Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 6 de 6
Filter
1.
Virol J ; 18(1): 202, 2021 10 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463255

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effect of SARS-CoV-2 on existing respiratory pathogens in circulation remains uncertain. This study aimed to assess the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on the prevalence of respiratory pathogens among hospitalized children. METHODS: This study enrolled hospitalized children with acute respiratory infections in Shenzhen Children's Hospital from September to December 2019 (before the COVID-19 epidemic) and those from September to December 2020 (during the COVID-19 epidemic). Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected, and respiratory pathogens were detected using multiplex PCR. The absolute case number and detection rates of 11 pathogens were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 5696 children with respiratory tract infection received multiplex PCR examination for respiratory pathogens: 2298 from September to December 2019 and 3398 from September to December 2020. At least one pathogen was detected in 1850 (80.5%) patients in 2019, and in 2380 (70.0%) patients in 2020; the detection rate in 2020 was significantly lower than that in 2019.The Influenza A (InfA) detection rate was 5.6% in 2019, but 0% in 2020. The detection rates of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Human adenovirus, and Human rhinovirus also decreased from 20% (460), 8.9% (206), and 41.8% (961) in 2019 to 1.0% (37), 2.1% (77), and 25.6% (873) in 2020, respectively. In contrast, the detection rates of Human respiratory syncytial virus, Human parainfluenza virus, and Human metapneumovirus increased from 6.6% (153), 9.9% (229), and 0.5% (12) in 2019 to 25.6% (873), 15.5% (530), and 7.2% (247) in 2020, respectively (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Successful containment of seasonal influenza as a result of COVID-19 control measures will ensure we are better equipped to deal with future outbreaks of both influenza and COVID-19.Caused by virus competition, the detection rates of Human respiratory syncytial virus, Human parainfluenza virus, and Human metapneumovirus increased in Shenzhen,that reminds us we need to take further monitoring and preventive measures in the next epidemic season.


Subject(s)
Antibiosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adenoviruses, Human/genetics , Adenoviruses, Human/isolation & purification , Adolescent , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Hospitalized , Child, Preschool , China , Enterovirus/genetics , Enterovirus/isolation & purification , Female , Humans , Infant , Influenza A virus/genetics , Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Male , Metapneumovirus/genetics , Metapneumovirus/isolation & purification , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/genetics , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Nasopharynx/microbiology , Nasopharynx/virology , Prevalence , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/genetics , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/isolation & purification , Respiratory Tract Diseases/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/virology , Respirovirus/genetics , Respirovirus/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 729837, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450810

ABSTRACT

We have developed a dual-antigen COVID-19 vaccine incorporating genes for a modified SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S-Fusion) and the viral nucleocapsid (N) protein with an Enhanced T-cell Stimulation Domain (N-ETSD) to increase the potential for MHC class II responses. The vaccine antigens are delivered by a human adenovirus serotype 5 platform, hAd5 [E1-, E2b-, E3-], previously demonstrated to be effective in the presence of Ad immunity. Vaccination of rhesus macaques with the hAd5 S-Fusion + N-ETSD vaccine by subcutaneous prime injection followed by two oral boosts elicited neutralizing anti-S IgG and T helper cell 1-biased T-cell responses to both S and N that protected the upper and lower respiratory tracts from high titer (1 x 106 TCID50) SARS-CoV-2 challenge. Notably, viral replication was inhibited within 24 hours of challenge in both lung and nasal passages, becoming undetectable within 7 days post-challenge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adenoviruses, Human/genetics , Adenoviruses, Human/immunology , Adenoviruses, Human/metabolism , Administration, Oral , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Cytokines/blood , Immunization, Secondary/methods , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Lung/virology , Macaca mulatta , Nose/virology , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Protein Domains/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology , Vaccination , Virus Replication/immunology
3.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 06 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389547

ABSTRACT

Adenovirus vector-based genetic vaccines have emerged as a powerful strategy against the SARS-CoV-2 health crisis. This success is not unexpected because adenoviruses combine many desirable features of a genetic vaccine. They are highly immunogenic and have a low and well characterized pathogenic profile paired with technological approachability. Ongoing efforts to improve adenovirus-vaccine vectors include the use of rare serotypes and non-human adenoviruses. In this review, we focus on the viral capsid and how the choice of genotypes influences the uptake and subsequent subcellular sorting. We describe how understanding capsid properties, such as stability during the entry process, can change the fate of the entering particles and how this translates into differences in immunity outcomes. We discuss in detail how mutating the membrane lytic capsid protein VI affects species C viruses' post-entry sorting and briefly discuss if such approaches could have a wider implication in vaccine and/or vector development.


Subject(s)
Adenoviruses, Human/immunology , Adenoviruses, Human/physiology , Capsid/metabolism , Genetic Vectors , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Virus Internalization , Adaptive Immunity , Adenoviruses, Human/genetics , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Capsid/immunology , Capsid Proteins/genetics , Capsid Proteins/immunology , Capsid Proteins/metabolism , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Mice , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
4.
Eur J Ophthalmol ; 31(1): 138-143, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1052384

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the role of viral infections in the pathogenesis of primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction. METHODS: The study included 48 patients diagnosed with primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction undergoing dacryocystorhinostomy surgery. Prior to dacryocystorhinostomy surgery, nasal swab sample was taken from the inferior meatus at the same side. During dacryocystorhinostomy, tissue biopsy sample (2 × 2 mm) was taken from the junction area of the lacrimal sac and nasolacrimal duct. Following nucleic acid extraction, polymerase chain reaction was performed. RESULTS: The patients consisted of 9 (18.8%) men and 39 (81.2%) women with a mean age of 51.0 ± 14.3 years. Qualitative polymerase chain reaction showed viral genome in the nasal swabs of 10 (20.8%) patients, including coronavirus 229E (three cases), coronavirus HKU1 (two cases), respiratory syncytial virus (two cases), coronavirus OC43 (one case), coronavirus NL63 (one case), and adenovirus (one case). In the dacryocystorhinostomy samples, viral genomes were detected in four (8.3%) cases, including respiratory syncytial virus (two cases), coronavirus HKU1 (one case), and adenovirus (one case). There was a statistically significant agreement between nasal mucosal swab and dacryocystorhinostomy biopsy samples in terms of respiratory syncytial virus positivity (kappa = 1.000, p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Although the viral genome was detected in the samples, a direct relationship between viruses and pathogenesis of primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction could not be revealed because of the low number of positive results. However, considering the profibrotic characteristics of specific viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus and adenovirus, viral infections may be one of the many predisposing factors of primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction.


Subject(s)
Adenoviruses, Human/genetics , Coronavirus/genetics , Genome, Viral/genetics , Lacrimal Duct Obstruction/virology , Nasal Mucosa/virology , Nasolacrimal Duct/virology , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/genetics , Adenoviruses, Human/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biopsy , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Dacryocystorhinostomy , Female , Humans , Lacrimal Duct Obstruction/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Nasolacrimal Duct/surgery , Prospective Studies , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/isolation & purification , Young Adult
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(3)2021 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1003394

ABSTRACT

Human adenovirus species D (HAdV-D) types are currently being explored as vaccine vectors for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and other severe infectious diseases. The efficacy of such vector-based vaccines depends on functional interactions with receptors on host cells. Adenoviruses of different species are assumed to enter host cells mainly by interactions between the knob domain of the protruding fiber capsid protein and cellular receptors. Using a cell-based receptor-screening assay, we identified CD46 as a receptor for HAdV-D56. The function of CD46 was validated in infection experiments using cells lacking and overexpressing CD46, and by competition infection experiments using soluble CD46. Remarkably, unlike HAdV-B types that engage CD46 through interactions with the knob domain of the fiber protein, HAdV-D types infect host cells through a direct interaction between CD46 and the hexon protein. Soluble hexon proteins (but not fiber knob) inhibited HAdV-D56 infection, and surface plasmon analyses demonstrated that CD46 binds to HAdV-D hexon (but not fiber knob) proteins. Cryoelectron microscopy analysis of the HAdV-D56 virion-CD46 complex confirmed the interaction and showed that CD46 binds to the central cavity of hexon trimers. Finally, soluble CD46 inhibited infection by 16 out of 17 investigated HAdV-D types, suggesting that CD46 is an important receptor for a large group of adenoviruses. In conclusion, this study identifies a noncanonical entry mechanism used by human adenoviruses, which adds to the knowledge of adenovirus biology and can also be useful for development of adenovirus-based vaccine vectors.


Subject(s)
Adenoviruses, Human , COVID-19 Vaccines , Capsid Proteins , Gene Expression Regulation, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Virus Internalization , Adenoviruses, Human/genetics , Adenoviruses, Human/metabolism , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/metabolism , Capsid Proteins/biosynthesis , Capsid Proteins/genetics , Cell Line , Humans
6.
Int J Infect Dis ; 98: 390-397, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-623744

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: In 2019, a small HAdV55-associated outbreak of adenovirus infection occurred among the intensive care unit (ICU) staff in Xiangya Hospital of Central South University in Hunan Province, China, during the treatment of a patient. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the characteristics of a nosocomial adenovirus outbreak in an ICU. METHODS: We evaluated all the patients treated and the medical staff working in the ICU from August 1 to September 4, 2019. We further performed an epidemiological and molecular analysis for this outbreak from patient to healthcare workers and between healthcare workers. After the outbreak, we adopted exposure prevention and droplet prevention measures based on standard precautions. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Between August 1 and August 27, 2019, 27 cases of human adenovirus cross-infection were reported in our institution. Among the cases, eleven were doctors (41%), eleven were nurses (41%), three were respiratory therapists (11%), and two were caregivers (7%). The attack rate was 28.4%, and the fatality rate was 0. The results showed that contact with the index case, lack of hand hygiene or gloving adherence were risk factors for infection after adenovirus exposure. After taking specific precautions, no new cases of infection have appeared since August 27. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that HAdV55 in a single patient had strong transmission potential in an intensive care unit with adequate facilities and standardized operation. We provide convincing evidence indicating that attention could be highlighted on the role of standard and specific precautions for controlling the spread of adenovirus in ICUs.


Subject(s)
Adenovirus Infections, Human/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Medical Staff/statistics & numerical data , Adenovirus Infections, Human/prevention & control , Adenovirus Infections, Human/virology , Adenoviruses, Human/classification , Adenoviruses, Human/genetics , Adenoviruses, Human/isolation & purification , Adenoviruses, Human/physiology , Adult , China/epidemiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Cross Infection/virology , Female , Hand Hygiene , Hospitals, Teaching/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Phylogeny , Tertiary Healthcare/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...