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1.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 42(4): 276-280, 2023 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2280000

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Beginning in early 2022, clusters of severe pediatric hepatitis were reported in Europe and the United States. To date, no cause has been identified although human adenovirus 41 has been proposed in a proportion of cases. We examined population data >11 years for hepatitis clusters in Victoria, Australia, and whether any were spatiotemporally associated with community transmission of common respiratory viruses. METHODS: We used SaTScan to analyze for clusters of pediatric hepatitis and respiratory adenoviruses in Victoria. Negative binomial regression analysis was performed to determine any associations between hepatitis and respiratory viruses across Victoria between July 1, 2011, and June 30, 2022. RESULTS: A number of positive associations were observed in Victoria between pediatric hepatitis clusters and respiratory viruses in our spatiotemporal analysis. A positive association was not found with respiratory adenoviruses or SARS-CoV-2. Increased hepatitis clusters were observed in 2021 and 2022 as noted internationally. CONCLUSION: The current hepatitis outbreak is novel and, although respiratory viruses are broadly associated with hepatitis, SARS-CoV-2 and respiratory adenoviruses are unlikely to be related.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae Infections , COVID-19 , Hepatitis A , Hepatitis , Child , Humans , United States , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Victoria/epidemiology
2.
PLoS One ; 18(3): e0278878, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2269206

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To determine the immunogenicity, efficacy, reactogenicity, and safety of a single dose of recombinant adenovirus type-5 vectored COVID-19 vaccine (Ad5-nCoV, 5 × 1010 viral particles per 0.5 mL dose), we conducted a single-dose, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group (3:1 Ad5-nCoV:placebo), phase 3 trial (Prometheus). METHODS: From 11-September-2020 to 05-May-2021, across six sites in the Russian Federation, 496 participants were injected with either placebo or Ad5-nCoV expressing the full-length spike (S) protein from the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). RESULTS: Seroconversion (the primary endpoint) rates of 78.5% (95% CI: 73.9; 82.6) against receptor binding domain (RBD), 90.6% (95% CI: 87.2; 93.4) against S protein and 59.0% (95% CI: 53.3; 64.6) seroconversion of neutralising antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 at 28 days post-vaccination were observed. Geometric mean titres (GMTs) were also elevated for antibodies against the RBD (405 [95% CI: 366; 449]) and S protein (677 [95% CI: 608; 753]) compared to the GMT of neutralising antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 (16.7 [95% CI: 15.3; 18.3]). Using an IFN-γ ELISpot assay after stimulating the cells with recombinant S protein ectodomain we showed that the Ad5-nCoV vaccine induced the most robust cellular immune response on Days 14 and 28. Up to Day 28, the primary and all secondary endpoints of the Ad5-nCoV vaccine were statistically significant compared with the placebo (р<0.001). Systemic reactions were reported in 113 of 496 (22.8%) participants (Ad5-nCoV, 26.9%; Placebo, 10.5%), and local reactions were reported in 108 (21.8%) participants (Ad5-nCoV, 28.5%; Placebo, 1.6%). These were generally mild and resolved within 7 days after vaccination. Of the six serious adverse events reported, none of the events were vaccine related. There were no deaths or premature withdrawals. CONCLUSION: A single-dose of Ad5-nCoV vaccine induced a marked specific humoral and cellular immune response with a favourable safety profile. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04540419.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae Infections , COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Adenoviridae/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Double-Blind Method , Immunogenicity, Vaccine
3.
PLoS One ; 18(2): e0281590, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2263362

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Compared with children and immunocompromised patients, Adenovirus pneumonia in immunocompetent adults is less common. Evaluation of the applicability of severity score in predicting intensive care unit (ICU) admission of Adenovirus pneumonia is limited. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 50 Adenovirus pneumonia inpatients in Xiangtan Central Hospital from 2018 to 2020. Hospitalized patients with no pneumonia or immunosuppression were excluded. Clinical characteristics and chest image at the admission of all patients were collected. Severity scores, including Pneumonia severity index (PSI), CURB-65, SMART-COP, and PaO2/FiO2 combined lymphocyte were evaluated to compare the performance of ICU admission. RESULTS: Fifty inpatients with Adenovirus pneumonia were selected, 27 (54%) non-ICU and 23 (46%) ICU. Most patients were men (40 [80.00%]). Age median was 46.0 (IQR 31.0-56.0). Patients who required ICU care (n = 23) were more likely to report dyspnea (13[56.52%] vs 6[22.22%]; P = 0.002) and have lower transcutaneous oxygen saturation ([90% (IQR, 90-96), 95% (IQR, 93-96)]; P = 0.032). 76% (38/50) of patients had bilateral parenchymal abnormalities, including 91.30% (21/23) of ICU patients and 62.96% (17/27) of non-ICU patients. 23 Adenovirus pneumonia patients had bacterial infections, 17 had other viruses, and 5 had fungi. Coinfection with virus was more common in non-ICU patients than ICU patients (13[48.15%]VS 4[17.39%], P = 0.024), while bacteria and fungi not. SMART-COP exhibited the best ICU admission evaluation performance in Adenovirus pneumonia patients (AUC = 0.873, p < 0.001) and distributed similar in coinfections and no coinfections (p = 0.26). CONCLUSIONS: In summary, Adenovirus pneumonia is not uncommon in immunocompetent adult patients who are susceptible to coinfection with other etiological illnesses. The initial SMART-COP score is still a reliable and valuable predictor of ICU admission in non-immunocompromised adult inpatients with adenovirus pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae Infections , Community-Acquired Infections , Pneumonia, Viral , Male , Child , Humans , Adult , Female , Retrospective Studies , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Hospitalization , Intensive Care Units , Adenoviridae Infections/diagnosis , Adenoviridae , Severity of Illness Index
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(1)2022 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2245830

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Respiratory co-infections with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and other viruses are common, but data on clinical outcomes and laboratory biomarkers indicative of disease severity are limited. We aimed to compare clinical outcomes and laboratory biomarkers of patients with SARS-CoV-2 alone to those of patients with SARS-CoV-2 and either rhinovirus or adenovirus. (2) Methods: Hospitalized patients co-infected with SARS-CoV-2 and rhinovirus and patients co-infected with SARS-CoV-2 and adenovirus were matched to patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 alone. Outcomes of interest were the cumulative incidences of mechanical ventilation use, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, 30-day all-cause mortality, and 30-day all-cause readmission from the day of discharge. We also assessed differences in laboratory biomarkers from the day of specimen collection. (3) Results: Patients co-infected with SARS-CoV-2 and rhinovirus, compared with patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, had significantly greater 30-day all-cause mortality (8/23 (34.8%) vs. 8/69 (11.6%), p = 0.02). Additionally, median alanine transaminase (13 IU/L vs. 24 IU/L, p = 0.03), aspartate transaminase (25 IU/L vs. 36 IU/L, p = 0.04), and C-reactive protein (34.86 mg/L vs. 94.68 mg/L, p = 0.02) on day of specimen collection were significantly lower in patients co-infected with SARS-CoV-2 and rhinovirus in comparison to patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 alone. Clinical outcomes and laboratory markers did not differ significantly between patients with SARS-CoV-2 and adenovirus co-infection and patients with SARS-CoV-2 mono-infection. (4) Conclusion: SARS-CoV-2 and rhinovirus co-infection, compared with SARS-CoV-2 mono-infection alone, is positively associated with 30-day all-cause mortality among hospitalized patients. However, our lack of significant findings in our analysis of patients with SARS-CoV-2 and adenovirus co-infection may suggest that SARS-CoV-2 co-infections have variable significance, and further study is warranted.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae Infections , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Humans , Adult , SARS-CoV-2 , Rhinovirus , Coinfection/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Retrospective Studies , Adenoviridae
5.
Pediatrics ; 151(2)2023 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2214881

ABSTRACT

As of June 15, 2022, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has reported 296 pediatric patients under investigation for hepatitis of unknown etiology in the United States; the World Health Organization has reported 650 probable cases worldwide. One of the leading hypotheses for this cluster of cases is adenovirus, a virus that commonly causes respiratory or gastrointestinal symptoms in healthy children but rarely causes severe hepatitis or acute liver failure in immunocompetent children. The other leading hypothesis is that prior infection with SARS-CoV-2 may predispose children to developing liver injury from a normally innocuous agent. We describe a case of a previously healthy child presenting with acute liver failure who had detectable adenovirus DNA in his stool, whole blood, and in liver explant tissue, suggesting adenovirus as the likely etiology for the liver failure. He had no evidence of prior or current SARS-CoV-2 infection, nor had he received COVID vaccination, suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 did not play a role. Additionally, we report on the ability to provide rapid evaluation of a living donor within 72 hours and successfully perform a lifesaving, left-lobe, living donor liver transplant.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae Infections , COVID-19 , Liver Failure, Acute , Liver Transplantation , Male , Humans , Child , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adenoviridae , Living Donors , Liver Failure, Acute/diagnosis , Liver Failure, Acute/etiology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Adenoviridae Infections/complications , Adenoviridae Infections/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing
6.
Microb Genom ; 9(1)2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2213031

ABSTRACT

Human adenovirus F41 causes acute gastroenteritis in children, and has recently been associated with an apparent increase in paediatric hepatitis of unknown aetiology in the UK, with further cases reported in multiple countries. Relatively little is known about the genetic diversity of adenovirus F41 in UK children; and it is unclear what, if any, impact the COVID-19 pandemic has had on viral diversity in the UK. Methods that allow F41 to be sequenced from clinical samples without the need for viral culture are required to provide the genomic data to address these questions. Therefore, we evaluated an overlapping-amplicon method of sequencing adenovirus genomes from clinical samples using Oxford Nanopore technology. We applied this method to a small sample of adenovirus-species-F-positive extracts collected as part of standard care in the East of England region in January-May 2022. This method produced genomes with >75 % coverage in 13/22 samples and >50 % coverage in 19/22 samples. We identified two F41 lineages present in paediatric patients in the East of England in 2022. Where F41 genomes from paediatric hepatitis cases were available (n=2), these genomes fell within the diversity of F41 from the UK and continental Europe sequenced before and after the 2020-2021 phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. Our analyses suggest that overlapping amplicon sequencing is an appropriate method for generating F41 genomic data from high-virus-load clinical samples, and currently circulating F41 viral lineages were present in the UK and Europe before the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae Infections , COVID-19 , Humans , Child , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Sequence Analysis , Adenoviridae/genetics , Genetic Variation
7.
Arch Virol ; 168(2): 64, 2023 Jan 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2174219

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Stringent nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) have been implemented worldwide to combat the COVID-19 pandemic, and the circulation and seasonality of common respiratory viruses have subsequently changed. There have been few multicentre studies or comparisons of the prevalence of respiratory viruses accounting for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in hospitalized children between the pre-COVID period and the period after community and school reopening in the setting of the zero-COVID policy. METHODS: We included 1543 children with CAP who required hospitalization from November 1, 2020 to April 30, 2021 (period 1), and 629 children with the same conditions from November 1, 2018, to April 30, 2019 (period 2), in our study. All respiratory samples from these patients were screened for six respiratory viruses (respiratory syncytial virus [RSV], adenovirus [ADV], influenza A virus [Flu A], influenza B virus [Flu B], parainfluenza virus type 1 [PIV1], and parainfluenza virus type 3 [PIV3]) using a multiplex real-time PCR assay. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The median ages of the enrolled patients at the time of diagnosis were 1.5 years and 1.0 years for period 1 and period 2, respectively. In period 1, viral pathogens were detected in 50.3% (776/1543) of the enrolled patients. The most frequently identified viral pathogen was RSV (35.9%, 554/1543), followed by PIV3 (9.6%, 148/1543), PIV1 (3.6%, 56/1543), ADV (3.4%, 52/1543), Flu A (1.0%, 16/1543), and Flu B (0.8%, 13/1543). The total detection rates of these six viruses in the peak season of CAP were at the pre-COVID level. The prevalence of Flu A decreased dramatically, and circulation activity was low compared to pre-COVID levels, while the incidence of PIV3 increased significantly. There were no significant differences in the detection rates of RSV, ADV, Flu B, and PIV1 between the two periods. Our results showed that respiratory viruses accounted for CAP in hospitalized children at pre-COVID levels as communities and schools reopened within the zero-COVID policy, although the prevalence aetiology spectrum varied.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae Infections , COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Humans , Child , Infant , Incidence , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/genetics , Adenoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Hospitalization , China/epidemiology , Adenoviridae
8.
J Gen Virol ; 103(11)2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116873

ABSTRACT

Over the past few months there have been reports of severe acute hepatitis in several hundred, otherwise healthy, immunocompetent young children. Several deaths have been recorded and a relatively large proportion of the patients have needed liver transplants. Most of the cases, so far, have been seen in the UK and in North America, but it has also been reported in many other European countries, the Middle East and Asia. Most common viruses have been ruled out as a causative agent; hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) were not detected, nor were Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in many cases. A small proportion of the children had been infected with SARS-CoV-2 but these seem to be in a minority; similarly, almost none of the children had been vaccinated against COVID-19. Significantly, many of the patients were infected with adenovirus 41 (HAdV-F41). Previously, HAdV-41 had not been linked to hepatitis and is usually considered to cause gastroenteritis in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. In two most recent studies, adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) was detected in almost all patients, together with species C and F HAdVs and human herpesvirus 6B (HHV6B). Here, I discuss the possibility that a change in tropism of HAdV-41 and changes in AAV2 may be responsible for their links to acute hepatitis.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae Infections , COVID-19 , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Hepatitis , Parvovirinae , Child , Humans , Child, Preschool , Adenoviridae , Herpesvirus 4, Human , SARS-CoV-2 , Hepatitis/complications
9.
Viruses ; 14(10)2022 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066551

ABSTRACT

Molecular therapies exploiting mRNA vectors embody enormous potential, as evidenced by the utility of this technology for the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Nonetheless, broad implementation of these promising strategies has been restricted by the limited repertoires of delivery vehicles capable of mRNA transport. On this basis, we explored a strategy based on exploiting the well characterized entry biology of adenovirus. To this end, we studied an adenovirus-polylysine (AdpL) that embodied "piggyback" transport of the mRNA on the capsid exterior of adenovirus. We hypothesized that the efficient steps of Ad binding, receptor-mediated entry, and capsid-mediated endosome escape could provide an effective pathway for transport of mRNA to the cellular cytosol for transgene expression. Our studies confirmed that AdpL could mediate effective gene transfer of mRNA vectors in vitro and in vivo. Facets of this method may offer key utilities to actualize the promise of mRNA-based therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae Infections , COVID-19 , Humans , Adenoviridae/genetics , Genetic Vectors/genetics , Gene Transfer Techniques , Polylysine , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Pandemics , Capsid Proteins/genetics , Capsid Proteins/metabolism , Biology
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 16926, 2022 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2062269

ABSTRACT

A range of public health measures have been implemented to suppress local transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Shenzhen. We examined the effect of these measures on the prevalence of respiratory pathogens in children. Clinical and respiratory pathogen data were collected for routine care from hospitalized children with acute respiratory infections in Shenzhen Children's Hospital from July 2018 to January 2022. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected and respiratory pathogens were detected using standardized clinical diagnostics as part of routine care. Data were analyzed to describe the effects of COVID-19 prevention procedures on other common pathogens. A total of 56,325 children under 14 years of age were hospitalized with an acute respiratory infection during the study period, 33,909 were tested from July 2018 to January 2020 (pre-lockdown), 1168 from February 2020 to May 2020 (lockdown) and 21,248 from July 2020 to January 2022 (post-lockdown). We observed a 37.3% decline of routine care in respiratory infection associated hospital admission in the 19 months' post-lockdown vs. the 19 months' pre-lockdown. There were 99.4%, 16.0% and 1.26% reductions measured for Mycoplasma pneumoniae, influenza virus A and adenovirus, respectively. However, a 118.7% and 75.8% rise was found for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human para-influenza virus (HPIV) during the 19 months' post-lockdown in comparison to the pre-pandemic period. The detection of RSV especially increased in toddlers after the lockdown. Lockdown measures during the COVID-19 pandemic led to a significant reduction of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, influenza virus A and adenovirus infection. In contrast, RSV and HPIV infection increased.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae Infections , COVID-19 , Orthomyxoviridae , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Adenoviridae Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Infant , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Pandemics/prevention & control , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control
12.
Vet Res Commun ; 46(4): 1363-1368, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2041311

ABSTRACT

Canine coronavirus (CCoV), canine parvovirus (CPV), and canine distemper virus (CDV) are highly contagious canine pathogens; dogs with these diseases are difficult to treat. In a previous study, we developed a recombinant adenovirus expressing canine interferon lambda 3 (Ad-caIFNλ3) in canine epithelial cells. In this study, we aimed to investigate the antiviral activity of Ad-caIFNλ3 against CCoV, CPV, and CDV in two canine cell lines, A72 and MDCK. Ad-caIFNλ3 transduction suppressed replication of these viruses without cytotoxicity. Our results suggest that Ad-caIFNλ3 may be a therapeutic candidate for canine viral diseases.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae Infections , Coronavirus, Canine , Distemper Virus, Canine , Distemper , Dog Diseases , Parvoviridae Infections , Parvovirus, Canine , Dogs , Animals , Parvovirus, Canine/genetics , Distemper Virus, Canine/genetics , Coronavirus, Canine/genetics , Adenoviridae , Antiviral Agents , Parvoviridae Infections/veterinary , Antibodies, Viral , Adenoviridae Infections/veterinary
13.
BMC Pediatr ; 22(1): 138, 2022 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038685

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To assess the outcome of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for severe adenovirus (Adv) pneumonia with refractory hypoxic respiratory failure (RHRF) in paediatric patients. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was performed in a tertiary paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) in China. Patients with RHRF caused by Adv pneumonia who received ECMO support after mechanical ventilation failed to achieve adequate oxygenation between 2017 and 2020 were included. The outcome variables were the in-hospital survival rate and the effects of ECMO on the survival rate. RESULTS: In total, 18 children with RHRF received ECMO. The median age was 19 (9.5, 39.8) months, and the median ECMO duration was 196 (152, 309) h. The in-hospital survival rate was 72.2% (13/18). Thirteen patients (72.2%) required continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) due to fluid imbalance or acute kidney injury (AKI). At ECMO initiation, compared with survivors, nonsurvivors had a lower PaO2/FiO2 ratio [49 (34.5, 62) vs. 63 (56, 71); p = 0.04], higher oxygen index (OI) [41 (34.5, 62) vs. 30 (26.5, 35); p = 0.03], higher vasoactive inotropic score (VIS) [30 (16.3, 80) vs. 100 (60, 142.5); p = 0.04], longer duration from mechanical ventilation to ECMO support [8 (4, 14) vs. 4 (3, 5.5) h, p=0.02], and longer time from confirmed RHRF to ECMO initiation [9 (4.8, 13) vs. 5 (1.3, 5.5) h; p = 0.004]. Patients with PaO2/FiO2 <61 mmHg or an OI >43 and hypoxic respiratory failure for more than 9 days before the initiation of ECMO had worse outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: ECMO seemed to be effective, as severe paediatric Adv pneumonia patients with RHRF had a cumulative survival rate of 72.2% in our study. Our study provides insight into ECMO rescue in children with severe Adv pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae Infections , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Pneumonia, Viral , Respiratory Insufficiency , Adenoviridae , Adult , Child , China , Humans , Hypoxia/etiology , Hypoxia/therapy , Oxygen , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
14.
preprints.org; 2022.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-PREPRINTS.ORG | ID: ppzbmed-10.20944.preprints202208.0534.v1

ABSTRACT

Molecular therapies exploiting mRNA vectors embody enormous potential, as evidenced by the utility of this technology for the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. None-the-less, broad implementation of these promising strategies has been restricted by the limited repertoires of delivery vehicles capable of mRNA transport. On this basis, we explored a strategy based on exploiting the well characterized entry biology of adenovirus. To this end, we studied an adenovirus-polylysine (AdpL) that embodied “piggyback” transport of the mRNA on the capsid exterior of adenovirus. We hypothesized that the efficient steps of Ad binding, receptor-mediated entry, and capsid-mediated endosome escape could provide an effective pathway for transport of mRNA to the cellular cytosol for transgene expression. Our studies confirmed that AdpL could mediate effective gene transfer of mRNA vectors in vitro and in vivo. Facets of this method may offer key utilities to feasibilize the promise of mRNA-based therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae Infections , COVID-19
16.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(7): e1010736, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951573

ABSTRACT

Intracellular pathogens cause membrane distortion and damage as they enter host cells. Cells perceive these membrane alterations as danger signals and respond by activating autophagy. This response has primarily been studied during bacterial invasion, and only rarely in viral infections. Here, we investigate the cellular response to membrane damage during adenoviral entry. Adenoviruses and their vector derivatives, that are an important vaccine platform against SARS-CoV-2, enter the host cell by endocytosis followed by lysis of the endosomal membrane. We previously showed that cells mount a locally confined autophagy response at the site of endosomal membrane lysis. Here we describe the mechanism of autophagy induction: endosomal membrane damage activates the kinase TBK1 that accumulates in its phosphorylated form at the penetration site. Activation and recruitment of TBK1 require detection of membrane damage by galectin 8 but occur independently of classical autophagy receptors or functional autophagy. Instead, TBK1 itself promotes subsequent autophagy that adenoviruses need to take control of. Deletion of TBK1 reduces LC3 lipidation during adenovirus infection and restores the infectivity of an adenovirus mutant that is restricted by autophagy. By comparing adenovirus-induced membrane damage to sterile lysosomal damage, we implicate TBK1 in the response to a broader range of types of membrane damage. Our study thus highlights an important role for TBK1 in the cellular response to adenoviral endosome penetration and places TBK1 early in the pathway leading to autophagy in response to membrane damage.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae Infections , Autophagy , Endosomes , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases , Adenoviridae/metabolism , Adenoviridae Infections/metabolism , Endosomes/metabolism , Galectins/metabolism , Humans , Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases/genetics
18.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(4): e0051622, 2022 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938011

ABSTRACT

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is an alternative to PCR that is faster and requires fewer resources. Here, we describe two LAMP assays for the detection of human adenoviruses in the feces of children with acute intestinal infections. We designed сolorimetric LAMP (c-LAMP) and real-time LAMP (f-LAMP) with fluorescent probes to detect the DNA of the adenovirus F human adenovirus 40/41 (hAdV40/41) hexon gene. The detection limit of both developed methods was 103 copies/mL, which is comparable to the sensitivity of PCR. The specificities of both c-LAMP and f-LAMP were high, with no false-positive results for clinical samples that do not contain adenovirus F, when testing other viruses and microorganisms. Comparative tests of PCR and LAMP on clinical samples from patients with acute gastroenteritis were carried out. For all samples with a PCR threshold cycle (CT) of up to 36, the PCR and LAMP results completely coincided; however, at low viral loads, the diagnostic sensitivity of LAMP, especially c-LAMP with colorimetric detection, was inferior to that of PCR. The combination of LAMP with modern methods of nucleic acid extraction, both in manual and automatic modes, can reduce the time for a complete study, including extraction of nucleic acid material and amplification, to 60 min. IMPORTANCE In April 2022, several cases of acute hepatitis of unknown origin were reported in children from 12 countries. In many cases, enteric adenovirus or SARS-CoV-2 and adenovirus coinfection were detected. It is known that human adenoviruses can cause different infections of varying severity, from asymptomatic to severe cases with lethal outcomes. There is a need to increase the diagnostic capabilities of clinical laboratories to identify such an underestimated pathogen as adenovirus. Although PCR remains the gold standard for pathogen detection, this method requires specialized equipment and has a long turnaround time to process samples. Previously, LAMP assays for the detection of human adenovirus have been based on measuring the turbidity, the fluorescence of intercalated dyes, or electrophoretic separation. Herein, we present LAMP-based assays with colorimetric or fluorescent detection and perform a detailed assessment of their sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic performance.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae Infections , Adenoviruses, Human , COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , Adenoviridae Infections/diagnosis , Adenoviruses, Human/genetics , Child , Feces , Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
19.
researchsquare; 2022.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-1895370.v1

ABSTRACT

Since the first reports of hepatitis of unknown aetiology occurring in UK children, over 1000 cases have been reported worldwide, including 268 cases in the UK, with the majority younger than 6 years old. Using genomic, proteomic and immunohistochemical methods, we undertook extensive investigation of 28 cases and 136 control subjects. In five cases who underwent liver transplantation, we detected high levels of adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) in the explanted livers. AAV2 was also detected at high levels in blood from 10/11 non-transplanted cases. Low levels of Adenovirus (HAdV) and Human Herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B), both of which enable AAV2 lytic replication, were also found in the five explanted livers and blood from 15/17 and 6/9 respectively, of the 23 non-transplant cases tested. In contrast, AAV2 was detected at low titre in 6/100 whole bloods from child controls from cohorts with presence or absence of hepatitis and/or adenovirus infection. Our data show an association of AAV2 at high titre in blood or liver tissue, with unexplained hepatitis in children infected in the recent HAdV-F41 outbreak. We were unable to find evidence by electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry or proteomics of HAdV or AAV2 viral particles or proteins in explanted livers, suggesting that hepatic pathology is not due to direct lytic infection by either virus. The potential that AAV2, although not previously associated with disease, may, together with HAdV-F41 and/or HHV-6, be causally implicated in the outbreak of unexplained hepatitis, requires further investigation.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae Infections , Hepatitis
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