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2.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 03 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765949

ABSTRACT

Gene therapy and vaccine development need more novel adenovirus vectors. Here, we attempt to provide strategies to construct adenovirus vectors based on restriction-assembly for researchers with little experience in this field. Restriction-assembly is a combined method of restriction digestion and Gibson assembly, by which the major part of the obtained plasmid comes from digested DNA fragments instead of PCR products. We demonstrated the capability of restriction-assembly in manipulating the genome of simian adenovirus 1 (SAdV-1) in this study. A PCR product of the plasmid backbone was combined with SAdV-1 genomic DNA to construct an infectious clone, plasmid pKSAV1, by Gibson assembly. Restriction-assembly was performed repeatedly in the steps of intermediate plasmid isolation, modification, and restoration. The generated adenoviral plasmid was linearized by restriction enzyme digestion and transfected into packaging 293 cells to rescue E3-deleted replication-competent SAdV1XE3-CGA virus. Interestingly, SAdV1XE3-CGA could propagate in human chronic myelogenous leukemia K562 cells. The E1 region was similarly modified to generate E1/E3-deleted replication-defective virus SAdV1-EG. SAdV1-EG had a moderate gene transfer ability to adherent mammalian cells, and it could efficiently transduce suspension cells when compared with the human adenovirus 5 control vector. Restriction-assembly is easy to use and can be performed without special experimental materials and instruments. It is highly effective with verifiable outcomes at each step. More importantly, restriction-assembly makes the established vector system modifiable, upgradable and under sustainable development, and it can serve as the instructive method or strategy for the synthetic biology of adenoviruses.


Subject(s)
Adenoviruses, Human , Adenoviruses, Simian , Adenoviridae/genetics , Adenoviruses, Human/genetics , Adenoviruses, Simian/genetics , Animals , DNA , Genetic Vectors/genetics , Humans , Mammals
3.
Neurol India ; 70(1): 409-411, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726256

ABSTRACT

Background: Postmarketing surveillance of COVID-19 vaccination reveals that the COVID-19 vaccine administration is associated with several rare but serious neurological complications. Case Report: We report a case of new-onset tumefactive demyelinating brain lesion that developed after administration of an adenovector-based COVID-19 vaccine. A middle-aged female presented with recent right hemiparesis, which was noticed 2 days after she received the first dose of the vaccine. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a large subcortical T2/FLAIR hyperintensities involving corpus callosum as well. The patient responded to oral methylprednisolone. At 4 weeks, a follow-up MRI revealed a reduction in size of the lesion. Conclusion: To conclude, adenovector-based COVID-19 vaccination may be associated with a tumefactive demyelinating lesion.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Demyelinating Diseases/chemically induced , Adenoviridae , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain/pathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Corpus Callosum/diagnostic imaging , Corpus Callosum/pathology , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Biomolecules ; 12(2)2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715101

ABSTRACT

Protein-based carriers are promising vehicles for the intracellular delivery of therapeutics. In this study, we designed and studied adenovirus protein fiber constructs with potential applications as carriers for the delivery of protein and nanoparticle cargoes. We used as a basic structural framework the fibrous shaft segment of the adenovirus fiber protein comprising of residues 61-392, connected to the fibritin foldon trimerization motif at the C-terminal end. A fourteen-amino-acid biotinylation sequence was inserted immediately after the N-terminal, His-tagged end of the construct in order to enable the attachment of a biotin moiety in vivo. We report herein that this His-tag biotinylated construct folds into thermally and protease-stable fibrous nanorods that can be internalized into cells and are not cytotoxic. Moreover, they can bind to proteins and nanoparticles through the biotin-streptavidin interaction and mediate their delivery to cells. We demonstrate that streptavidin-conjugated gold nanoparticles can be transported into NIH3T3 fibroblast and HeLa cancer cell lines. Furthermore, two streptavidin-conjugated model proteins, alkaline phosphatase and horseradish peroxidase can be delivered into the cell cytoplasm in their enzymatically active form. This work is aimed at establishing the proof-of-principle for the rational engineering of diverse functionalities onto the initial protein structural framework and the use of adenovirus fiber-based proteins as nanorods for the delivery of nanoparticles and model proteins. These constructs could constitute a stepping stone for the development of multifunctional and modular fibrous nanorod platforms that can be tailored to applications at the sequence level.


Subject(s)
Biotin , Metal Nanoparticles , Adenoviridae/genetics , Adenoviridae/metabolism , Animals , Biotin/chemistry , Biotin/metabolism , Gold/chemistry , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Mice , NIH 3T3 Cells , Streptavidin/chemistry , Viral Proteins/chemistry
5.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 10: 23247096221079192, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714634

ABSTRACT

A 35-year-old female with no medical history presented with fever. Laboratory work was normal except for elevated liver function test (LFT): alkaline phosphatase (AP) (296), aspartate transaminase (AST) (343), alanine transaminase (ALT) (378), and international normalized ratio (INR) (1.23). Ultrasound liver was normal. Infectious workup was negative for hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis E virus (HEV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Herpes simplex virus (HSV), and COVID-19. Similarly, autoimmune hepatitis, Wilson, and alpha-1 antitrypsin workup were negative. She reported taking Yogi-Kanthika (ayurvedic-proprietary medicine) on/off for seasonal sore throat, yet RUCAM-score was 2 (unlikely a drug induced injury). Respiratory-viral-panel came positive for adenovirus. With supportive treatment, symptoms and LFT trended down, thus, liver biopsy decision was deferred. We believe this is the first reported case of adenovirus hepatitis in an immunocompetent adult. Hence, we suggest that clinicians should consider a refined differential diagnosis for elevated LFT (that includes adenovirus).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Hepatitis, Viral, Human , Adenoviridae , Adult , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/diagnosis , Female , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/diagnosis , Herpesvirus 4, Human , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 36(4): e24306, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707939

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Detecting neutralizing antibodies targeting receptor-binding domain (RBD) is important for the assessment of humoral protection and vaccine efficacy after vaccination. We compared the performance of three surrogate immunoassays for detection of neutralizing antibodies targeting RBD. METHODS: We analyzed 115 serum samples obtained from individuals with Ad5-vectored COVID-19 vaccination using two competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (Wantai BioPharm and Synthgene Medical Technology) and one competitive chemiluminescence assay (YHLO Biotech). Performance evaluation and methodology comparison were performed according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute related guidelines. RESULTS: The precision met the manufacturers' statements. The linear range of the WANTAI was 0.0625-0.545 U/ml and the YHLO was 0.260-242.4 U/ml. The WANTAI's limit of blank (LoB) and limit of detection (LoD) were 0.03 and 0.06 U/ml, respectively. The YHLO's LoB and LoD were 0.048 and 0.211 U/ml, respectively. The correlations of semi-quantitative results of Synthgene with quantitative results of YHLO (ρ = 0.566) and WANTAI (ρ = 0.512) were medium. For YHLO and WANTAI, there was a good agreement (0.62) and a strong correlation (ρ = 0.931). Passing-Bablok analysis and Bland-Altman plot showed a positive bias (112.3%) of the YHLO compared to the WANTAI. The exclusion of samples >50 U/ml did not decrease bias. CONCLUSION: These findings contribute to a deeper understanding of surrogate viral neutralization assays and provide useful data for future comparison studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adenoviridae/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Vaccination
7.
Neuroradiology ; 64(5): 865-874, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699643

ABSTRACT

Cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis (CVST) after adenovirus-vectored COVID-19 ChAdOx1 nCov-19 (Oxford-AstraZeneca) and Ad26.COV2.S (Janssen/Johnson & Johnson) is a rare complication, occurring mainly in individuals under 60 years of age and more frequently in women. It manifests 4-24 days after vaccination. In most cases, antibodies against platelet factor-4/polyanion complexes play a pathogenic role, leading to thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS) and sometimes a severe clinical or even fatal course. The leading symptom is headache, which usually increases in intensity over a few days. Seizures, visual disturbances, focal neurological symptoms, and signs of increased intracranial pressure are also possible. These symptoms may be combined with clinical signs of disseminated intravascular coagulation such as petechiae or gastrointestinal bleeding. If TTS-CVST is suspected, checking D-dimers, platelet count, and screening for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT-2) are diagnostically and therapeutically guiding. The imaging method of choice for diagnosis or exclusion of CVST is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) combined with contrast-enhanced venous MR angiography (MRA). On T2*-weighted or susceptibility weighted MR sequences, the thrombus causes susceptibility artefacts (blooming), that allow for the detection even of isolated cortical vein thromboses. The diagnosis of TTS-CVST can usually be made reliably in synopsis with the clinical and laboratory findings. A close collaboration between neurologists and neuroradiologists is mandatory. TTS-CVST requires specific regimens of anticoagulation and immunomodulation therapy if thrombocytopenia and/or pathogenic antibodies to PF4/polyanion complexes are present. In this review article, the diagnostic and therapeutic steps in cases of suspected TTS associated CSVT are presented.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intracranial Thrombosis , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Adenoviridae , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Intracranial Thrombosis/complications , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/etiology , Syndrome , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombocytopenia/diagnostic imaging , Thrombosis/chemically induced , Thrombosis/complications , Vaccination/adverse effects
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 824: 153886, 2022 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692894

ABSTRACT

Enteric viruses are of great importance in wastewater due to their high excretion from infected individuals, low removal in wastewater treatment processes, long-time survival in the environment, and low infectious dose. Among the other viruses, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) surveillance in wastewater systems has received particular attention as a result of the current COVID-19 epidemic. Viruses adhering to solid particles in wastewater treatment processes will end up as sewage sludge, and therefore insufficient sludge treatment may result in viral particles dissemination into the environment. Here, we review data on viruses' presence in sewage sludge, their detection and concentration methods, and information on human health issues associated with sewage sludge land application. We used combinations of the following keywords in the Scopus, Web of Science (WOS), and PubMed databases, which were published between 2010 and January 21th, 2022: sludge (sewage sludge, biosolids, sewage solids, wastewater solids) and virus (enteric virus, viral particles, viral contamination, SARS-CoV-2, coronavirus). The sources were searched twice, once with and then without the common enteric virus names (adenovirus, rotavirus, norovirus, enterovirus, hepatitis A virus). Studies suggest adenovirus and norovirus as the most prevalent enteric viruses in sewage sludge. Indeed, other viruses include rotavirus, hepatitis A virus, and enterovirus were frequently found in sewage sludge samples. Untreated biological sludge and thickened sludge showed more viral contamination level than digested sludge and the lowest prevalence of viruses was reported in lime stabilized sludge. The review reveals that land application of sewage sludge may pose viral infection risks to people due to accidently ingestion of sludge or intake of crops grown in biosolids amended soil. Moreover, contamination of groundwater and/or surface water may occur due to land application of sewage sludge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Enterovirus , Norovirus , Rotavirus , Viruses , Adenoviridae , Biosolids , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sewage , Waste Water
9.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 33(4): 688-697, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686209

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies have demonstrated that mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are highly effective among patients on dialysis. Because individual vaccines may be differentially available or acceptable to patients, it is important to understand comparative effectiveness relative to other vaccines, such those on the basis of adenovirus technologies. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we compared the clinical effectiveness of adenovirus vector-based Ad26.COV2.S (Janssen/Johnson & Johnson) to mRNA-based BNT162b2 (Pfizer/BioNTech) in a contemporary cohort of patients on dialysis. Patients who received a first BNT162b2 dose were matched 1:1 to Ad26.COV2.S recipients on the basis of date of first vaccine receipt, US state of residence, site of dialysis care (in-center versus home), history of COVID-19, and propensity score. The primary outcome was the comparative rate of COVID-19 diagnoses starting in the 7th week postvaccination. In a subset of consented patients who received Ad26.COV2.S, blood samples were collected ≥28 days after vaccination and anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G antibodies were measured. RESULTS: A total of 2572 matched pairs of patients qualified for analysis. Cumulative incidence rates of COVID-19 did not differ for BNT162b2 versus Ad26.COV2.S. No differences were observed in peri-COVID-19 hospitalizations and deaths among patients receiving BNT162b2 versus Ad26.COV2.S, who were diagnosed with COVID-19 during the at-risk period. Results were similar when excluding patients with a history of COVID-19, in subgroup analyses restricted to patients who completed the two-dose BNT162b2 regimen, and in patients receiving in-center hemodialysis. SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were detected in 59.4% of 244 patients who received Ad26.COV2.S. CONCLUSIONS: In a large real-world cohort of patients on dialysis, no difference was detected in clinical effectiveness of BNT162b2 and Ad26.COV2.S over the first 6 months postvaccination, despite an inconsistent antibody response to the latter.


Subject(s)
Adenovirus Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adenoviridae/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , RNA, Messenger , Renal Dialysis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 204: 114079, 2022 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1670218

ABSTRACT

We introduce a label-free surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) biosensing platform equipped with metallic nanostructures that can identify the efficacy of Oxford-AstraZeneca (AZD1222) vaccine in vaccinated individuals using non-invasive tear samples. We confirmed the hypothesis that the tears of people who receive the AZD1222 vaccine may be similar to those of adenovirus epidemic keratoconjunctivitis patients since the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine is derived from a replication-deficient ChAdOx1 vector of chimpanzee adenovirus. Additionally, we confirmed the potential of the three markers for estimating the vaccination status via analyzing the signals emanating from antibodies or immunoglobulin G by-product using our label-free, SERS biosensing technique with a high reproducibility (<3% relative standard deviation), femtomole-scale limit of detection (1 × 10-14 M), and high SERS response of >108. Therefore, our label-free SERS biosensing nanoplatforms with long-term storage and robust stability will enable rapid and robust monitoring of the vaccine presence in vaccinated individuals.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Adenoviridae/genetics , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Spectrum Analysis, Raman/methods , Vaccination
11.
Lancet ; 399(10321): 212-213, 2022 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1665563
12.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 438-441, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662090

ABSTRACT

Mucosal immunity provides a potential for preventing initial infection and stopping subsequent transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Here, we examined the safety and immunogenicity of a replication-defective adenovirus type-5 vectored vaccine (Ad5-nCov) encoding SARS-CoV-2 spike protein delivered by nebulization inhalation in rhesus macaques. The vaccine-associated clinical pathology and toxicity were not observed in the NHP model. The extensive safety study indicated that Ad5-nCoV was mainly confined to the organs related to respiratory system and was rapidly cleared away from the system. Our results showed that Ad5-nCoV delivered by inhalation robustly elicited both systematic and mucosal immune responses against SARS-nCoV-2 and variants. Thus, Ad5-nCoV inhalation may provide an effective, safe and non-invasive vaccination strategy for the control of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Genetic Vectors/immunology , Immunity, Mucosal , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adenoviridae/genetics , Administration, Inhalation , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Disease Models, Animal , Genetic Vectors/genetics , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Macaca mulatta , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/administration & dosage , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
13.
Nat Med ; 28(2): 401-409, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655605

ABSTRACT

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants and the waning of vaccine-elicited neutralizing antibodies suggests that additional coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine doses may be needed for individuals who initially received CoronaVac. We evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of the recombinant adenovirus type 5 (AD5)-vectored COVID-19 vaccine Convidecia as a heterologous booster versus those of CoronaVac as homologous booster in adults previously vaccinated with CoronaVac in an ongoing, randomized, observer-blinded, parallel-controlled phase 4 trial ( NCT04892459 ). Adults who had received two doses of CoronaVac in the past 3-6 months were vaccinated with Convidecia (n = 96) or CoronaVac (n = 102). Adults who had received one dose of CoronaVac in the past 1-3 months were also vaccinated with Convidecia (n = 51) or CoronaVac (n = 50). The co-primary endpoints were the occurrence of adverse reactions within 28 d after vaccination and geometric mean titers (GMTs) of neutralizing antibodies against live wild-type SARS-CoV-2 virus at 14 d after booster vaccination. Adverse reactions after vaccination were significantly more frequent in Convidecia recipients but were generally mild to moderate in all treatment groups. Heterologous boosting with Convidecia elicited significantly increased GMTs of neutralizing antibody against SARS-CoV-2 than homologous boosting with CoronaVac in participants who had previously received one or two doses of CoronaVac. These data suggest that heterologous boosting with Convidecia following initial vaccination with CoronaVac is safe and more immunogenic than homologous boosting.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adenoviridae/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , China , Female , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Injection Site Reaction/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vaccination , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Young Adult
14.
J Heart Lung Transplant ; 41(4): 492-500, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654472

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have suggested a blunted immune response to messenger RNA vaccines in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. Given the paucity of data on adenovirus vector vaccines use in immunosuppressed SOT recipients, we sought to describe the safety and immunogenicity of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine in a heart transplant population. METHODS: Heart transplant recipients aged 18 to 70 years scheduled to receive 2 doses of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine were enrolled into a prospective study involving serum analysis to define their antibody response. An antibody concentration against the spike protein receptor-binding domain of ≥0.8 U/mL was deemed a detectable antibody response. RESULTS: A total of 99 heart transplant recipients (mean age 51 ± 12.5 years, 28% female) were enrolled. No major adverse events were recorded after vaccination; minor symptoms included injection site pain (24%), fatigue (21%) and headache (14%). Of 7 patients with prior SARS-CoV-2 confirmed by PCR testing, all (100%) had detectable antibody responses following first and second vaccine doses. In those with no prior SARS-CoV-2 infection (n = 92), 24% (n = 22) showed an antibody response after dose 1, increasing to 34.8% (n = 32) after dose 2, p < 0.001. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage ≥3 (OR 4.7, 95% CI 1.5-15, p = 0.009) and mycophenolate use (OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.2-14, p = 0.02) were independently associated with a nondetectable antibody response. CONCLUSIONS: Almost two-thirds of heart transplant recipients aged 18 to 70 years without a history of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection failed to develop a detectable antibody response following administration of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine. Patient phenotyping may help predict which patients are less likely to develop detectable antibody responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Transplantation , Adenoviridae/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients , Vaccination , Young Adult
16.
Anal Chem ; 94(3): 1543-1551, 2022 01 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621190

ABSTRACT

Adenovirus is one of the largest nonenveloped, double-stranded DNA viruses. It is widely used as a gene therapy vector and has recently received a lot of attention as a novel vaccine platform for SARS-CoV-2. Human adenovirus 5 (HAdV5) contains over 2500 protein molecules and has a 36 kbp genome. Adenovirus is well beyond the range of conventional mass spectrometry, and it was unclear how well such a large complex could be desolvated. Here, we report molecular weight (MW) distributions measured for HAdV5 and for 11 recombinant AdV vectors with genomes of varying lengths. The MW distributions were recorded using ion trap charge detection mass spectrometry (CDMS), a single-particle technique where m/z and charge are measured for individual ions. The results show that ions as large as 150 MDa can be effectively desolvated and accurate MW distributions obtained. The MW distribution for HAdV5 contains a narrow peak at 156.1 MDa, assigned to the infectious virus. A smaller peak at 129.6 MDa is attributed to incomplete particles that have not packaged a genome. The ions in the 129.6 MDa peak have a much lower average charge than those in the peak at 156.1 MDa. This is attributed to the empty particles missing some or all of the fibers that decorate the surface of the virion. The MW measured for the mature virus (156.1 MDa) is much larger than that predicted from sequence masses and copy numbers of the constituents (142.5 MDa). Measurements performed for recombinant AdV as a function of genome length show that for every 1 MDa increase in the genome MW, the MW of the mature virus increases by around 2.3 MDa. The additional 1.3 MDa is attributed to core proteins that are copackaged with the DNA. This observation suggests that the discrepancy between the measured and expected MWs for mature HAdV5 is due to an underestimate in the copy numbers of the core proteins.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adenoviridae/genetics , Humans , Mass Spectrometry , Molecular Weight , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Water Res ; 212: 118069, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621091

ABSTRACT

Investigating waterborne viruses is of great importance to minimizing risks to public health. Viruses tend to adsorb to sludge particles from wastewater processes by electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions between virus, aquatic matrix, and particle surface. Sludge is often re-used in agriculture; therefore, its evaluation is also of great interest to public health. In the present study, a pilot scale system treating real domestic wastewater from a large city in Brazil was used to evaluate the removal, the overall reduction, and liquid-solid partitioning of human adenovirus (HAdV), the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) and fecal indicators (F-specific coliphages and E. coli). The system consists of a high-rate algal pond (HRAP) post-treating the effluent of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. Samples were collected from the influent and effluent of each unit, as well as from the sludge of the UASB and from the microalgae biomass in the HRAP. Pathogens and indicators were quantified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) (for HAdV), qPCR with reverse transcription (RTqPCR) (for SARS-CoV-2), the double agar plaque assay (for coliphages), and the most probable number (MPN) method (for E. coli). The removal and overall reduction of HAdV and SARS-CoV-2 was greater than 1-log10. Almost 60% of remaining SARS-CoV-2 RNA and more than 70% of remaining HAdV DNA left the system in the sludge, demonstrating that both viruses may have affinity for solids. Coliphages showed a much lower affinity to solids, with only 3.7% leaving the system in the sludge. The system performed well in terms of the removal of organic matter and ammoniacal nitrogen, however tertiary treatment would be necessary to provide further pathogen reduction, if the effluent is to be reused in agriculture. To our knowledge, this is the first study that evaluated the reduction and partitioning of SARS-CoV-2 and HAdV through the complete cycle of a wastewater treatment system consisting of a UASB reactor followed by HRAPs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Water Purification , Adenoviridae , Anaerobiosis , Bioreactors , Escherichia coli , Humans , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Sewage , Waste Disposal, Fluid
18.
Vopr Virusol ; 66(6): 425-433, 2022 01 08.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1620062

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The relevance of studying the circulation of human respiratory viruses among laboratory primates is associated with the need to test vaccines and antiviral drugs against these infections on monkeys.The aim of this work was to study the prevalence of serological and molecular markers of human respiratory viral infections in laboratory primates born at the Adler Primate Center and in imported monkeys. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Blood serum samples (n = 1971) and lung autopsy material (n = 26) were obtained from different monkey species. These samples were tested for the presence of serological markers of measles, parainfluenza (PI) types 1, 2, 3, influenza A and B, respiratory syncytial (RS) and adenovirus infections using enzyme immunoassay (ELISA). Detection of RS virus, metapneumovirus, PI virus types 1-4, rhinovirus, coronavirus, and adenoviruses B, C, E and bocavirus nucleic acids in this material was performed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The overall prevalence of antibodies (Abs) among all monkeys was low and amounted 11.3% (95% CI: 9.2-13.7%, n = 811) for measles virus, 8.9% (95% CI: 6.2-12.2%, n = 381) for PI type 3 virus, 2.5% (95% CI: 0.8-5.6%, n = 204) for PI type 1 virus, and 7.7% (95% CI: 3.8-13.7%, n = 130) for adenoviruses. When testing 26 autopsy lung samples from monkeys of different species that died from pneumonia, 2 samples from Anubis baboons (Papio аnubis) were positive for of parainfluenza virus type 3 RNA. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest the importance of the strict adherence to the terms of quarantine and mandatory testing of monkey sera for the presence of IgM antibodies to the measles virus that indicate the recent infection. The role of PI virus type 3 in the pathology of the respiratory tract in Anubis baboons has been established.


Subject(s)
Haplorhini/virology , Monkey Diseases/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/veterinary , Adenoviridae , Animals , Biomarkers , Coronavirus , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Infant , Monkey Diseases/virology , Prevalence , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Russia/epidemiology
19.
Drug Metab Pharmacokinet ; 42: 100432, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597676

ABSTRACT

Replication-incompetent adenovirus (Ad) vectors have been widely used as gene delivery vehicles in both gene therapy studies and basic studies for gene function analysis due to their highly advantageous properties, which include high transduction efficiencies, relatively large capacities for transgenes, and high titer production. In addition, Ad vectors induce moderate levels of innate immunity and have relatively high thermostability, making them very attractive as potential vaccine vectors. Accordingly, it is anticipated that Ad vectors will be used in vaccines for the prevention of infectious diseases, including Ebola virus disease and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Much attention is currently focused on the potential use of an Ad vector vaccine for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this review, we describe the basic properties of an Ad vector, Ad vector-induced innate immunity and immune responses to Ad vector-produced transgene products. Development of novel Ad vectors which can overcome the drawbacks of conventional Ad vector vaccines and clinical application of Ad vector vaccines to several infectious diseases are also discussed.


Subject(s)
Adenovirus Vaccines , COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Vaccines , Adenoviridae/genetics , Genetic Vectors/genetics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
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