-19 treatment, and its ribonucleoside metabolite GS-441524. Drug-likeness prediction and data by docking calculation indicated compound 6 [=(3S,5S)-methyl 5-(hydroxymethyl)-3-(6-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-9H-purin-9-yl)tetrahydrofuran-3-carboxylate] as the best candidate. Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulation showed a stable interaction of structure 6 in RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) complex and a lower average atomic fluctuation than GS-441524, suggesting a well accommodation in the RdRp binding pocket.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Cellulose/chemistry , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/antagonists & inhibitors , Nucleosides/chemical synthesis , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine/chemistry , Adenosine/pharmacokinetics , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/chemistry , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacokinetics , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/chemistry , Alanine/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Computational Biology , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Nucleosides/chemistry , Nucleosides/pharmacokinetics , Pyrolysis , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
3.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 46: 116364, 2021 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406212

ABSTRACT

The nucleoside metabolite of remdesivir, GS-441524 displays potent anti-SARS-CoV-2 efficacy, and is being evaluated in clinical as an oral antiviral therapeutic for COVID-19. However, this nucleoside has a poor oral bioavailability in non-human primates, which may affect its therapeutic efficacy. Herein, we reported a variety of GS-441524 analogs with modifications on the base or the sugar moiety, as well as some prodrug forms, including five isobutyryl esters, two l-valine esters, and one carbamate. Among the new nucleosides, only the 7-fluoro analog 3c had moderate anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity, and its phosphoramidate prodrug 7 exhibited reduced activity in Vero E6 cells. As for the prodrugs, the 3'-isobutyryl ester 5a, the 5'-isobutyryl ester 5c, and the tri-isobutyryl ester 5g hydrobromide showed excellent oral bioavailabilities (F = 71.6%, 86.6% and 98.7%, respectively) in mice, which provided good insight into the pharmacokinetic optimization of GS-441524.


Subject(s)
Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adenosine/pharmacokinetics , Adenosine/pharmacology , Adenosine/toxicity , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/toxicity , Chlorocebus aethiops , Male , Mice, Inbred ICR , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Prodrugs/chemical synthesis , Prodrugs/pharmacokinetics , Prodrugs/pharmacology , Prodrugs/toxicity , Vero Cells
4.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 413(23): 5811-5820, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1321733

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir is a nucleotide analog prodrug that has received much attention since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic in December 2019. GS-441524 (Nuc) is the active metabolite of remdesivir and plays a pivotal role in the clinical treatment of COVID-19. Here, a robust HPLC-MS/MS method was developed to determine Nuc concentrations in rat plasma samples after a one-step protein precipitation process. Chromatographic separation was accomplished on Waters XBrige C18 column (50 × 2.1 mm, 3.5 µm) under gradient elution conditions. Multiple reaction monitoring transitions in electrospray positive ion mode were m/z 292.2 → 163.2 for Nuc and 237.1 → 194.1 for the internal standard (carbamazepine). The quantitative analysis method was fully validated in line with the United States Food and Drug Administration guidelines. The linearity, accuracy and precision, matrix effect, recovery, and stability results met the requirements of the guidelines. Uncertainty of measurement and incurred sample reanalysis were analyzed to further ensure the robustness and reproducibility of the method. This optimized method was successfully applied in a rat pharmacokinetics study of remdesivir (intravenously administration, 5 mg kg-1). The method can act as a basis for further pharmacokinetic and clinical efficacy investigations in patients with COVID-19. Graphical abstract.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/blood , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods , Adenosine/blood , Adenosine/pharmacokinetics , Adenosine/standards , Adenosine Monophosphate/blood , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacokinetics , Adenosine Monophosphate/standards , Alanine/blood , Alanine/pharmacokinetics , Alanine/standards , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/standards , Limit of Detection , Male , Quality Control , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Reference Standards , Reproducibility of Results
5.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 07 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314762

ABSTRACT

GS-441524 is an adenosine analog and the parent nucleoside of the prodrug remdesivir, which has received emergency approval for treatment of COVID-19. Recently, GS-441524 has been proposed to be effective in the treatment of COVID-19, perhaps even being superior to remdesivir for treatment of this disease. Evaluation of the clinical effectiveness of GS-441524 requires understanding of its uptake and intracellular conversion to GS-441524 triphosphate, the active antiviral substance. We here discuss the potential impact of these pharmacokinetic steps of GS-441524 on the formation of its active antiviral substance and effectiveness for treatment of COVID-19. Available protein expression data suggest that several adenosine transporters are expressed at only low levels in the epithelial cells lining the alveoli in the lungs, i.e., the alveolar cells or pneumocytes from healthy lungs. This may limit uptake of GS-441524. Importantly, cellular uptake of GS-441524 may be reduced during hypoxia and inflammation due to decreased expression of adenosine transporters. Similarly, hypoxia and inflammation may lead to reduced expression of adenosine kinase, which is believed to convert GS-441524 to GS-441524 monophosphate, the perceived rate-limiting step in the intracellular formation of GS-441524 triphosphate. Moreover, increases in extracellular and intracellular levels of adenosine, which may occur during critical illnesses, has the potential to competitively decrease cellular uptake and phosphorylation of GS-441524. Taken together, tissue hypoxia and severe inflammation in COVID-19 may lead to reduced uptake and phosphorylation of GS-441524 with lowered therapeutic effectiveness as a potential outcome. Hypoxia may be particularly critical to the ability of GS-441524 to eliminate SARS-CoV-2 from tissues with low basal expression of adenosine transporters, such as alveolar cells. This knowledge may also be relevant to treatments with other antiviral adenosine analogs and anticancer adenosine analogs as well.


Subject(s)
Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adenosine/pharmacokinetics , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacology , Animals , Humans , Phosphorylation , Prodrugs
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