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2.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 03 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765949

ABSTRACT

Gene therapy and vaccine development need more novel adenovirus vectors. Here, we attempt to provide strategies to construct adenovirus vectors based on restriction-assembly for researchers with little experience in this field. Restriction-assembly is a combined method of restriction digestion and Gibson assembly, by which the major part of the obtained plasmid comes from digested DNA fragments instead of PCR products. We demonstrated the capability of restriction-assembly in manipulating the genome of simian adenovirus 1 (SAdV-1) in this study. A PCR product of the plasmid backbone was combined with SAdV-1 genomic DNA to construct an infectious clone, plasmid pKSAV1, by Gibson assembly. Restriction-assembly was performed repeatedly in the steps of intermediate plasmid isolation, modification, and restoration. The generated adenoviral plasmid was linearized by restriction enzyme digestion and transfected into packaging 293 cells to rescue E3-deleted replication-competent SAdV1XE3-CGA virus. Interestingly, SAdV1XE3-CGA could propagate in human chronic myelogenous leukemia K562 cells. The E1 region was similarly modified to generate E1/E3-deleted replication-defective virus SAdV1-EG. SAdV1-EG had a moderate gene transfer ability to adherent mammalian cells, and it could efficiently transduce suspension cells when compared with the human adenovirus 5 control vector. Restriction-assembly is easy to use and can be performed without special experimental materials and instruments. It is highly effective with verifiable outcomes at each step. More importantly, restriction-assembly makes the established vector system modifiable, upgradable and under sustainable development, and it can serve as the instructive method or strategy for the synthetic biology of adenoviruses.


Subject(s)
Adenoviruses, Human , Adenoviruses, Simian , Adenoviridae/genetics , Adenoviruses, Human/genetics , Adenoviruses, Simian/genetics , Animals , DNA , Genetic Vectors/genetics , Humans , Mammals
3.
Biomolecules ; 12(2)2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715101

ABSTRACT

Protein-based carriers are promising vehicles for the intracellular delivery of therapeutics. In this study, we designed and studied adenovirus protein fiber constructs with potential applications as carriers for the delivery of protein and nanoparticle cargoes. We used as a basic structural framework the fibrous shaft segment of the adenovirus fiber protein comprising of residues 61-392, connected to the fibritin foldon trimerization motif at the C-terminal end. A fourteen-amino-acid biotinylation sequence was inserted immediately after the N-terminal, His-tagged end of the construct in order to enable the attachment of a biotin moiety in vivo. We report herein that this His-tag biotinylated construct folds into thermally and protease-stable fibrous nanorods that can be internalized into cells and are not cytotoxic. Moreover, they can bind to proteins and nanoparticles through the biotin-streptavidin interaction and mediate their delivery to cells. We demonstrate that streptavidin-conjugated gold nanoparticles can be transported into NIH3T3 fibroblast and HeLa cancer cell lines. Furthermore, two streptavidin-conjugated model proteins, alkaline phosphatase and horseradish peroxidase can be delivered into the cell cytoplasm in their enzymatically active form. This work is aimed at establishing the proof-of-principle for the rational engineering of diverse functionalities onto the initial protein structural framework and the use of adenovirus fiber-based proteins as nanorods for the delivery of nanoparticles and model proteins. These constructs could constitute a stepping stone for the development of multifunctional and modular fibrous nanorod platforms that can be tailored to applications at the sequence level.


Subject(s)
Biotin , Metal Nanoparticles , Adenoviridae/genetics , Adenoviridae/metabolism , Animals , Biotin/chemistry , Biotin/metabolism , Gold/chemistry , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Mice , NIH 3T3 Cells , Streptavidin/chemistry , Viral Proteins/chemistry
4.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 36(4): e24306, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707939

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Detecting neutralizing antibodies targeting receptor-binding domain (RBD) is important for the assessment of humoral protection and vaccine efficacy after vaccination. We compared the performance of three surrogate immunoassays for detection of neutralizing antibodies targeting RBD. METHODS: We analyzed 115 serum samples obtained from individuals with Ad5-vectored COVID-19 vaccination using two competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (Wantai BioPharm and Synthgene Medical Technology) and one competitive chemiluminescence assay (YHLO Biotech). Performance evaluation and methodology comparison were performed according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute related guidelines. RESULTS: The precision met the manufacturers' statements. The linear range of the WANTAI was 0.0625-0.545 U/ml and the YHLO was 0.260-242.4 U/ml. The WANTAI's limit of blank (LoB) and limit of detection (LoD) were 0.03 and 0.06 U/ml, respectively. The YHLO's LoB and LoD were 0.048 and 0.211 U/ml, respectively. The correlations of semi-quantitative results of Synthgene with quantitative results of YHLO (ρ = 0.566) and WANTAI (ρ = 0.512) were medium. For YHLO and WANTAI, there was a good agreement (0.62) and a strong correlation (ρ = 0.931). Passing-Bablok analysis and Bland-Altman plot showed a positive bias (112.3%) of the YHLO compared to the WANTAI. The exclusion of samples >50 U/ml did not decrease bias. CONCLUSION: These findings contribute to a deeper understanding of surrogate viral neutralization assays and provide useful data for future comparison studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adenoviridae/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Vaccination
5.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 33(4): 688-697, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686209

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies have demonstrated that mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are highly effective among patients on dialysis. Because individual vaccines may be differentially available or acceptable to patients, it is important to understand comparative effectiveness relative to other vaccines, such those on the basis of adenovirus technologies. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we compared the clinical effectiveness of adenovirus vector-based Ad26.COV2.S (Janssen/Johnson & Johnson) to mRNA-based BNT162b2 (Pfizer/BioNTech) in a contemporary cohort of patients on dialysis. Patients who received a first BNT162b2 dose were matched 1:1 to Ad26.COV2.S recipients on the basis of date of first vaccine receipt, US state of residence, site of dialysis care (in-center versus home), history of COVID-19, and propensity score. The primary outcome was the comparative rate of COVID-19 diagnoses starting in the 7th week postvaccination. In a subset of consented patients who received Ad26.COV2.S, blood samples were collected ≥28 days after vaccination and anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G antibodies were measured. RESULTS: A total of 2572 matched pairs of patients qualified for analysis. Cumulative incidence rates of COVID-19 did not differ for BNT162b2 versus Ad26.COV2.S. No differences were observed in peri-COVID-19 hospitalizations and deaths among patients receiving BNT162b2 versus Ad26.COV2.S, who were diagnosed with COVID-19 during the at-risk period. Results were similar when excluding patients with a history of COVID-19, in subgroup analyses restricted to patients who completed the two-dose BNT162b2 regimen, and in patients receiving in-center hemodialysis. SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were detected in 59.4% of 244 patients who received Ad26.COV2.S. CONCLUSIONS: In a large real-world cohort of patients on dialysis, no difference was detected in clinical effectiveness of BNT162b2 and Ad26.COV2.S over the first 6 months postvaccination, despite an inconsistent antibody response to the latter.


Subject(s)
Adenovirus Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adenoviridae/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , RNA, Messenger , Renal Dialysis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 204: 114079, 2022 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1670218

ABSTRACT

We introduce a label-free surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) biosensing platform equipped with metallic nanostructures that can identify the efficacy of Oxford-AstraZeneca (AZD1222) vaccine in vaccinated individuals using non-invasive tear samples. We confirmed the hypothesis that the tears of people who receive the AZD1222 vaccine may be similar to those of adenovirus epidemic keratoconjunctivitis patients since the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine is derived from a replication-deficient ChAdOx1 vector of chimpanzee adenovirus. Additionally, we confirmed the potential of the three markers for estimating the vaccination status via analyzing the signals emanating from antibodies or immunoglobulin G by-product using our label-free, SERS biosensing technique with a high reproducibility (<3% relative standard deviation), femtomole-scale limit of detection (1 × 10-14 M), and high SERS response of >108. Therefore, our label-free SERS biosensing nanoplatforms with long-term storage and robust stability will enable rapid and robust monitoring of the vaccine presence in vaccinated individuals.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Adenoviridae/genetics , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Spectrum Analysis, Raman/methods , Vaccination
7.
Lancet ; 399(10321): 212-213, 2022 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1665563
8.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 438-441, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662090

ABSTRACT

Mucosal immunity provides a potential for preventing initial infection and stopping subsequent transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Here, we examined the safety and immunogenicity of a replication-defective adenovirus type-5 vectored vaccine (Ad5-nCov) encoding SARS-CoV-2 spike protein delivered by nebulization inhalation in rhesus macaques. The vaccine-associated clinical pathology and toxicity were not observed in the NHP model. The extensive safety study indicated that Ad5-nCoV was mainly confined to the organs related to respiratory system and was rapidly cleared away from the system. Our results showed that Ad5-nCoV delivered by inhalation robustly elicited both systematic and mucosal immune responses against SARS-nCoV-2 and variants. Thus, Ad5-nCoV inhalation may provide an effective, safe and non-invasive vaccination strategy for the control of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Genetic Vectors/immunology , Immunity, Mucosal , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adenoviridae/genetics , Administration, Inhalation , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Disease Models, Animal , Genetic Vectors/genetics , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Macaca mulatta , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/administration & dosage , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
9.
J Heart Lung Transplant ; 41(4): 492-500, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654472

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have suggested a blunted immune response to messenger RNA vaccines in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. Given the paucity of data on adenovirus vector vaccines use in immunosuppressed SOT recipients, we sought to describe the safety and immunogenicity of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine in a heart transplant population. METHODS: Heart transplant recipients aged 18 to 70 years scheduled to receive 2 doses of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine were enrolled into a prospective study involving serum analysis to define their antibody response. An antibody concentration against the spike protein receptor-binding domain of ≥0.8 U/mL was deemed a detectable antibody response. RESULTS: A total of 99 heart transplant recipients (mean age 51 ± 12.5 years, 28% female) were enrolled. No major adverse events were recorded after vaccination; minor symptoms included injection site pain (24%), fatigue (21%) and headache (14%). Of 7 patients with prior SARS-CoV-2 confirmed by PCR testing, all (100%) had detectable antibody responses following first and second vaccine doses. In those with no prior SARS-CoV-2 infection (n = 92), 24% (n = 22) showed an antibody response after dose 1, increasing to 34.8% (n = 32) after dose 2, p < 0.001. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage ≥3 (OR 4.7, 95% CI 1.5-15, p = 0.009) and mycophenolate use (OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.2-14, p = 0.02) were independently associated with a nondetectable antibody response. CONCLUSIONS: Almost two-thirds of heart transplant recipients aged 18 to 70 years without a history of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection failed to develop a detectable antibody response following administration of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine. Patient phenotyping may help predict which patients are less likely to develop detectable antibody responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Transplantation , Adenoviridae/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients , Vaccination , Young Adult
10.
Anal Chem ; 94(3): 1543-1551, 2022 01 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621190

ABSTRACT

Adenovirus is one of the largest nonenveloped, double-stranded DNA viruses. It is widely used as a gene therapy vector and has recently received a lot of attention as a novel vaccine platform for SARS-CoV-2. Human adenovirus 5 (HAdV5) contains over 2500 protein molecules and has a 36 kbp genome. Adenovirus is well beyond the range of conventional mass spectrometry, and it was unclear how well such a large complex could be desolvated. Here, we report molecular weight (MW) distributions measured for HAdV5 and for 11 recombinant AdV vectors with genomes of varying lengths. The MW distributions were recorded using ion trap charge detection mass spectrometry (CDMS), a single-particle technique where m/z and charge are measured for individual ions. The results show that ions as large as 150 MDa can be effectively desolvated and accurate MW distributions obtained. The MW distribution for HAdV5 contains a narrow peak at 156.1 MDa, assigned to the infectious virus. A smaller peak at 129.6 MDa is attributed to incomplete particles that have not packaged a genome. The ions in the 129.6 MDa peak have a much lower average charge than those in the peak at 156.1 MDa. This is attributed to the empty particles missing some or all of the fibers that decorate the surface of the virion. The MW measured for the mature virus (156.1 MDa) is much larger than that predicted from sequence masses and copy numbers of the constituents (142.5 MDa). Measurements performed for recombinant AdV as a function of genome length show that for every 1 MDa increase in the genome MW, the MW of the mature virus increases by around 2.3 MDa. The additional 1.3 MDa is attributed to core proteins that are copackaged with the DNA. This observation suggests that the discrepancy between the measured and expected MWs for mature HAdV5 is due to an underestimate in the copy numbers of the core proteins.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adenoviridae/genetics , Humans , Mass Spectrometry , Molecular Weight , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Drug Metab Pharmacokinet ; 42: 100432, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597676

ABSTRACT

Replication-incompetent adenovirus (Ad) vectors have been widely used as gene delivery vehicles in both gene therapy studies and basic studies for gene function analysis due to their highly advantageous properties, which include high transduction efficiencies, relatively large capacities for transgenes, and high titer production. In addition, Ad vectors induce moderate levels of innate immunity and have relatively high thermostability, making them very attractive as potential vaccine vectors. Accordingly, it is anticipated that Ad vectors will be used in vaccines for the prevention of infectious diseases, including Ebola virus disease and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Much attention is currently focused on the potential use of an Ad vector vaccine for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this review, we describe the basic properties of an Ad vector, Ad vector-induced innate immunity and immune responses to Ad vector-produced transgene products. Development of novel Ad vectors which can overcome the drawbacks of conventional Ad vector vaccines and clinical application of Ad vector vaccines to several infectious diseases are also discussed.


Subject(s)
Adenovirus Vaccines , COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Vaccines , Adenoviridae/genetics , Genetic Vectors/genetics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Front Immunol ; 12: 795741, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581316

ABSTRACT

Glycan-masking the vaccine antigen by mutating the undesired antigenic sites with an additional N-linked glycosylation motif can refocus B-cell responses to desired epitopes, without affecting the antigen's overall-folded structure. This study examined the impact of glycan-masking mutants of the N-terminal domain (NTD) and receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2, and found that the antigenic design of the S protein increases the neutralizing antibody titers against the Wuhan-Hu-1 ancestral strain and the recently emerged SARS-CoV-2 variants Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), and Delta (B.1.617.2). Our results demonstrated that the use of glycan-masking Ad-S-R158N/Y160T in the NTD elicited a 2.8-fold, 6.5-fold, and 4.6-fold increase in the IC-50 NT titer against the Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351) and Delta (B.1.617.2) variants, respectively. Glycan-masking of Ad-S-D428N in the RBD resulted in a 3.0-fold and 2.0-fold increase in the IC-50 neutralization titer against the Alpha (B.1.1.7) and Beta (B.1.351) variants, respectively. The use of glycan-masking in Ad-S-R158N/Y160T and Ad-S-D428N antigen design may help develop universal COVID-19 vaccines against current and future emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Epitopes/immunology , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adenoviridae/genetics , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic , Female , Genetic Engineering , Genetic Vectors/genetics , Humans , Immunization , Mice , Neutralization Tests , Polysaccharides , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Structure-Activity Relationship
14.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572666

ABSTRACT

Gene therapy is currently in the public spotlight. Several gene therapy products, including oncolytic virus (OV), which predominantly replicates in and kills cancer cells, and COVID-19 vaccines have recently been commercialized. Recombinant adenoviruses, including replication-defective adenoviral vector and conditionally replicating adenovirus (CRA; oncolytic adenovirus), have been extensively studied and used in clinical trials for cancer and vaccines. Here, we review the biology of wild-type adenoviruses, the methodological principle for constructing recombinant adenoviruses, therapeutic applications of recombinant adenoviruses, and new technologies in pluripotent stem cell (PSC)-based regenerative medicine. Moreover, this article describes the technology platform for efficient construction of diverse "CRAs that can specifically target tumors with multiple factors" (m-CRAs). This technology allows for modification of four parts in the adenoviral E1 region and the subsequent insertion of a therapeutic gene and promoter to enhance cancer-specific viral replication (i.e., safety) as well as therapeutic effects. The screening study using the m-CRA technology successfully identified survivin-responsive m-CRA (Surv.m-CRA) as among the best m-CRAs, and clinical trials of Surv.m-CRA are underway for patients with cancer. This article also describes new recombinant adenovirus-based technologies for solving issues in PSC-based regenerative medicine.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae Infections/virology , Adenoviridae/genetics , Adenoviridae/physiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Genetic Therapy , Animals , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cell Line, Tumor , Gene Expression , Genetic Vectors , Humans , Immunotherapy , Oncolytic Viruses/genetics , Pluripotent Stem Cells , Promoter Regions, Genetic , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivin , Virus Replication
15.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6871, 2021 11 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537309

ABSTRACT

Several effective SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are currently in use, but effective boosters are needed to maintain or increase immunity due to waning responses and the emergence of novel variants. Here we report that intranasal vaccinations with adenovirus 5 and 19a vectored vaccines following a systemic plasmid DNA or mRNA priming result in systemic and mucosal immunity in mice. In contrast to two intramuscular applications of an mRNA vaccine, intranasal boosts with adenoviral vectors induce high levels of mucosal IgA and lung-resident memory T cells (TRM); mucosal neutralization of virus variants of concern is also enhanced. The mRNA prime provokes a comprehensive T cell response consisting of circulating and lung TRM after the boost, while the plasmid DNA prime induces mostly mucosal T cells. Concomitantly, the intranasal boost strategies lead to complete protection against a SARS-CoV-2 infection in mice. Our data thus suggest that mucosal booster immunizations after mRNA priming is a promising approach to establish mucosal immunity in addition to systemic responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunity, Mucosal , Immunization, Secondary/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adenoviridae/genetics , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Genetic Vectors , Immunization Schedule , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Mice , Vaccines, DNA/administration & dosage , Vaccines, DNA/genetics , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , /immunology
16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20877, 2021 10 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1479811

ABSTRACT

Adenovirus vectors offer a platform technology for vaccine development. The value of the platform has been proven during the COVID-19 pandemic. Although good stability at 2-8 °C is an advantage of the platform, non-cold-chain distribution would have substantial advantages, in particular in low-income countries. We have previously reported a novel, potentially less expensive thermostabilisation approach using a combination of simple sugars and glass micro-fibrous matrix, achieving excellent recovery of adenovirus-vectored vaccines after storage at temperatures as high as 45 °C. This matrix is, however, prone to fragmentation and so not suitable for clinical translation. Here, we report an investigation of alternative fibrous matrices which might be suitable for clinical use. A number of commercially-available matrices permitted good protein recovery, quality of sugar glass and moisture content of the dried product but did not achieve the thermostabilisation performance of the original glass fibre matrix. We therefore further investigated physical and chemical characteristics of the glass fibre matrix and its components, finding that the polyvinyl alcohol present in the glass fibre matrix assists vaccine stability. This finding enabled us to identify a potentially biocompatible matrix with encouraging performance. We discuss remaining challenges for transfer of the technology into clinical use, including reliability of process performance.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae/genetics , Adenovirus Vaccines/chemistry , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccine Potency , Adenoviruses, Simian , Biocompatible Materials , Calorimetry, Differential Scanning , Glass , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Light , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Confocal , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Polyvinyl Alcohol , Rabies Vaccines , Scattering, Radiation , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Sugars/chemistry , Temperature , Thermogravimetry , Trehalose/chemistry
17.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(2): e0083121, 2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476399

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiological agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has infected all age groups and disproportionately impacted vulnerable populations globally. Polymicrobial infections may play an important role in the development of SARS-CoV-2 infection in susceptible hosts. These coinfections may increase the risk of disease severity and pose challenges to the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of COVID-19. There have been limited SARS-CoV-2 coinfection studies. In this retrospective study, residual nucleic acid extracts from 796 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19-positive specimens, collected between March 2020 and February 2021, were analyzed using a Luminex NxTAG respiratory pathogen panel (RPP). Of these, 745 returned valid results and were used for analysis; 53 (7.1%) were positive for one or more additional pathogens. Six different respiratory viruses were detected among the 53 SARS-CoV-2-positive patient specimens, and 7 of those specimens tested positive for more than one additional respiratory virus. The most common pathogens include rhinovirus/enterovirus (RV/EV) (n = 22, 41.51%), human metapneumovirus (hMPV) (n = 18, 33.9%), and adenovirus (n = 12, 22.6%). Interestingly, there were no SARS-CoV-2 coinfections involving influenza A or influenza B in the study specimens. The median age of the SARS-CoV-2-positive patients with coinfections was 38 years; 53% identified as female, and 47% identified as male. Based on our retrospective analysis, respiratory coinfections associated with SARS-CoV-2-positive patients were more common in young children (≤9 years old), with white being the most common race. Our findings will likely prompt additional investigation of polymicrobial infection associated with SARS-CoV-2 during seasonal respiratory pathogen surveillance by public health laboratories. IMPORTANCE This examination of respiratory pathogen coinfections in SARS-CoV-2 patients will likely shed light on our understanding of polymicrobial infection associated with COVID-19. Our results should prompt public health authorities to improve seasonal respiratory pathogen surveillance practices and address the risk of disease severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Coinfection/virology , Respiratory Tract Infections/complications , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Adenoviridae/genetics , Adenoviridae/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Enterovirus/genetics , Enterovirus/isolation & purification , Female , Humans , Male , Metapneumovirus/genetics , Metapneumovirus/isolation & purification , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Rhinovirus/genetics , Rhinovirus/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Wisconsin , Young Adult
18.
Sci Immunol ; 6(66): eabi8635, 2021 Dec 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467663

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has caused a global pandemic that has infected more than 250 million people worldwide. Although several vaccine candidates have received emergency use authorization, there is still limited knowledge on how vaccine dosing affects immune responses. We performed mechanistic studies in mice to understand how the priming dose of an adenovirus-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine affects long-term immunity to SARS-CoV-2. We first primed C57BL/6 mice with an adenovirus serotype 5 vaccine encoding the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, similar to that used in the CanSino and Sputnik V vaccines. The vaccine prime was administered at either a standard dose or 1000-fold lower dose, followed by a boost with the standard dose 4 weeks later. Initially, the low dose prime induced lower immune responses relative to the standard dose prime. However, the low dose prime elicited immune responses that were qualitatively superior and, upon boosting, exhibited substantially more potent recall and functional capacity. We also report similar effects with a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) vaccine. These findings show an unexpected advantage of fractionating vaccine prime doses, warranting a reevaluation of vaccine trial protocols for SARS-CoV-2 and other pathogens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Adenoviridae/genetics , Adenoviridae/immunology , Animals , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic , Female , Genetic Vectors , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL
19.
Cells ; 10(10)2021 10 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463567

ABSTRACT

As of September 2021, twenty-one anti-COVID-19 vaccines have been approved in the world. Their utilization will expedite an end to the current pandemic. Besides the usual vaccine formats that include inactivated viruses (eight approved vaccines) and protein-based vaccines (four approved vaccines), three new formats have been validated: recombinant adenovirus (six approved vaccines), DNA (one approved vaccine), and messenger RNA (mRNA, two approved vaccines). The latter was the fastest (authorized in 2020 in the EU, the USA, and Switzerland). Most Western countries have reserved or use the protein vaccines, the adenovirus vaccines, and mRNA vaccines. I describe here the different vaccine formats in the context of COVID-19, detail the three formats that are chiefly reserved or used in Europe, Canada, and the USA, and discuss why the mRNA vaccines appear to be the superior format.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Adenoviridae/genetics , Animals , Canada , DNA/genetics , Drug Approval , Europe , Humans , Mice , Patient Safety , United States
20.
J Virol Methods ; 299: 114305, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458825

ABSTRACT

Adenoviruses (AdVs) are used as gene therapy vectors to treat human diseases and as vaccines against COVID-19. AdVs are produced by transfecting human embryonic kidney 239 (HEK293) or PER.C6 virus producer cells with AdV plasmid vectors or infecting these cells withcell lysates containing replication-defective AdV. Cell lysates can be purified further by caesium chloride or chromatographic protocols to research virus seed stocks (RVSS) for characterisation to high quality master virus seed stocks (MVSS) and working virus seed stocks (WVSS) before downstream production of pure, high titre AdV. Lysates are poorly infectious, block filtration columns and have limited storage capability. Aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) are an alternative method for AdV purification that rapidly generates cleaner RVSS for characterisation to MVSS. After testing multiple ATPS formulations, an aqueous mixture of 20 % PEG 600 and 20 % (NH4)2SO4 (w/w) was found most effective for AdV partitioning, producing up to 97+3% yield of high-titre virus that was devoid of aggregates both effective in vitro and in vivo with no observable cytotoxicity. Importantly, AdV preparations stored at -20 °C or 4 °C show negligible loss of titre and are suitable for downstream processing to clinical grade to support the need for AdV vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adenoviridae/genetics , Genetic Vectors , HEK293 Cells , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Technology
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