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Med Hypotheses ; 144: 110176, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-728773


COVID-19 infection causes considerable morbidity and mortality, especially to those who are aged, have impaired renal function and are obese. We propose to examine the potential utility of oral activated charcoal with the hypothesis that such treatment would lower absorption of microbiome derived toxins and ameliorate systemic oxidant stress and inflammation.

COVID-19/therapy , Charcoal/pharmacology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Kidney Diseases/complications , Obesity/complications , Adipocytes/cytology , Adipocytes/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/microbiology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation , Models, Theoretical , Oxidants/metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Risk
Mol Cell Endocrinol ; 515: 110917, 2020 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-661768


Obesity patients are more susceptible to develop COVID-19 severe outcome due to the role of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in the viral infection. ACE2 is regulated in the human cells by different genes associated with increased (TLR3, HAT1, HDAC2, KDM5B, SIRT1, RAB1A, FURIN and ADAM10) or decreased (TRIB3) virus replication. RNA-seq data revealed 14857 genes expressed in human subcutaneous adipocytes, including genes mentioned above. Irisin treatment increased by 3-fold the levels of TRIB3 transcript and decreased the levels of other genes. The decrease in FURIN and ADAM10 expression enriched diverse biological processes, including extracellular structure organization. Our results, in human subcutaneous adipocytes cell culture, indicate a positive effect of irisin on the expression of multiple genes related to viral infection by SARS-CoV-2; furthermore, translatable for other tissues and organs targeted by the novel coronavirus and present, thus, promising approaches for the treatment of COVID-19 infection as therapeutic strategy to decrease ACE2 regulatory genes.

Adipocytes/drug effects , Fibronectins/pharmacology , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , ADAM10 Protein/genetics , ADAM10 Protein/metabolism , Adipocytes/cytology , Adipocytes/metabolism , Amyloid Precursor Protein Secretases/genetics , Amyloid Precursor Protein Secretases/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , COVID-19 , Cell Cycle Proteins/genetics , Cell Cycle Proteins/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Fibronectins/genetics , Fibronectins/metabolism , Furin/genetics , Furin/metabolism , Gene Ontology , Histone Acetyltransferases/genetics , Histone Acetyltransferases/metabolism , Histone Deacetylase 2/genetics , Histone Deacetylase 2/metabolism , Humans , Jumonji Domain-Containing Histone Demethylases/genetics , Jumonji Domain-Containing Histone Demethylases/metabolism , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Models, Biological , Molecular Sequence Annotation , Nuclear Proteins/genetics , Nuclear Proteins/metabolism , Obesity/virology , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , /genetics , Repressor Proteins/genetics , Repressor Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction , Sirtuin 1/genetics , Sirtuin 1/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 3/genetics , Toll-Like Receptor 3/metabolism , rab1 GTP-Binding Proteins/genetics , rab1 GTP-Binding Proteins/metabolism
Inflamm Res ; 69(9): 825-839, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-593429


PURPOSE: Novel Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is an acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which is emerged in Wuhan, and recently become worldwide pandemic. Strangely, ample evidences have been shown that the severity of COVID-19 infections varies widely from children (asymptomatic), adults (mild infection), as well as elderly adults (deadly critical). It has proven that COVID-19 infection in some elderly critical adults leads to a cytokine storm, which is characterized by severe systemic elevation of several pro-inflammatory cytokines. Then, a cytokine storm can induce edematous, ARDS, pneumonia, as well as multiple organ failure in aged patients. It is far from clear till now why cytokine storm induces in only COVID-19 elderly patients, and not in young patients. However, it seems that aging is associated with mild elevated levels of local and systemic pro-inflammatory cytokines, which is characterized by "inflamm-aging". It is highly likely that "inflamm-aging" is correlated to increased risk of a cytokine storm in some critical elderly patients with COVID-19 infection. METHODS: A systematic search in the literature was performed in PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, as well as Google Scholar pre-print database using all available MeSH terms for COVID-19, Coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, senescent cell, cytokine storm, inflame-aging, ACE2 receptor, autophagy, and Vitamin D. Electronic database searches combined and duplicates were removed. RESULTS: The aim of the present review was to summarize experimental data and clinical observations that linked the pathophysiology mechanisms of "inflamm-aging", mild-grade inflammation, and cytokine storm in some elderly adults with severe COVID-19 infection.

Aging , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Inflammation/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Adipocytes/cytology , Age Factors , Aged , Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor Blockers/pharmacology , Autophagy , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cellular Senescence , Cytokines/immunology , Humans , Immune System , Inflammation/physiopathology , Pandemics , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D/metabolism , Vitamin D Deficiency